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Queuing Analysis

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Chapter Topics
Elements of Waiting Line Analysis
The Single-Server Waiting Line System
Undefined and Constant Service Times
Finite Queue Length
Finite Calling Problem
The Multiple-Server Waiting Line
Additional Types of Queuing Systems

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Overview
Significant amount of time spent in waiting lines by
people, products, etc.
Providing quick service is an important aspect of
quality customer service.
The basis of waiting line analysis is the trade-off
between the cost of improving service and the costs
associated with making customers wait.
Queuing analysis is a probabilistic form of analysis.
The results are referred to as operating
characteristics.
Results are used by managers of queuing
operations to make decisions.
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Elements of Waiting Line


Analysis (1 of 2)
Waiting lines form because people or
things arrive at a service faster than they
can be served.
Most operations have sufficient server
capacity to handle customers in the long
run.
Customers however, do not arrive at a
constant rate nor are they served in an
equal amount of time.
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Elements of Waiting Line


Analysis (2 of 2)
Waiting lines are continually increasing and
decreasing in length and approach an
average rate of customer arrivals and an
average service time, in the long run.
Decisions concerning the management of
waiting lines are based on these averages
for customer arrivals and service times.
They are used in formulas to compute
operating characteristics of the system
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The Single-Server Waiting Line System


(1 of 2)
Components of a waiting line system include
arrivals (customers), servers, (cash
register/operator), customers in line form a
waiting line.
Factors to consider in analysis:

The queue discipline.

The nature of the calling population

The arrival rate

The service rate.

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The Single-Server Waiting Line


System (2 of 2)

Figure
13.1
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Single-Server Waiting Line System


Component Definitions

Queue Discipline: The order in which waiting


customers are served.

Calling Population: The source of customers


(infinite or finite).

Arrival Rate: The frequency at which customers


arrive at a waiting line according to a probability
distribution (frequently described by a Poisson
distribution).

Service Rate: The average number of customers


that can be served during a time period (often
described by the negative exponential distribution).

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Single-Server Waiting Line System


Single-Server Model

Assumptions of the basic single-server model:

An infinite calling population

A first-come, first-served queue discipline

Poisson arrival rate

Exponential service times

Symbols:
= the arrival rate (average number of
arrivals/time period)
= the service rate (average number served/time
period)

Customers must be served faster than they arrive (

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Single-Server Waiting Line System


Basic Single-Server Queuing
Formulas (1 of 2)

Probability that no customers are in the queuing


system:

P0 1

Probability that n customers


are in the system:
n
n

P
1
Pn
0

L

Average number of customers in system:

Lq

Average number of customer in the waiting line:13-

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Single-Server Waiting Line System


Basic Single-Server Queuing
Formulas (2 of 2)

Average time customer spends waiting and being


served:
W 1 L

Average time customer
waiting in the

Wq spends

queue:

Probability that server is busy (utilization


I 1 U 1
factor):

Probability that server is idle:

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Single-Server Waiting Line System


Operating Characteristics: Fast Shop
Market
(1 of 2) per hour arrive at checkout
= 24 customers
counter

= 30customers per hour can be checked out


P0 1 (1 - 24/30)

.20 probability of no customers in the system

L 24/(30 - 24) 4 customers on the avg in the system



2

Lq

(24)2 /[30(30 -24)] 3.2 customers on the avg in the waiting line
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Single-Server Waiting Line System


Operating Characteristics for Fast Shop
Market
(2
of 2)
1
L
W

1/[30 -24]

0.167 hour (10 min) avg time in the system per customer

24/[30(30 -24)]

0.133 hour (8 min) avg time in the waiting line

Wq

U
24/30

.80 probability server busy, .20 probability server will be idle

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Single-Server Waiting Line System


Steady-State Operating
Characteristics
Because of steady-state nature of operating
characteristics:

Utilization factor, U, must be less than one:


U < 1, or / < 1 and < .

The ratio of the arrival rate to the service


rate must be
less than one or, the
service rate must be greater than
the
arrival rate.

The server must be able to serve customers


faster than the arrival rate in the long run,
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asgrow
waiting
line
will
to infinite size.
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Single-Server Waiting Line System


Effect of Operating Characteristics
(1 Manager
of 6) wishes to test several alternatives for
reducing customer waiting time:
1.

2.

Addition of another employee to pack up


purchases
Addition of another checkout counter.

Alternative 1: Addition of an employee


(raises service rate from = 30 to = 40
customers per hour).

Cost $150 per week, avoids loss of $75 per


week for each minute of reduced customer
waiting time.

System operating characteristics with new


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Single-Server Waiting Line System


Effect of Operating Characteristics
System
(2 of
6) operating characteristics with new
parameters

(continued):

Lq = 0.90 customer on the average in the waiting


line
W = 0.063 hour average time in the system per
customer
Wq = 0.038 hour average time in the waiting line
per customer
U = .60 probability that server is busy and
customer must wait
I = .40 probability that server is available
Average customer waiting time reduced from 8 to 2.25
minutes worth $431.25 per week.
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Single-Server Waiting Line System


Effect of Operating Characteristics
Alternative
(3
of 6) 2: Addition of a new checkout counter ($6,000
plus $200 per week for additional cashier).

= 24/2 = 12 customers per hour per checkout


counter

= 30 customers per hour at each counter

System operating characteristics with new


parameters:
Po = .60 probability of no customers in the

system
L = 0.67 customer in the queuing system
Lq = 0.27 customer in the waiting line
W = 0.055 hour per customer in the system
Wq = 0.022 hour per customer in the waiting line

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U = .40 probability that a customer must wait

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Single-Server Waiting Line System


Effect of Operating Characteristics
(4 of 6)
Savings from reduced waiting time worth:
$500 per week - $200 = $300 net savings
per week.
After $6,000 recovered, alternative 2 would
provide:
$300 -281.25 = $18.75 more savings per
week.

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Single-Server Waiting Line System


Effect of Operating Characteristics
(5 of 6)

Table 13.1
Operating Characteristics for Each Alternative
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Single-Server Waiting Line System


Effect of Operating Characteristics
(6 of 6)

Figure 13.2

Cost Trade-Offs for Service

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Single-Server Waiting Line System


Undefined and Constant Service
Times
Constant, rather than exponentially
distributed service times, occur with
machinery and automated equipment.
Constant service times are a special case of
the single-server model with undefined service
times.
Lq

Wq
Queuing formulas:
0

2 2 /
Lq
2 1 /

L Lq

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1
W Wq
U

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Single-Server Waiting Line System


Undefined Service Times Example (1
of 2)
Data: Single fax machine; arrival rate of 20
users per hour, Poisson distributed; undefined
service time with mean of 2 minutes,
standard deviation of 4 minutes.
Operating characteristics:
20 .33 probability that machine not in use
P0 1

30
2 2 2
2

2
2
/ 20
20/ 30
1/15

Lq

2 1 /
2 1 20/ 30

3.33 employees waiting in line


L Lq
3.33 (20/ 30)

4.0 employees in line and using the machine

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Single-Server Waiting Line System


Undefined Service Times Example (2
of 2)
Operating characteristics (continued):
Lq 3.33
Wq
0.1665 hour 10 minutes waiting time
20
1 0.1665 1 0.1998 hour
W Wq
30
12 minutes in the system
20 67% machine utilization
U

30

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Single-Server Waiting Line System


Constant Service Times Formulas
In the constant service time model there is no
variability in service times; = 0.
Substituting = 0 into equations:
2 2 2
2
2

2
2
/
0 / /
2

Lq

2 1 /
2 1 /
2
2

1 /

All remaining formulas are the same as the


single-server formulas.

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Single-Server Waiting Line System


Constant Service Times Example
Car wash servicing one car at a time; constant
service time of 4.5 minutes; arrival rate of
customers of 10 per hour (Poisson
distributed).
Determine average length of waiting line and
average waiting time.
= 10 cars per hour, = 60/4.5 = 13.3
2
2hour
(10)

cars
per
Lq

1.14 cars waiting


2( ) 2(13.3)(13.3 10)
Lq 1.14
Wq
0.114 hour or 6.84 minutes waiting time
10

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Finite Queue Length


In a finite queue, the length of the queue is
limited.
Operating characteristics, where M is the
maximum number in the system: n

P0 1 /
Pn ( P0 )
for n M

1 ( / )M 1
M 1
L / ( M 1)( / )
1 /
1 ( / )M 1
W

L
(1 PM )

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Lq L (1 PM )
1
Wq W

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Finite Queue Length Example (1


of 2)
Metro Quick Lube single bay service; space for one
vehicle in service and three waiting for service;
mean time between arrivals of customers is 3
minutes; mean service time is 2 minutes; both
inter-arrival times and service times are
exponentially distributed; maximum number of
vehicles in the system equals 4.
1 /
1 20/ 30 .38 probability that system is empty
P0 Operating

for = 20, = 30, M = 4:


1 1 (20/ 30)5
1 ( / )M characteristics

PM ( P0 )

n M

(.38) 20 .076 probability that system is full


30

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Finite Queue Length Example (2


of 2)
Average queue lengths and waiting times:
M 1
(
M

1)(

1 /
1 ( / )M 1
5
(5)(20/
30)
20/
30
L

1.24 cars in the system


1 20/ 30 1 (20/ 30)5
Lq L (1 PM ) 1.24 20(1 .076) 0.62 cars waiting
30
W

L
1.24 0.067 hours waiting in the system
(1 PM ) 20(1 .076)

1 0.067 1 0.033 hour waiting in line


Wq W
30
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Finite Calling Population


In a finite calling population there is a limited
number of potential customers that can call on
the system.
Operating characteristics for system with
Poisson arrival
and exponential service times:
1
P0
n
N

N!
( N n)!

n0
where N population size, and n 1, 2,...N
n

Pn N !
P0

( N n)!

L Lq (1 P0 )

(1 P )
Lq N

Lq
Wq
( N L)

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1
W Wq
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Finite Calling Population


Example (1 of 2)

Wheelco Manufacturing Company; 20


machines; each machine operates an average
of 200 hours before breaking down; average
time to repair is 3.6 hours; breakdown rate is
Poisson distributed, service time is
exponentially distributed.

Is repair staff sufficient?


= 1/200 hour = .005 per hour
= 1/3.6 hour = .2778 per hour
N = 20 machines
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Finite Calling Population


Example (2 of 2)
P0

1
.652
n
20 20! .005
(20 n)! .2778

n0

Lq 20 .005 .2778 1 .652 .169 machines waiting


.005
L .169 (1 .652) .520 machines in the system
Wq

.169
1.74 hours waiting for repair
(20 .520)(.005)

W 1.74 1 5.33 hours in the system


.2778
System seems woefully inadequate.
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Multiple-Server Waiting Line (1 of 3

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Figure 13.3
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Multiple-Server Waiting Line (2


of 3)
In multiple-server models, two or more
independent servers in parallel serve a
single waiting line.
Biggs Department Store service
department; first-come, first-served basis.

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Multiple-Server Waiting Line (3


of 3)

Customer Service
System at Biggs
Department
Store
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Multiple-Server Waiting Line


Queuing Formulas (1 of 3)
Assumptions:

First-come first-served queue discipline


Poisson arrivals, exponential service times
Infinite calling population.

Parameter definitions:
= arrival rate (average number of arrivals per
time period)
= the service rate (average number served per
time period) per server (channel)
c = number of servers
c = mean effective service rate for the system
(must exceed arrival rate)
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Multiple-Server Waiting Line


Queuing Formulas (2 of 3)
P0

nc1 1

n! c!

n0

c
c

probability no customers in system

Pn nc P0 for n c
c!c

Pn n P0 for n c probability of n customers in system

)
L
P0
average customers in the system

2
(c 1)!(c )
W L average time customer spends in the system

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Multiple-Server Waiting Line


Queuing Formulas (3 of 3)
Lq L
average number of customers in the queue
Lq
1
Wq W average time customer is in the queue

Pw c P0 probability customer must wait for service


c! c

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Multiple-Server Waiting Line


Biggs Department Store Example (1
of =
2)10, = 4, c = 3
P0

1 10 1 10 1 10

1! 4
2!
0! 4

3(4)
1
10

3(4) 10
3! 4

.045 probability of no customers


3
(10)(4)(10/4)
L
(.045) 10
4
(3 1)![3(4) 10]2
6 customers on average in service department
W 6 0.60 hour average customer time in the service department
10
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Multiple-Server Waiting Line


Biggs Department Store Example (2
of 2)
Lq 6 10
4
3.5 customers on the average waiting to be served
Wq 3.5
10
0.35 hour average waiting time in line per customer
3

3(4) (.045)
Pw 1 10
3! 4 3(4) 10

.703 probability customer must wait for service


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Additional Types of Queuing


Systems (1 of 2)

Figure 13.4 Single Queues with Single and Multiple


Servers in Sequence

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Additional Types of Queuing


Systems (2 of 2)
Other items contributing to queuing systems:
Systems in which customers balk from
entering system, or leave the line (renege).
Servers who provide service in other than
first-come, first-served manner
Service times that are not exponentially
distributed or are undefined or constant
Arrival rates that are not Poisson
distributed
Jockeying (i.e., moving between queues)

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Example Problem Solution (1 of


5)

Problem Statement: Citizens Northern


Savings Bank loan officer customer interviews.
Customer arrival rate of four per hour, Poisson
distributed; officer interview service time of 12
minutes per customer.
1. Determine operating characteristics for
this system.
2. Additional officer creating a multipleserver queuing system with two channels.
Determine operating characteristics for
this system.

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Example Problem Solution (2 of


5)
Solution:

Step 1: Determine Operating Characteristics


for the Single-Server System
= 4 customers per hour arrive, = 5
customers per
hour are served
Po = (1 - / ) = ( 1 4 / 5) = .20
probability of no
customers in the
system
L = / ( - ) = 4 / (5 - 4) = 4 customers on
average in
the queuing system
Lq = 2 / ( - ) = 42 / 5(5 - 4) = 3.2
customers on
average in the
waiting
line
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Example Problem Solution (3 of


5)
Step 1 (continued):
W = 1 / ( - ) = 1 / (5 - 4) = 1 hour on
average in the
system
Wq = / (u - ) = 4 / 5(5 - 4) = 0.80 hour
(48 minutes)
average time in
the waiting line
Pw = / = 4 / 5 = .80 probability the new
accounts
officer is busy and a
customer must wait

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Example Problem Solution (4 of


5)
Step 2: Determine the Operating
Characteristics for the Multiple-Server
System.
= 4 customers per hour arrive; = 5
customers
per hour served; c = 2
1
P0
servers
n
c c

n c 1 1
1

c ! c

n
!

n 0

.429 probability no customers in system


c

)
L
P0

(c 1)!(c )2
0.952 average number of customers in the system
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Example Problem Solution (5 of


5)
Step 2 (continued):
Lq L

0.152 average number of customers in the queue


1 Lq
Wq W

0.038 hour average time customer is in the queue


c c

Pw 1
Po

c! c

.229 probability customer must wait for service


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