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FUNCTIONAL PLANNING OF

BUILDINGS
Selection of Site
Aspects of functional planning
Bylaws and codes

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Functional planning

The process

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Natural Environment

Functional planning

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Functional planning

Built or Man-made environment

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Functional planning

Site Selection
Based on scope and purpose of building
Social considerations
Locality and neighborhood to liking

Utility and other infrastructural considerations


Community services
Water, gas, electricity drainage services

Enough space after bylaws and other restrictions


Preferably raised ground w.r.t roads and drainages ,

good SBC, unobstructed light and air, position of GWT


Away from quarries, kilns, factories
Other considerations such as legal and financial
implications

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Functional planning

Climatic considerations
Solar radiation, Temperature, Wind,

Humidity, Precipitation
Climate Zones
Building design are linked to human comfort
needs.
Climatic conditions and hence the requirements

for thermal comfort are the basis for the selection


of building form and building elements such as
size of windows, insulation value of roofs and
walls and orientation.

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Climate Zones
In India

Functional planning

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Functional planning

Orientation
Sun-Earth relationship
Sun path direction

Temperature and Radiation control

Wind
Character of rain and intensity
Wet conditions , humidity and damp proof
sructure

Sun-Earth relationship
Need to understand
the apparent movement of the sun (the solar
geometry) and
the energy flows from the sun and how to handle it
(exclude it or make use of it).
Why?
Shading
Natural Lighting
Thermal Control

Heliocentric view

http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/~joel/g110_w08/lecture_notes/sun_angle/agburt02_12.jpg

Sun- Earth relationship


Source: Skozolay And Skozolay, Introduction to Architectural Science The Basis of Sustainable Design

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Sun path diagrams

Functional planning

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Animation showing changing sun-path on the


21st day of each month for latitude -32.

Hourly sun path.

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Animation showing changing sun-path on the


11AM of each month for latitude -32.

Annual sun path.

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A stereographic sun-path diagram for latitude 36 (e.g. Tokyo)


Source: Skozolay And Skozolay, Introduction to Architectural Science The Basis of Sustainable Design

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Sun path Diagram @BITS Hyd on 23/01/2015


http://www.sunearthtools.com/

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Functional planning

Typical orientation for Indian conditions

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Functional planning

Principles of Planning
Aspect

Roominess

Prospect

Sanitation

Privacy

Flexibility

Grouping

Circulation

Roominess

Elegance

Furniture

Economy

requirement

Practical

Considerations

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Planning regulations and bylaws


Regulations that are generally made by local

governments or the municipal departments of


State governments, with the intention of
controlling urban development in harmony with
that envisaged in the Master Plan and for ensuring
structural safety, public health and hygiene.

Structural strength
Sanitary equipment
Light & ventilation
Fire safety

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Functional planning

Legal framework

Numerous Central and State level laws, rules and


regulations govern the construction activity
Land title
Indian Registration Act ,
1908
Various State legislations

NOC from Central Govt.

Environnent Impact Assesment


(EIA) Notification S.O. 1533 (2006)
Ancient Monuments and
Archaeological Sites and Remains
Act, 1958
Works of Defense Act 1903 (WDA)
Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
Forest Conservation Act, 1980

Construction of
buildings

Planning & Land


Land Revenue Acts by all
State Governments
Town and Country Planning
Acts by all State
Governments
Master Plans/ Development
Plans

National Building Code


2005
Local Building Bye-Laws

NOC from State Govt.


Water (Prevention &
control of pollution) Act,
1974 and Air
(Prevention & control of
Pollution) Act, 1981

Service Installations

Water connection
Sewerage connection
Gas connection
Telecom connection
Power / Electricity
connection

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Planning regulations and bylaws


provide guiding principles on which buildings

have to be planned and built, which can be


used by a citizen/developer intending to
erect a building on a piece of urban land

complemented by the Master/ Development

Plan of the city, which provide zoning rules,


land uses allowed and the nature and
intensity of development envisaged.

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Codes and Bylaws


Town and Country Planning Legislation
Land use Zoning, Development Control and Building

Regulations
Some code and bylaws
Model Building bye laws prepared by Town and Country
Planning Organisation (TCPO), Government of India
(2004)
National Building Code (2005)
Development control regulations/ Building By laws of

various LGO

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Functional planning

Building Rules and Bye laws ..contd

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Functional planning

Building Rules and Bye laws ..contd

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Some Selected Terminology


Covered Area Ground area covered by the building immediately above the plinth
level.
The area covered by the following in the open spaces is excluded from covered area :
Garden, rockery, well and well structures, plant nursery, water pool, swimming pool (if

uncovered), platform round a tree, tank, fountain, bench, Chabootra with open top
and unenclosed on sides by walls and the like;
Drainage culvert, conduit, catch-pit, gully pit, chamber, gutter and the like;

Compound wall, gate, unstoreyed porch and portico, canopy, slide, swing, uncovered
staircase, ramps areas covered by CHHAJJA and the like; and
Watchmens booth, pump house, garbage shaft, electric cabin or sub-stations, and

such other utility structures meant for the services of the building under
consideration.
NOTE For the purpose of this Part, covered area equals the plot area minus the area

due for open spaces

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Some Selected Terminology


Plinth Area/ Floor Area
The built up covered area
measured at the floor level of
the basement or of any storey.

Carpet Area
The covered area of the

usable rooms at any floor


level (excluding the area of the
wall).
Carpet Area= (Plinth area
area of the walls)
Refer to IS 3861 -2002 for

definitions

http://www.holidayhometimes.com/buyers-guide/floor-space-index-fsi-carpet-area-built-up-area-super-built-up-area2094.html

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Some Selected Terminology


Super Built up Area
It is the built up area plus proportionate area of common areas

such as the lobby, lifts shaft, stairs, etc.


Usually 25 percent more than the built up area.
Applicable in the case of multi-dwelling units or apartment

complexes.
The plinth area along with a share of all common areas

proportionately divided amongst all unit owners makes up the


super built up area.
Developers usually include the common areas such, swimming

pool, garden, clubhouse, etc. to the super built up area.

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Some Selected Terminology


Floor area Ratio
ratio of total building floor area to the area of the plot
Town Planning Schemes mandates different F.A.R. values for

different areas.
F.A.R. value, when multiplied with the Plot area gives us the

maximum floor area that can be constructed for a building in the


plot.
This is subject to satisfying other conditions such as parking,

setbacks, access width etc.


mainly determine the density or intensity of development of an

area. Hence different F.A.R. values are prescribed for different


locations in development plans.

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http://seattleslandusecode.wordpress.com/2011/03/09/what-is-floor-area-ratio-far/

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Sources
Chudley R. and Greeno R., Building Construction

Handbook, Elsevier ,2006.


Osbourne, D. and Greeno, R., Introduction to
Building ,Prentice hall, 2007
NBC , 2005
FDK Ching, Building Construction illustrated