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VACUUM BASED

TRANSPORTATION
SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION
The vacuum based transportation system is a
conceptual high speed transportation system
incorporating reduced pressure tubes in which
pressurized capsules ride on air cushion driven by
Linear Induction Motors and air compressors.
The main objective of this project is to design
and analyze the outer structure of capsule which
is moving nearly the speed of the sound.

HISTORY
Pneumatic Capsule Transportation:- This concept was invented
by William Murdoch in 1836. It used capsule pipelines to
transmit the telegrams, to nearby buildings from telegraph
stations. This concept is still being used in banks and hospitals
and ships etc. to transport various parcels.
Hyperloop Concept:- The idea was put forwarded by Elon Musk
in 2012.Hyperloop consists of low pressure tubes that are
transported at both low and high speeds throughout the length
of the tube. The capsules are supported on cushion of air
featuring pressurized air and aerodynamic lift

WORKING

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
The operating components and conditions of the capsules are as
follow:1. Pod construction:- The sealed pod carrying 28 passengers each
that travel along the interior of the tube the pods are separated
within the tube by approximately 37Km on an average during
operation.
2. The maximum width is 1.35m and maximum height is 1.10m
with the rounded corners this is equivalent to the 1.4 m^2
frontal area.

CAD MODEL

The operating components and conditions of the capsules are as


follow:1. Compressor:- One important feature of the capsule is the
onboard compressor, which serves two purposes. This system
allows the capsule to transverse the relatively narrow tube
without choking flow that travels between the capsules and the
tube walls ( resulting in a build up of air mass in front of the
capsule and increasing the drag) by compressing air that is
bypassed through the capsule.
2. It also supplies air to air bearings that support the weight of the
capsule throughout the journey.

Suspension:- Since the conventional wheel and axle


systems become impractical at high speed due to frictional
losses and the dynamic instability therefore the technical
solution is magnetic levitation however the cost associated
with material and construction is very large. An alternative
to these conventional options is an air bearing options.
Air bearings are well suited for vacuum based
transportation due to high stiffness, stability, and extremely
low drag at a feasible cost by maintaining the ambient
atmosphere in tube.

Propulsion:- In order to propel the vehicle at the required


travel speed a advance linear motor system will be used to
accelerate the capsule the moving motor element will be
located on the vehicle while the tube will incorporate
stationary motor element.
Tube construction:- A uniform thickness steel tube was
selected as the material of choice for the inner diameter of
the tube. The steel construction allows simple welding
processes to join different tube sections together. The tube
would need to be around 4m in diameter

Vacuum:- The system consists of partially evacuated


cylindrical tube this evacuation is created with the help from
vacuum pump placed at specific distance which can also be
a stations. The tube is specifically sized for optimal air flow
around the capsule improving performance and energy
consumption at the expected travel speed.
Pylons and Tunnels:- The tube will be supported with pillars
which constraint the tube in the vertical direction but allow
longitudinal slip for thermal expansion as well as damped
lateral slip to reduce the risk posed by earth quakes.

COMPONENTS

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID
DYNAMICS
Computational Fluid Dynamics is
a branch of fluid mechanics that uses
numerical analysis and algorithms to
solve

and

analyze

involve fluid flows.

problems

that

ANSYS FLUENT
Ansys Fluent is the most powerful computational fluid
dynamics (CFD) software tool available, empowering you
to go further and faster as you optimize your product
performance. Fluent includes well-validated physical
modeling capabilities to deliver fast, accurate results
across the widest range of CFD and multi-physics
applications.
The current cad model analysis is carried using Ansys
Fluent Software which involves turbulence modeling
options to carried out various different kind of flows under
different conditions.

CALCULATING
CONDITIONS
Solver Used:- Pressure Based Solver
Model Used:- K- Epsilon Model , Non Equilibrium Wall
Treatment
Initial Conditions:- Inlet Velocity= 270~320 m/s ,
Gauge /Supersonic Pressure= 22500 Pa
Density= 0.001225 kg/m^3
Tube Inside Pressure ~ 101.325 Pa

Based on the initial conditions the calculated


Reynolds no.is as follows:-

Where rho is density, V is the Flow Velocity , D is the


characteristic Length= 20m , Viscosity=1.789x 10^5
After Calculating we get Reynolds no =432352.2
Which is greater than 4000, Hence flow is said to be
Turbulent.

ANALYSIS RESULTS
Based on the Ansys Fluent calculations following
are the results that are obtained:-

PROTOTYPE
COMPONENTS USED:
Suction pump
Acrylic Pipe (60mm dia)
Hose Pipes
Pressure Control Valve

1 unit
1 unit
2 unit
1 unit

OBSERVATION TABLE
S.No.

Velocity

Supersonic
/Initial Gauge
Pressure
22450

Blockage Ratio

Coefficient of
Drag

Drag
Force(KN)

0.21

0.494

4.357

1.

30

2.

60

22450

0.25

0.587

20.7

3.

90

22450

0.36

0.756

60.011

4.

120

22450

0.56

0.989

139.5

5.

150

22450

0.69

1.02

224.9

Coefficient of Drag vs.


Velocity

Drag Force vs. Velocity

ADVANTAGES
The Hyperloop
The Hyperloop
travellers
The Hyperloop
The Hyperloop
The Hyperloop

is much faster
will be cheaper for
will arrive more frequently
couldbe cheaper to build
is the future