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Ohayou gozaimasu.

Good morning!

JAPAN

LAND OF THE RISING SUN

Overview

Region=East Asia
Consists of 3,000 islands,
capital=Tokyo
Constitutional monarchy with
prime minister
History traces back to 660 BC

CULTURAL INFLUENCES

China (system of writing; music)


India, Korea, China (religion:
Buddhism)
Europe and U.S. (Western
classical music; popular culture)

During Meiji period (1868-1911,


Western art music incorporated into
educational system)

JAPANESE MUSIC

Japanese

music was influenced


by the court music of China
It is based on the five tone scale
or the pentatonic scale.
Other countries like India and
Indonesia contributed to the
development of the Japanese
musical styles.

Before

the historical period, the


Japanese traditional music
( Hogaku ) develop an
accompaniment of ritual dances
called Kagura.

In

religion, Confucianism
propagated the themes on
loyalty and filial piety while
Shintoism inculcated the idea
that music is a gift from God.

Japanese

music is monophony
in nature. It observes minute
tones, free rhythm and delicate
timbre. It is usually written in
duple meter.
TWO MODES OF MUSIC
YOSEN(

HARD MODE)
IN- SEN( SOFT MODE)

Tonal System

Japanese

music has two basic types


of scales, both pentatonic in nature,
that are often used in playing the
koto and shamisen.
These are the male scale called Yo
sen and the female scale known as
In sen.
The most important note important
note in note in the pentatonic scale is
the corner stone or the third note.

This

helps determine whether the


scale is a male or a female scale.
Vocally, the Japanese tend to sing
song in high, tight-throated and
mellismatic manner.
In general, vocal music plays an
important role than instrumental
music in the history of
Japanese music.

JAPANESE
TRADITIONAL MUSIC

Much of the traditional music of Japan


was brought by the Chinese and
Korean musicians around the 8 th
century.
For many years, music was mainly
performed by court musicians, Buddhist
priest, and scholars.
In the 17th and 18th centuries, it reached
its peak when , by orders of the
emperors, Japan closed its doors to
influences from other countries.

There are two ancient foundations for


Japanese traditional music.
a. SHOMYO
b. GAGAKU
SHOMYO:
> Is also called Buddhist chanting.
> The chants are based on sacred text and
hymns. They have flexible rhythm, where
the singers simply stops when there is no
more breath.

> They are sung acapella and are


monophonic texture.
> At present, the SHOMYO has lost its
real religious nature and has become
more and more of a formal ceremonial
music in the temple and at home.

GAGAKU:
> Literally means elegant and refined
music .
ga refined
gaku - music

> It is the only surviving music in Japan.


> This court music has been greatly
influenced by China.
> ALSO CALLED:KANGEN AND
BUGAKU
MUSICAL STYLES
a. Togaku highest musical style or
court music.

b. Komagaku Korean origin and of


native composition associated with
rituals of the Shinto religion.

c. Saibara Is a small number of regional

1.

Japanese folk songs.


> Gagaku ensemble is grouped into four
cluster of musicians that perform
according to the function and use.
KANGEN: An instrumental music
consisting of an ensemble including
the hichiriki, ryuteki, sho, gakusou,
gakubiwa, and various percussion
instruments.

2. BUGAKU A dance accompanied by a part


or the entire gagaku ensemble.
3. SONGS The songs of gagaku, rouie and
saibara, have simple melodies that are
mostly derived from ancient folk songs and
accompanies by a scaled-down version of
kangen ensemble.
4. RITUAL MUSIC for SHINTO CEREMONIES
The style of playing feel so depressing
utilizing only a simple flute, zither, hichiriki
and wooden clappers.

INSTRUMENTS IN GAGAKU:

SHO- MOUTH ORGAN


HICHIRIKI- OBOE
RYUTEKI- FLUTE
KAKKO- SIDE DRUM
GAKU- BIWA- FLAT LUTE
KOTO- ZITHER
TSURIDAIKO- LARGE HANGING BARREL DRUM
SAN NO TSUZUMI- HOUR- GLASS SHAPED
DRUM
SHOKO- HANGING GONG

JAPANESE
MUSICAL
INSTRUMENTS

The

earliest forms of
Japanese instrumental
music were drums and flute
accompanying the Kagura
shrine dances.
From the 6th century
onwards, music came from
Korean and Chinese courts
began to be performed at
the Japanese court.

Instruments were made similar


to the Chinese instruments,
distinctively Japanese in
design, timbre and tone color.

Here are some of the wellknown Japanese traditional


instruments that are still being
used in both the traditional and
modern Japanese music.

STRINGED
INSTRUMENTS

KOTO : a 13-string zither,


made of Paulownia wood. It
is played using picks on the
thumb and first two fingers of
the right hand.

SHAMIZEN : a long narrow


three strings plucked lute.
The square resonating box
is covered with animal skin,
and the strings are plucked
with plectrum.

BIWA : a short neck lute,


used from the 7th century in
gagaku to accompany the
early puppet play and also by
blind monk entertainers.

WIND
INSTRUMENTS

SHO : a mouth piece organ,


the equivalent of the
Chinese Sheng.

SHAKUHACHI : a bamboo
flute. It has four finger holes
on the front and one thumb
hole in back.

SHINOBUE : is a vertical flute


made from the lower portion of
the bamboo stem. The number
of the finger holes is
traditionally five.

HICHIRIKI : a short
cylindrical oboe made of
bamboo with seven front
fingerholes, and rear
thumbholes.

PERCUSSION
INSTRUMENTS

1. KAKKO : A gagaku
instrument that is made up of
deer skin.

2.TSURI DAIKO : A
suspended drum
used in the gagaku
ensemble that has
a lacquered body
and tacked head.

3. DA-DAIKO : A huge gagaku


drum suspended on an artistic
frame and is struck with heavy
lacquered beaters.

DAIKO

kotsuzumi
It

is an hour glassshaped drum. It is


played by striking the
bare hands on the
membrane of the
instrument.

THE End?

JAPANESE
THEATRICAL
FORM

Music

is very important to
Japanese theater.

JAPANESE

THEATER : Is
a form of drama
developed in the 1300s
that featured solo and
choral singing
accompanied by a small
orchestra.

THREE KINDS OF
JAPANESE THEATER
Kabuki
Noh
Bunraku

1. KABUKI :
A theater for the
common people.
2. NOH :
A classical theatrical
form.
3. BUNRAKU :
A Japanese form of
puppet theater.

KABUKI THEATER
This

production often
described as more showy
than the Noh.

It

utilizes costumes,
sceneries and stage
actions and dances.

This

theatrical presentation
is accompanied by bamboo
flutes, drums and the
Shamisen.

It

is often accompanied by
the group of percussionist
who play the sound effects
off stage.

ALL- MALE THEATER


ACCOMPANIED BY
MELODRAMA AND COORFUL
DANCING.
THREE BASIC KINDS OF
MUSIC ACCOMPANYING:
ONSTAGE

ENSEMBLE( DEBAYASHI)ACCOMPANIED BY THE HAYASHI,


LATER ON THE SHAMISEN
NARRATIVE(JOJURI)- GIDAYUSHAMISEN SINGER
OFF STAGE MUSIC ( GEZA)

NOH THEATER
The

usual plots for this


kind of theatrical
presentation include
loyalty, tragedy and honor.

In

the performance, all


actors are males who also
portray the female roles.

They

wear elaborate
costumes and masks.

The

musical ensemble for


this theatrical genre
consists of a high pitch
bamboo flute, three drums
and a small male vocal
ensemble.

Combines music, dance, poetry,


design, costume, and Buddhist
beliefs.
Consists of singing yokyoku or
utai
Accompanied by hayashi
Nokan-

flute
Ko tsuzumi- shoulder drum
O tsuzumi- side drum
Taiko- floor drum

BUNRAKU
This

is a unique puppet
theater that is accompanied
by music and dialogues.

The

puppeteer sings and


chants the dialogue as one
shamisen player
accompanies him.

Each

puppet is a bit more


than half life-size which is
operated by a puppeteer
clothed in black hood.
Patronized by artisan and
merchant classes
(Tokugawa period)

Requires two musicians:


singer/narrator (tayu) and
shamisen player (in past, served
as apprentices for many years)
Uses large, elaborate puppets,
some requiring several
puppeteers
Plots highly emotional, like
todays soap operas
Requires intense training and
discipline

SAKURA
sakura sakura
ya yo I no so ra wa
mi-watasu kagiri
kasumi ka
kumo ka
Nio izo izuru
iza ya iza ya
mi ni yukan

JAPSONG_L5_041110_jpod101.mp3

JAPSONG_L5_041110_jpod101.mp3
JAPSONG_L5_041110_jpod101.mp3

Thank you!
Arigatou gozaimasu
.