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PV

Boyles Law :
P

1
V

PV = constant
0

P1V1 = P2V2
P

1
V

Charles Law :
V

V = constant
T
V1 = V2
T1 T2

Charles Law :
V

V = constant
T
V1 = V2
T1 T2

Pressure Law = Gay-Lussacs:


P

P = constant
T

P1 = P2
T1 T2

Ideal gas equation :

Universal molar

Experiment shows that


for one mole of gas, R
has the same value for
all gases
R = 8.31 J mol 1K1

Other forms of ideal gas equation :

(1)----------

PV =

m
RT
M

m = mass , M = molar mass


unit = kg mol1

(2)----------

N
PV =
RT
NA

N =number of gas molecules


NA = Avogadro number
= 6.02 x 1023 mol1

(3)----------

PV = NkT

Boltzmann constant , k = R
NA
= 1.38 x 1023 J K1

Example 1 :

1 mole
V

pV = nRT

Find the volume of 1 mole of


P
V = RT
ideal gas at standard
p
atmospheric pressure
T
(101.3 x 103 Pa) and
=(8.31)(273)
temperature (273K). (molar
3
101.3x10
R
gas constant,
R = 8.31 JK-1 mol-1)
= 22.4 x 10-3 m3
equation
Example 2 :
N
T
PV =
RT
N
A
A box contains an ideal gas
P
at 27oC and 2.0 x 10-6 Pa.
N = pNA
The number of gas
V
RT
N
molecules per unit volume is
-6
23
V
=(2.0x10
)(6.02x10
)
14
-3
_____________
.
4.8x10 m
(8.31)(27+273)

Example 1 :

pV = m RT
M

A closed vessel of volume


P
m = pVM
0.250 m3 contains hidrogen
RT
(H2) gas at pressure of 2.00
T
x 105 Pa and temperature
=(2.00x105)(0.250)(?)
300 K. What is the mass of
(8.31)(300)
m
hidrogen gas?
R = 8.31JK-1mol-1
= 0.0401 kg
equation
1 mole H2 1.008 x 2 g
= 2.016 g
= 0.0020 kg
M = 0.0020 kg mol-1

Kinetic theory of gases :


1. All gases consist of a large number of atoms or molecules
2. All atoms or molecules are in continuous and random motion
3. The volume of the particles is negligible compared to the
volume occupied by the gas
4. The collisions between particles or between particles and
the walls of the container are elastic
5. The interactions between the particles are negligible
except during collisions
6. The time collision is negligible compared to the time
between collisions

Length = L
Number of molecules = N
w

Mass of a molecule = m
u

Rate of change
of momentum
= 2mu = mu2
2L
L
u

Velocity = c
Component of velocity = u, v, w
Change in momentum along Ox
= mu ( mu)
= 2mu
Time taken = distance = 2L
velocity
u

m u 2 + u 2 ++u 2
2
N
Pressure = Force = L 1
Area
L2
= m3 u12 + u22 ++uN2
L
Total force = F
= m u 2 + u 2 ++u 2
2
N
L 1
Force =

2
=
Nm<u
>
N<u >
L3
2

Mean square speed along Ox


= <u2>
u12 + u22 ++uN2
=
N

Pressure , p

<c2> = <u2> + <v2> + <w2>


= Nm<c2>
3L3

pL3 = Nm<c2>
3
pV = Nm<c2>
3
p = Nm <c2>
V 3
p

= <c2>
3

1 <c2> = <u2> = <v2> = <w2>


3
Because
<c2> = 3<u2>
N is large
and the
molecules
move
randomly

= nm <c2>
3

back

= density of gas , n = number of molecules per unit volume

crms =

<c >
2

pV = Nm<c2>
3
pV = mRT
M
mRT = Nm<c2>
M
3
3 RT = M<c2>
3 RT = <c2>
M

c12 + c22 ++cN2


N

3kT
m

3RT
M

pV = Nm<c2>
3
pV = NkT
NkT = Nm<c2>
3
3 kT = m<c2>
3 kT = <c2>
m

The mass of gas in cylinder of volume 0.050 m 3 is 0.062 kg.


The pressure of the gas is 1.5 x 105 Pa. Estimate the r.m.s
speed of the gas molecules.

V = 0.050 m3
m = 0.062 kg
p = 1.5 x 10 Pa
5

crms = ?

= <c2>
3

= m
V

crms =

<c2>

pV = Nm<c2>
3
pV = nRT

nRT = Nm<c2>
3
3nRT = m<c2>
N
3nRT = m<c2>
2N
2

1
2
compare Translational2
KE = mc

Therefore : m<c2> = mean translational KE of a molecule


2
3RT = m<c2>
NA = N substitute
2NA
2
n
Boltzmann , k = R
3kT = m<c2>
substitute
constant
2
2
NA

Therefore : m<c2> = mean translational KE of a molecule


2
3nRT = m<c2>
2N
2
3RT = m<c2>
2NA
2
3kT = m<c2>
2
2

3kT = m<c2>
2
2
Mean translational kinetic energy of a molecule is directly
proportional to the thermodynamic temperature
Heating causes the molecules temperature increases
to speed up

Estimate the mean translational kinetic energy of helium


atoms at 300 K. Hence deduce the r.m.s speed of helium
atoms at 300 K.
[Mass of helium atom = 6.6 x 10-27 kg]
What would be the r.m.s speed of helium atoms at 400 K?

3kT = m<c2>
2
2

crms =

<c2>

3(1.38 x 10-23)(300) = (6.6 x 10-27)<c2>


2
2
<c2> = 1881818.182 m2s-2
crms = 1.37 x 103 ms-1

Estimate the mean translational kinetic energy of helium


atoms at 300 K. Hence deduce the r.m.s speed of helium
atoms at 300 K.
[Mass of helium atom = 6.6 x 10-27 kg]
What would be the r.m.s speed of helium atoms at 400 K?

3kT = m<c2>
2
2

crms =

<c2>

3(1.38 x 10-23)(400) = (6.6 x 10-27)<c2>


2
2
<c2> = 2509090.909 m2s-2
crms = 1.58 x 103 ms-1

First find the pressure exerted by the gas on the wall of the
container

Thus, the force on one of the walls of the cubical container is

a) PV NkB T b)

c) For helium, the atomic mass is

m 6.64 10

27

kg molecule

1
3
2
mv kBT
2
2

Checkpoint 9.1, 9.2, 9.3

The term degrees of freedom refers to the number of


independent ways in which a molecule can absorb, release
or store energy

Translational
motion

Rotational
motion

Vibrational
motion

Three degrees of freedom :


Three translational
motion

Five degrees of freedom :


Three translational
motion
Two rotational motion

Six degrees of freedom :


Three translational
motion
Three rotational motion

Has an effect on the degrees of freedom of a diatomic gas


Temperature
Three degrees of
freedom
- three
translational
motion
Room temperature
Five degrees of freedom
- three translational motion
- two rotational motion

Temperature
Seven degrees of
freedom
- three
translational
motion
- two rotational
motion
- Two vibrational
motion

States that when a system is in thermodynamic


equillibrium, the average energy per molecule is kT for
each degree of freedom

Type of molecule
monoatomic diatomic
No. of
degrees of
freedom
Total energy

3
3/2 kT

Polyatomic

5/2 kT

6/2 kT =
3kT

= sum of all its potential and kinetic energies


Ideal gas
* Obeys
the three
gas laws
* Intermolecular
force are negligible
* Total energy is
just the sum of
KE

Real gas
For one mole of
gas molecules :
U = NA [f( kT)]
= fRT
(R = NAk)

* May
resemble an
ideal gas at
low pressures
and high
temperatures

Type of molecule
monoatomic diatomic
No. of
degrees of
freedom
Internal
energy for n
moles

3/2 nRT

Polyatomic

5/2 nRT

6/2 nRT =
3nRT

The table below lists the energy of monoatomic, diatomic


and polyatomic molecules at room temperature :

= UY - UX

James Clerk Maxwell


Speeds of
molecules in a gas
are distributed
according to the
graph :

vp =

2kT
m

vav =

8kT
m

vrms =

3kT
m