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The Social

Inggar Cristaldio

Social science is a major category of

academic disciplines, concerned with
society and the relationships among
individuals within a society. The main
social science include anthropology,
economics, geography, history, philosophy,
political science, psychology, and

Anthropologists study human culture.
Anthropologist may be divided into several
Anthropologists, ethnographer, linguistic, and

Outline of the Structure of

A. Mode of inquiry
1. Question asked : How do cultures evolve and
2. Research methods : - Observation of behavior
- Interviewing
B. Body of knowledge
1. Concepts : - Taboos
- Races
- Language
- Foods
2. Generalizations
- culture ( a system of shared beliefs , values,
customs, and behaviors) makes it possible for

Economics is the study of how scarce
resources are used to satisfy unlimited human
wants. Economic is divided into two parts;
economic analysis and economic policy.
Economic analysis the part that is concerned
with the scientific study of scarcity and
allocations of resources.
Economic policy is concerned with application
of the products of economic analysis to solve
social problems.

Outline of the Structure of Economics

A. Mode of inquiry
1. Question asked : How do decide on what and
how much to produce?
2. Research methods (and tools) : Theoretical
model building and testing
B. Body of knowledge
1. Concepts: - Public goods

- Human capital

- Economic wants
- Income
2. Generalizations: Division of labor and
specialization increases productivity and

Geographers study the earths and how
humans affect and are affected by their
physical environment. Geography is
typically divided into two main specialties;
physical geography and cultural (or
human) geography

Outline of the Structure of

A. Mode of inquiry
1. Question asked: How are people in different
geographic areas interdependent?
2. Research methods: - Case Studies - Locations
- Mapmaking - Soils
B. Body of knowledge
1. Concepts: - Landforms - Maps
- Directions
- Soil
- Land use - Tools
2. Generalizations: Availability of nature
resources may lead to regional specialization

History is the study of the human past
1.Focus on spectacular or bizarre events
and individuals
2.Write history that reflects the
nationalistic or race bias of the historian
3.Judge past events and individuals by
current-day values and standards
4.Let our knowledge of later events
influence our analysis of, for example,
cause and effects (Commager, 1965)

Outline of the Structure of

A. Mode of inquiry
1. Questions asked : What Actually happened in the
2. Research methods : Analysis of private documents
(letters, diaries, journals, wills, house hold inventories)
B. Body of knowledge
1. Concepts : - Chance - Time - Century
2. Generalizations : In the past, exploration led to
culture change

Political Science
Interested in the development and use of human power
in society, especially as reflected in government.

Outline of the structure of Political Science

A. Mode of inquiry
1. Questions asked : How are political
decisions made?
2. Research method : Analysis of official
B. Body of knowledge
1. Concepts : - Laws
- Taxes
- Values
- Society

Psychologists study the behavior of individuals
and small groups of individuals.
Developmental psychologists study all aspects of
the development of human behavior over the
entire life span. Experimental psychologists use
the approach of experimental, research to study
individual human behavior

Outline of the Structure of

A. Mode of inquiry
1. Questions asked : What makes each
person unique
2. Research method : - Interviewing - Case
B. Body of knowledge
1. Concepts : - Learning
- Stimuli
- Language - Memory
2. Generalizations : All individuals exhibit

Sociologists study the behavior of humans in groups

Outline of the Structure of Sociology

A. Mode of inquiry
1. Questions asked : How do groups solve
2. Research methods : - Interviews
- Case studies

B. Body of knowledge
1. Concepts : - Groups - Family Society
2. Generalizations : Group membership
helps to
define social status

Philosophy is the study of knowledge and
Philosophy divided into three main areas of
specialization: metaphysics, axiology,
epistemology. Metaphysics concerned with
answering the question. Axiology
addresses the question. Epistemology
attempts to discover

Outline of the Structure of

A. Philosophical mode of inquiry
1. Philosophical questions asked : What are
2. Philosophical methods of inquiry : - Values Art
B. Body of philosophical knowledge
1. Philosophical concepts : - Knowledge - Value
2. Philosophical generalizations : The truth of a
judgment lies in its correspondence with reality

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