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Sifat Ali

Shah
Power Generation
Elements of Electrical Power Station Design
By
M.V.DESPANDE

Lecture 1
Power Generation

Chapters 1,2,7,8

Power system

Power system

Power Stations

Transmission
system

Distribution
Networks

Power Station

Power stations

Un
Conventiona
l Sources

Conventiona
l Sources

Diesel
E.P.S

Stea
m
E.P.S

Nuclea
r E.P.S

Hydr
o
E.P.S

solar
E.P.S

wind
E.P.S

bioga
s
E.P.S

Tida
l
E.P.
S

Generation,Transmission and Distribution

Main Part of power system

One line diagram of power system

Electricity provides a very convenient form of


power for
Lighting
Driving various types of load
And power for a number of utilization
application
The consumption of electrical energy has
been increasing rapidly throughout the world.
The consumption of electricity is related to
the living standard of people.
Rapid industrialization ,when cheap electric
power is available

Main parts of power system


1.Power stations: in which one form of energy
is converted into electrical energy
(i) In thermal station the energy is first in the form of heat(which
may be coal, gas or oil)
(ii) In a nuclear, or atomic station. energy is produce by splitting of
atom
(iii)In a hydro electric station, the potential energy of water is used
2.Transmission system : the high Vol T/L is the second part of
power
system, ( T /efficiency, V. regulation and
Economy)
A step up T/F is used to B/W generation and Transmission.
The function of T/L is to transmit power from sending end to the
receiving end.
3.Distribution system(network)
where voltage is step down to primary network to low voltage of
the distribution net work 415 440v/230.240v

Prediction of load
Electrical load development
1.First find out the load requirement of
the area.
Where electricity is to be supplied
2.It depends on the nature of the area.
3.Standard of the living of the people in
the area.
4.Industrial development in the area.
5. It is new town ship or extension of
supply facilities to a growing city

Definition of Terms
TSS which step-down the hi voltage to
medium voltage level to supply the
Feeders at required voltage of the
primary distribution network
Feeder are conductors which carry
power from the transmission
substation to various distribution
substation
Feeder can not tapped for direct
power consumption

Distributors: are conductors which


deliver power to consumers which
can be tapped for direct power
consumption
Service main: the wire which is
connected between pole and
consumers meter
Connected Load: it is the load
which is rating at the apparatus
(KW) installed on a consumer's
premises

Maximum Demand: it is maximum


load which a consumer uses at any
time
Demand Factor: the ratio of
maximum demand to the connected
load is called demand factor.
Max : Demand
Demand Factor =
Connected load

Load Factor : the ratio of average


load to maximum load is called the
load factor
Average Load
Max: Load

Load Factor =
oR
Energy consumed in 24 hours
L.F=
max: demand X 24 hours

Diversity Factor: the ratio of sum


of maximum demand of the
individual consumers to the
simultaneous maximum demand of
the whole group during a particular
time is called the diversity factor
sum of individual max:
demand
D.F=
simultaneous max: demand

Plant Capacity factor

Plant capacity factor = actual


energy produced
Max possible
energy that
could be produce during
same time

Load curve
Load Curve: the curve or graph
which showing the load demand of a
consumers against time in hours of the
day is known as load curve.
If it is plotted for 24 hours or a single
day, it is known as daily load curve.
If it is considered for whole years, it is
known as annual load curve
The load on a power station is never
constant; it varies from time to time.

Load curve and load duration curve

Importance of load curve

Base load :Base load is the


minimum load over a given period of
time
Peak load :Peak load is the
maximum load consumed or
produced by a unit or group of units
in a stated period of time. It may be
the maximum instantaneous load or
the maximum average load over a
designated interval of time

Utilization factor : Utilization factor is the ratio


of maximum demand of a system or part of the
system, to the rated capacity of the system, or
part of the system, under consideration.
Cold reserve: Cold reserve is the reserve
generating capacity that is available for service
but not in operation.
Hot reserve : Hot reverse is the reserve
generating capacity that is in operation but not
in service
Spinning reserve : Spinning reserve is the
reserve generating capacity that is connected to
the bus and ready to take load

Base Load supply


in inter connected systems with many generating stations of various types,
the choice of station to supply the varying load is of considerable
economic significance. Entire load of the system may be divided into two
parts e.g., base load and peak load. Base load is the load which is
supplied for most of the time which remains more or less
constant.
Peak load is the intermittent requirement at particular hours of
the day and so on.
The main consideration for base load provision are :
(i)high efficiency
(ii)high availability of the system..
Nuclear power plants are invariably used as base load plants. Thermal
power plants and hydroelectric power plants can also be used as base
load plants.
As far as peak load plants are concerned, these plants should have :
(i)ability to start and take full load with a short time
(ii)low capacity cost in view of the small annual output with the efficiency
only a secondary condition.
Obsolete steam plant, through less efficient can't be used to met with
peak load demand. Gas turbines, diesel engine plant and pumped
storage stations are also suitable for peak load operation.

Peak Load
Load on a power plant seldom remain constant. The load varies
from season to season and also in a day from hour to hour.
In summer, due to fans and air conditioners the plants have
generally high load as compared to winter months. During the
days of festivals like national festivals, national days etc., there
is excessive demand of electrical power. A power generating
plant has to meet with all such variable demand s and at the
same time maintain over all economy of operation.
The period during which the demands on a power station is
highest is known as peak load. Peak load on a plant may exist
for small duration but still the plant has to devise ways and
means for meeting with such demands.
Such plants arc operated only during peak load periods. These
plants must be capable of quickly starting from cold conditions.
Diesel engine plants, gas turbine plants, pumped storage
plants and sometimes steam power plants and hydroelectric
plants are used as peak load plants. Efficiency of such plants is
of secondary importance as these plants operate for limited
period only

TYPEs OF load

there are mainly 7 types of load


1.Residential or domestic load (light, fans,
heaters, refrigerator, air condition, T.V, electric
cooker, and small motor for pumping the water
2.Commercial load :(lighting for shops, fans,
appliances used in commercial
advertisements, restaurants, etc)
3. Industrial load :(i) cottage industries up to 5
KW
(ii) Small scale industries ,up to 25 kw
(iii) Medium scale industries ,25 100 kw
(iv) Large scale industries ,100 500 kw
(v) Heavy industries, 500kw-------

cont

4.Government load :separate type of


load when it has separate Feeder and
special working condition ( defense
factories, mines etc)
5. Municipal load : (street lighting,
municipal corporation, water
supply ,drainage etc)
6.Irrigation load: water supplying for
field as required for crops
7. Traction load: motors, railways
tracks etc

Some important examples

Example
Example 3.3. A 100 MW power station delivers 100
MW for 2 hours, 50 MW for 6 hours and is shut
down for the rest of each day. It is also shut down
for maintenance for 45 days each year. Calculate
its annual load factor.

example

Example 3.4. A generating station


has a maximum demand of 25MW, a
load factor of 60%, a plant capacity
factor of 50% and a plant use factor of
72%.
Find (i) the reserve capacity of the plant
(ii) the daily energy produced and
(iii) maximum energy that could be
produced daily if the plant while running
as per schedule, were fully loaded.

Solution

Example Diversity Factor

Example Capacity factor

Load Curve

Cost of Electrical Energy


Capital cost of a power plant is due to

1.Cost of land and buildings


2.Cost of generating equipment and accessories
3.Cost of transmission and distribution network
4.Cost of designing and planning the power station

In general following plants are preferred for base load operations :

1.Nuclear power plant


2.Hydro electric plant
3.Steam power plant

Following points are preferred for peak load operations :

1.Diesel engine power plant.


2.Gas turbine power plant
3.Pumped storage plant.

Cost of generation
The cost of generating of a power plant can be conveniently split into two parts:

( A) fixed costs and (b) variable costs


(A) Fixed Cost
Fixed costs are to be borne by the plants irrespective of the load. These costs consist

(i) Interest on capital :


Capital cost of a plant includes the cost of land, buildings, of equipment including installation, designing,
engineering etc. Since the capital cost of a plant is fixed therefore interest on the amount is considered as
fixed cost.
(ii) Taxes :
A power generating and distributing company has to pay taxes to the Government This amount is more or less
fixed.
(iii) Cost of Transmission and Distribution :
Power transmission and. distribution network involves huge capital expenditure. This involves cost of
transmission lines, transformers, substations and associated equipment. Interest on the capital involved is
considered as a fixed cost.
(iv) Depreciation:
It is decrease in value caused by the wear due to constant use of an equipment Under the income tax laws
there is provision for setting aside a fixed proportion of the capital employed, towards the depreciation fund.
(v) Insurance :
The plant and also life of some of workers working in dangerous areas, has to be insured against various risks
involved. For this purpose a fixed sum is payable as premium for the insurance cover.

(vi) Salary for Managerial Staff :


Irrespective of whether the plant works or not certain managerial staff has to be retained by the organization.
The salary liability of such staff is a part of the fixed cost

B) Variable Cost :
These costs vary in some proportion of the power generated in a plant. These
costs consist of

(i) Cost of fuel :


of fuel is directly related with the amount of power generated. For generating more
power, more fuel is required. Cost of fuel may be 10% to 25% of the total cost of
production. In case of hydroelectric plants the cost of fuel is zero.

(ii) Maintenance and Repair Charges:


In order to keep the plant in running condition, certain repairs are always needed.
Stock of some consumable and non- consumable items has got to be maintained.
All chargers for such staff are considered as operating costs.

(iii) Wages:
Salaries including allowances bonus, benefits etc. for the workers are considered
as operating costs.

Total cost of production is thus sum of the fixed charges and the operating
charges. As the plant load factor improves, the cost per kWh decreases. The sum
of the charges for various factors will give an optimum load factor where such
charges will be least.

Straight line method

Distribution
generator

Transmissi
on
line

Service main

Tariff
Tariff A tariff is the rate of charge per kilowatt hour of energy supplied to a
consumer. The cost of generation of electrical energy may be conveniently
split into two parts e.g. fixed charges plus the operating charges. So a tariff
should be adjusted in such a way that the total receipts balance the total
expenditure involved in generating the energy. There are several solutions to
this problem, some of which are given below :
1. Uniform Rate Tariff :
In this case there is a fixed rate per unit amount of energy consumed.
The consumption of energy is measured by the energy meter installed at
the premises of the consumer. This type of tariff accounts for all the costs
involved in the generation of power. This is the simplest tariff easily
understood by consumers. However, this type of tariff does not distinguish
between small power domestic consumer and bulk power industrial
consumers.
2.Two Part Tariff:
In this the total charges are split into two parts - fixed charges based on
maximum demand (in kW) plus the charges based on energy consumption (in
kWh).
This method suffers from the drawback that an additional provision is to
be incorporated for the measurement of maximum demand.
Under such tariff, the consumers having 'peaked' demand for short
duration are discouraged.

3.Block Rate Tariff:


In this the fixed charges are merged into the unit charges for one or two blocks of
consumption, all units in excess being charged at low or high unit rate. Lower rates for
higher blocks are fixed in order to encourage the consumers for more and more
consumptions.
This is done in case the plant has got larger spare capacity. Wherever the plant
capacity is inadequate, higher blocks are charged at higher rate in order to discourage
the consumers for higher than minimum consumption.

4. Three Part Tariff :

It is an extension of the two part tariff in that it adds to the consumer some fixed
charges irrespective of the energy consumption or maximum demand. In this ever if the
consumer has got zero power consumption, he has to pay some charges merely because
a connection has been provided to him.

5. Power Factor Tariff :

In ac power supply size of the plant is determined by the kVA rating. In case the
power factor of a consumer installation is low, the energy consumption in terms of kW
will be low. In order to discharge such consumers, power factor tariff is introduced, which
may be of the following types.

(a) Maximum kVA demand Tariff :

In this instead of kW. the kVA consumption is measured and the charge are Based
partly or fully on this demand

Hydro Electric Power Station chap7 D1

Introduction :

1.this type of power station can not be constructed every where


2. where water resources are available
3.There must be large quantity of water at sufficient head.
4.Suitable site must be available to store water in catchment
area
5.Availability of water throughout the year must be studied
6.The amount of power can be develop ,on the quantity of water
7.Feasibility report prepare
8. Comparing cost wise with other type of power station
9.Project involve a large amount of civil engineering work
10.project is use for multi purpose irrigation, flood control, and
power generation

Hydrology and hydrographs


Considering the possibility of a hydro electric power
station
Obtain data regarding the stream flow of water
available
Predict the yearly possible flow from the data
Determine the amount of stream flow and its variation
Data can be collected ,daily, weekly, monthly and yearly
Calculate the mean annual rainfall in the area under
consideration
record the data of annual rainfall for ( 25 to 30 years)
Find the minimum maximum and average flow and
output power from the stream flow
Determined the available head

Find the depth of the river at various section by


river
Gauge
Measure the discharge of water
The discharge or volume rate of flow, Q, in cubic
meter per second can be calculate by given
formula
Q CLh 3/ 2
Where L, is length of weir in meter, h is the head
in meter, and C, is constant
m3 / sec
plot time in hours against Discharge in
The obtain curve is known as hydrograph

Hydrograph shows the variation of flow with


time.
It will also indicate the power available from the
stream at different times of day or year.
The flow duration curve also shows the possible
heavy flood flow and time during which it may
occur.
this data is useful in designing a spillway on the
dam.

Hydrograph curve

m3 / sec

numberofweeks

Hydrograph curve
1400

Hydrograph
1200

1000

800
Discharge ,m3/sec
600

400

200

Number of weeks

10

11

12

Power generation
If the head at which the discharge of
water is available is known, the
possible power that can be
developed from water can be
0.736
determined.
P
Qwh
75
m
the power develop is given by
sec
Where Q = discharge ,
W= density of water = 100kg/m3
h= head ,in meter
= efficiency of turbine and generator
3

If
Q = 1 m3/sec
h = 1 meter,
then at 100% Efficiency ,
the power develop will be 9.82kw

It is important to note
that, when determining
head, hydrologists take
into account the pressure
behind the water.
Water behind the dam
puts pressure on the
falling water.

A standard equation for calculating power production


Power = (Head) x (Flow) x (Efficiency)
11.8
Power = the electric power in kilowatts or kW
Head = the distance the water falls (measured in feet)
Flow = the amount of water flowing (measured in cubic feet per second
cfs)

or

Efficiency = How well the turbine and generator convert the power of
falling water into electric power. This can range from 60%
(0.60) for
older, poorly maintained hydro plants to 90%
(0.90) for newer, well
maintained plants.
11.8 = Index that converts units of feet and seconds into kilowatts

Animation of power generation

Main parts of hydro power Plants


Spillways :
spillways are gates which are used to
discharge excess of water in the reservoir
(dam)
Spillway gates are designed to maximize the
storage capacity of a dam while increasing
the spillway capacity for a given headwater
level.
Gates tend to be raised or lowered by winch
systems or hydraulic rams but some have
automatic systems based on balancing of
water loads.

Spillway gates

Intake:
the main function of intake is to let
the water into the conduit pipe or
penstock under control condition.
Screens or trash racks are used to
prevent debris( stone, ice balls etc)
passing into the water passage.
Intakes are two types, high pressure
and low pressure

Forebay:
it is the enlarge body of water just above the
intake. this may either be a pond behind the
diversion dame.
OR
an enlarge section of a canal spread out to
accommodate the required width of intake.
the intake should not be exactly at right angles to
the direction of the water, but it should be at
angle of 30 to 40 degree.
This helps in diverting some of the ice and debris
to the spillway

Penstock:
water is taken to the turbine by a conduit system
of pipe is known as penstock.
There are two type of penstock.
1. Low pressure
2. high pressure
penstock.
Low pressure consist of canal ,concrete pipe.
the high pressure type consist of steel pipes which
can take water under pressure .no friction losses
Normally for low head plants the velocity of water
is 2m/sec. for medium head 4m/sec and for high
head plant the maximum 7m/sec

Reservoir:
it is basic requirement of hydro electric plant.
its purpose is to store the water which may be
utilized to run the prime mover.
A reservoir stores water during the rainy season
and supplies the same during the dry season.
Cold reserve: Cold reserve is the reserve
generating capacity that is available for service
but not in operation.
Hot reserve : Hot reverse is the reserve
generating capacity that is in operation but not
in service

Classification(Types) of Hydro
Electric Plants
There are three different methods of
classifying hydro electric plants. the
classification is based on
A. Quantity of water available
B. Available head
C. Nature of load
(A) Classification based on quantity of water
1.Run of river plants without pond age
2.Run of river plants with pond age
3.Reservoir plant

1. Run of river plant without pond age

A run-of-the-river system uses the rivers


natural flow. It may involve a diversion of a
portion of the stream through a canal or
penstock, or it may involve placement of a
turbine right in the stream channel. Run-ofthe-river systems are often low-head
Some H.E.P.P are so located that the water is
taken from the river directly .
No pond age or storage of water is
possible.
such P.P are known as R.R.P.
they can use water only when it available.

RRP without pond age

2. R.R.P With pond age

An impoundment is simply a dam that holds


water in a reservoir. The water is released
when needed through a penstock, to drive the
turbine.
its importance is increases due to the pond
age .
it is more useful than a plant without storage.
The firm capacity of power plant is increased.
This type of plant can be used on part of the
load curve as required.

RRP with pond age (reservoir)

3.Reservoir plants:

The majority of hydro electric plants


are reservoir plants.
the plants has better capacity and
can be used efficiently through the
year
It can be used either as a base load
plant or peak load plant as required.
it can also be used on any portion
of the load curve in a grid system.

B
Available head

High Head
Low Head
Above 300
meter
Pelton ,
francis
12-17 rpm
Efficiency 7090%

Medium Head
Above 30
below300
meter
Francis,
propeller,
kaplan
80-120 rpm
Efficiency

Above 30
below60
meter
propeller,
kaplan
310-1000 rpm
Efficiency

Nature of load

Base load

Peak load

storage

plant
plant
(RRPWOP)

plant
(RRPWP)

Pump

Pumped Storage

During
Storage, water
pumped from
lower reservoir
to higher one.
Water released
back to lower
reservoir to
generate
electricity.

Pumped Storage
Operation : Two pools of Water
Upper pool impoundment
Lower pool natural lake,
river or storage reservoir
Advantages :
Production of peak
power
Can be built anywhere
with reliable supply of
water

Large Scale Hydropower plant : capacity >30 MW

Small Scale Hydropower Plant :capacity b/w 100 kW to 30 MW

Micro Hydropower Plant capacity up to 100 kW

Water wheels(turbine)
waterwheels. (prime mover)
The waterwheel is the oldest hydropower system
component. Waterwheels are still available, but they
arent very practical for generating electricity because of
their slow speed and bulky structure.
A waterwheel is a revolving wheel fitted with blades,
buckets, or vanes.
Waterwheels convert the kinetic energy of flowing water
to mechanical energy.
Types of Hydropower Turbines
There are two main types of hydro turbines: impulse and
reaction. The type of hydropower turbine selected for a
project is based on the height of standing waterreferred
to as "head"and the flow, or volume of water, at the
site.

Types of turbines

Impulse Turbines
An impulse turbine is a horizontal or vertical wheel
that uses the kinetic energy of water striking its
buckets or blades to cause rotation.
After turning the blades or buckets, the water falls to
the bottom of the wheel housing and flows out
The impulse turbine generally uses the velocity of the
water to move the runner and discharges to
atmospheric pressure.
The water stream hits each bucket on the runner.
There is no suction on the down side of the turbine,
and the water flows out the bottom of the turbine
housing after hitting the runner.
An impulse turbine is generally suitable for high head,
low flow application

Impulse turbines, which have the least


complex
design, are most commonly used for
high head micro hydro systems. It work
on the velocity of water to move the
turbine wheel, which is called the
runner. The most common types of
impulse turbines include the Pelton
wheel and the Turgo wheel.
The Pelton wheel uses the concept of
jet
force to create energy. Water is
funneled
into a pressurized pipeline with a
narrow
nozzle at one end. The water sprays
out of
the nozzle in a jet, striking the double
cupped
buckets attached to the wheel. The
impact of the jet spray on the curved
buckets creates a force that rotates the
wheel at high efficiency rates of 70 to
90 percent. Pelton wheel turbines are
available in various sizes and operate

Impulse turbine

Pelton turbine is an impulse


PeltonThe
turbine
turbine.
it requires tangential water flow
on one side of the wheel and must
therefore operate when only partly
submerged.
It is best suited to applications
with a high head but a low volume
flow rate.
it is used in a wide range of
situations with heads from as low
as 15 metres up to almost 2000
metres.
High pressure heads give rise to
very fast water jets impinging in
the blades resulting in very high
rotational speeds of the turbine.
Pelton wheels are ideal for low
power installations with outputs of
10kW or less but they have also
been used in nstallations with
power outputs of up to 200 MW.
Efficiencies up to 95% are possible

upgraded version of the


Pelton.
Turgo Turbine
It uses the same jet spray
concept, but
the Turgo jet, which is half the
size of
the pelton, is angled so that
the spray
hits three buckets at once.
As a result, the Turgo wheel
moves
twice as fast.
Its also less bulky, needs few
or no
gears, and has a good
reputation for
trouble-free operations.
The Turgo can operate under

Reaction Turbine
Reaction turbines, which are highly
efficient,
depend on pressure rather than
velocity to produce energy.
All blades of the reaction turbine
maintain constant contact with the
water.
The water acting on the wheel vanes
is under pressure greater than
atmospheric pressure

cont: Reaction
Reaction turbines, which are highly efficient, depend on pressure
rather than velocity to produce energy.
All blades of the reaction turbine maintain constant contact with the
water.
These turbines are often used in large-scale hydropower sites.
Because of their complexity and high cost, they arent usually used
for micro hydro projects.
An exception is the propeller turbine, which comes in many different
designs and works much like a boats propeller.
Propeller turbines have three to six usually fixed blades set at
different angles aligned on the runner.
The bulb, tubular, and Kaplan tubular are variations of the
propeller turbine.
The Kaplan turbine, which is a highly adaptable propeller system,
can be used for micro hydro sites.

Reference to direction of flow


Reaction Turbine
Radial
Flow

Francis

Axial
Flow
In which runner
vanes are fixed
or adjustable
Fixed vanes are
preferred where
adjustable are
head and flow
preferred where
constant.
head and flow
operate as a
vary, operate as
base load
a peak load plant
plants
Kaplan turbine
Propeller
turbine

Francis turbine
The Francis turbine is a reaction
turbine designed to operate fully
submerged.
Water flow enters in a radial
direction towards the axis and
exits in the direction of the axis.
Its is suitable for lower heads
of water of 70- 500 meters or
less and is the most commonly
used high power turbines.
Large scale turbines used in
dams are capable of delivering
over 500 MW of power from a
head of water of around 100
meters with efficiencies of up to
95%

Propeller turbine

The propeller turbine, is


another type of a reaction
turbine.
Designed to work fully
submerged, it is similar to a
ship's propeller and is the
most suitable design for low
head water sources with a
high flow rate such as those
in slow running rivers.
Designs are optimised for a
particular flow rate and
efficiencies drop of rapidly if
the flow rate falls below the
design rating.
The Kaplan version has
variable pitch vanes to
enable it to work efficiently
over a range of flow rates

Specific speed of Turbine


The basis for comparison of turbine is
it's specific speed ns.
the speed at which a turbine would
run if the runner were reduced to a
size which would develop 1 metric
h.p under I m head.
this speed is proportional to square
root of the horse power and inversely
proportional to the 5/4 power of the
head
Mathematically it can be express as

np1/2
ns 5/4 rpm
h
where
ns specific, rotational , speed
n actual , rotatonal , speed
p metric, h. p
h head , meter
the, actual , is.given, below
nh5/4
n 1/2 rpm
p
theactual , speed , n.is, given, by.above.equation

For an impulse wheel, the specific


speed may be found for a single-jet
turbine.
if a greater out put is required, the
multi-jet turbine may be used.
For a multi- jet turbine the specific
speed can be calculated by:
nsn ns Numberofjets

Different types of turbine and their


speed
S.No

Type of turbine

Specific speed
rpm

Pelton wheel with 1 nozzle

12 to 32 rpm

Pelton wheel with 2 nozzles

17 to 50 rpm

Pelton wheel with 4 nozzles

24 to 70 rpm

Francis low speed

Francis medium speed

120 to 220 rpm

Francis high speed

220 to 350 rpm

Francis very high speed

350 to 420 rpm

Propeller and kaplan

310 to 1000 rpm

80 to 120 rpm

efficienc
y

Demand and supply


peak demand whole 2009-2030
250000

113695
200000

80566
150000
M W

2009
demand

54359

Supply

100000

106565
36217
76200

50000
20594

24474

52909
33028

17008
0
2009

19477
2010

2015

2020
Years

2025

2030

HYDEL STATIONS IN OPERATION


S.N
o

Power Station

Installe Energy
d
Generation(
Capaci GWh)
ty
(MW

Commercia
l
Operation
Date

Tarbela

3,478

15,801

1977-93

Ghazi Barotha

1,450

7,037

2003-04

Mangla ( Jhelum)

1,000

5,443

1967-94

Warsak ( Kabul)

243

1,009

1960-81

Chashma

184

959

2001

Rasul

22

63

1952

Dargai

20

162

1952

Nandipur

14

32

1963

Chichoki

13.2

32

1959

10

Shadiwal

13.5

38

1961

11

Other Small Hydel

29

1925,1975,1
982

12

Khan Khwar

72

306

2011

(indus)

Dams
Dam is a barrier to confine water for storage and to
raise its level to create a hydraulic head .
A dam help in diverting the flow of water from the
river to the turbines at increased head.
The selection of the type of dam for a particular
location depends on topography, foundation
surveys, geology and other characteristic of the
location.
the foundations must support the weight of the
dame and all other forces acting upon it without
crushing, sliding or permitting movement of the
structure.
the foundation must be no objectionable passage of
water.

Types of Dam
There are five main types of dam.
1. Solid gravity concrete dam
2. Arch dams
3. Buttress concrete dams
4. Earth dams
5. Rock- Fill dams

Solid gravity concrete dam

Max: head
water

h
1

Tail water

h
2

Solid gravity concrete


dam

SGCD

This type of dam is constructed to


most location.
The height of the dam is limited by
the strength of its foundations.
The height of the dam on an earth
foundation is very limited

Arch dams