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THE MOLECULAR BASIS

OF INHERITANCE

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid, is
now known to be the genetic
material.
DNA forms a long chains of
genetic material organized
into chromosomes

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

The Search for the Genetic Material


The first evidence that the genetic material is
particular chemical found in 1928 by Frederick
Griffith, A British medical officer who was
studying Streptococcus pneumoniae, a
bacterium that causes pneumonia in mammals.

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

DNA Structure
Pentose (five-carbon) sugar called deoxyribose
Phosphate group
Nitrogenous bases

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

DNA Anatomy and Replication

For animated discussion click this for webpage

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

DNA Replication

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

RNA
Ribunucleic acid
Secondary type of nucleic acid
that transfer the instructions for
the manufacture of proteins
from genes on the DNA to the
ribosome.

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

RNA Structure
Pentose Sugar
Phosphate group
Nitrogenous bases

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

Types of RNA
Ribosomal RNAs - exist outside the nucleus
in the cytoplasm of a cell in structures called
ribosomes.
Ribosomes are small, granular structures
where protein synthesis takes place. Each
ribosome is a complex consisting of about
60% ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and 40%
protein.
ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

Types RNA
Messenger RNAs - are the nucleic acids that
"record" information from DNA in the cell
nucleus and carry it to the ribosomes and are
known as messenger RNAs (mRNA).
Transfer RNAs - The function of transfer
RNAs (tRNA) is to deliver amino acids one by
one to protein chains growing at ribosomes.

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

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Comparison Between DNA and RNA


DNA

RNA

Structure

Double Strand

Single Strand

Purines

Adenine (A)
Guanine (G)

Adenine (A)
Guanine (G)

Pyrimidines

Cytosine (C)
Thymine (T)

Cytosine (C)
Uracil (U)

Sugar

Deoxyribose

Ribose

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

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Protein Synthesis
TRANSCRIPTION - is the process of transferring
information from a strand of DNA to a strand.

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

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Protein Synthesis
TRANSLATION ribosomes synthesize proteins
with the help of mRNA molecules.

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

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Protein Synthesis

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

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The Genetic Code

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

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The Genetic Code


CODON code word
- a three base code in DNA or mRNA.
ANTICODON a region in all tRNA

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

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Amino Acid

DNA Base Triplets

M-RNA Codons

T-RNA Anticodons

alanine

CGA, CGG, CGT, CGC

GCU, GCC, GCA, GCG

CGA, CGG, CGU, CGC

arginine

GCA, GCG, GCT, GCC


TCT, TCC

CGU, CGC, CGA, CGG


AGA, AGG

GCA, GCG, GCU, GCC


UCU, UCC

asparagine

TTA, TTG

AAU, AAC

UUA, UUG

aspartate

CTA, CTG

GAU, GAC

CUA, CUG

cysteine

ACA, ACG

UGA, UGC

ACA, ACG

glutamate

CTT, CTC

GAA, GAG

CUU, CUC

glutamine

GTT, GTC

CAA, CAG

GUU, GUC

glycine

CCA, CCG, CCT, CCC

GGU, GGC, GGA, GGG

CCA, CCG, CCU, CCC

histidine

GTA, GTG

CAU, CAC

GUA, GUG

isoleucine

TAA, TAG, TAT

AUU, AUC, AUA

UAA, UAG, UAU

leucine

AAT, AAC, GAA, GAG


GAT, GAC

UUA, UUG, CUU, CUC


CUA, CUG

AAU, AAC, GAA, GAG


GAU, GAC

lysine

TTT, TTC

AAA, AAG

UUU, UUC

methionine

TAC

AUG

UAC

phenylalanine

AAA, AAG

UUU, UUC

AAA, AAG

proline

GGA, GGG, GGT, GGC

CCU, CCC, CCA, CCG

GGA, GGG, GGU, GGC

serine

AGA, AGG, AGT, AGC


TCA, TCG

UCU, UCC, UCA, UCG


AGU, AGC

AGA, AGG, AGU, AGC


UCA, UCG

stop

ATG, ATT, ACT

UAA, UAG, UGA

AUG, AUU, ACU

threonine

TGA, TGG, TGT, TGC

ACU, ACC, ACA, ACG

UGA, UGG, UGU, UGC

tryptophan

ACC

UGG

ACC

tyrosine

ATA, ATG

UAU, UAC

AUA, AUG

valine

CAA, CAG, CAT, CAC

GUU, GUC, GUA, GUG

CAA, CAG, CAU, CAC

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Control of Gene Expression

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Control of Gene Expression


For more discussion about Control of Gene Expression,
Click Here

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THANK YOU!

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

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