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Chapter 6:

Behavioral
Dimensions of the
Consumer Market

For use only with Perreault and McCarthy texts.


The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Irwin/McGraw-Hill

A Model of Buyer Behavior


Marketing Mixes

All Other Stimuli

Psychological
Variables

Social
Influence

Purchase
Situation

Motivation
Perception
Learning
Attitude
Personality/Lifestyle

Family
Social Class
Reference Groups
Culture

Purchase Reason
Time
Surroundings

Person
Making
Decision

Problem-Solving Process
Exhibit 6-1
6-3

Person Does or Does Not Purchase (Response)

For use only with Perreault and McCarthy texts.


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Psychological Variables - Motivation


Motivation
needs - basic motivating forces
wants - learned needs
drive - strong stimulus that encourages action

to reduce a need

PSSP hierarchy of needs (next slide)

For use only with Perreault and McCarthy texts.


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The PSSP Hierarchy of Needs


Personal
Needs

Social Needs

Safety Needs

Physiological Needs
6-4

For use only with Perreault and McCarthy texts.


The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Psychological Variables - Perception


Perception - how we gather an interpret the
information around us.
selective exposure - notice only information

that interests us.


selective perception - we screen out or modify
ideas, messages, and information that conflict
with previously learned attitudes and beliefs.
selective retention - we remember only what
we want to remember.
For use only with Perreault and McCarthy texts.
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Psychological Variables - Learning


Learning - a change in a persons thought
processes caused by prior experience.
Almost all consumer behavior is learned.
The learning process (next slide).

For use only with Perreault and McCarthy texts.


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The Learning Process


Drive

Cues
Reinforcement

Response
6-5

For use only with Perreault and McCarthy texts.


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Psychological Variables - Attitude


Attitude - a persons point of view toward
something.
Marketers attempt to create and influence attitudes.
Changing present attitudes, especially negative
ones, is probably the most difficult job marketers
face.
Attitude affects intention to buy.
For use only with Perreault and McCarthy texts.
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Psychological Variables - Personality/lifestyle

Psychographics or lifestyle analysis - analysis


of a persons day-to-day pattern of living as
expressed in that persons Activities, Interests
and Opinions (AIOs).
Activities - identify what people do (e.g., work,

sports, shopping, etc.).


Interests - stronger interests tend to create stronger
drives (e.g., family, community, fashion, etc.).
Opinions - how people feel about things affects
their relative motivation (e.g., politics, social
issues, culture, etc.).
For use only with Perreault and McCarthy texts.
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Social Influences
Family
Must distinguish between purchaser and decision maker

or influencer.

Social class - a group of people who have approximately


equal social position as viewed by others in the society
(next slide).
Affects attitudes, values and buying behavior.
Reference group - people to whom an individual looks
when forming attitudes about a particular topic.
Opinion leader - one who influences others.
Culture - whole set of beliefs, attitudes, and ways of
doing things of a reasonably homogeneous set of people.

For use only with Perreault and McCarthy texts.


The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Social Class Dimensions


Upper-class

1.5%

Upper-middle class

12.5%

32%

38%

16%

Lower-middle class
Upper-lower
(working) class
Lower-lower class

Exhibit 6-6
6-7

For use only with Perreault and McCarthy texts.


The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Purchase Situation Influences

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6-8

Purchase
Purchase Reason
Reason

Time
Time

Surroundings
Surroundings

For use only with Perreault and McCarthy texts.


The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Irwin/McGraw-Hill

The Consumer Problem Solving Process


Marketing mixes

Psychological
Variables
Person making
decision

All other stimuli

Social Influences

Purchase
Situation

Need-want Awareness
Routinized Response
Information Search

Set Criteria

Feedback of
information
as attitudes

Decide on Solution

Postpone
Decision
Exhibit 6-7
6-9

Purchase Product

Response

Postpurchase
Evaluation
For use only with Perreault and McCarthy texts.
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Levels of Problem Solving


High involvement
Infrequently purchased
Expensive
High risk
Much information desired

Low involvement
Frequently purchased
Inexpensive
Little risk
Little information needed

Routinized
Response
Behavior

Limited
Problem
Solving

Low Involvement

Extensive
Problem
Solving

High Involvement

Involvement Continuum
Exhibit 6-9
6-10

For use only with Perreault and McCarthy texts.


The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Irwin/McGraw-Hill

The Adoption Process


Awareness
Interest
Evaluation
Trial
Decision
Confirmation
6-11

For use only with Perreault and McCarthy texts.


The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
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Relating the Processes


Problem-solving steps Adoption process steps
1. Becoming aware of
or interested in the
problem

Awareness and interest

2. Gathering
information about
possible solutions

Interest and evaluation

Drive

3. Evaluating alternative Evaluation, maybe trial


solutions
4. Deciding on the
appropriate solution

Decision

5. Evaluating the
decision

Confirmation

6-12

Learning steps

Cues
Reinforcement

Response

For use only with Perreault and McCarthy texts.


The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999
Irwin/McGraw-Hill