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Ajie Ismail Krisna Sakti

Hafidhah Faradilah
Dani Pamula Prasetyo


Introduction To

Formation Of

Types Of

Spelling Of

Quiz On
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Other Information
About Adverbs

Adverbs are words used to describe or modify verbs.
Adverbs give more information about a verb.
Use adverbs to make your writing more interesting.
Adverbs are words that modify
a verb (He drove slowly. How did he drive?)
an adjective (He drove a very fast car. How fast was his car?)
another adverb (She moved quite slowly down the aisle. How slowly did she
As we will see, adverbs often tell when, where, why, or under what conditions something
happens or happened. Adverbs frequently end in -ly; however, many words and phrases
not ending in -ly serve an adverbial function and an -ly ending is not a guarantee that a
word is an adverb. The words lovely, lonely, motherly, friendly, neighborly, for instance,
are adjectives:
That lovely woman lives in a friendly neighborhood.

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Adverbs are words like tomorrow, daily, badly, once and too.
They tell us more about other words, especially verbs.
The child smiled sweetly. (The adverb sweetly modifies the verb smiled.)
She walked slowly. (The adverb slowly modifies the verb walked.)
He talked politely. (The adverb politely modifies the verb talked.)

Sometimes adverbs modify adjectives.

It was a very important question. (The adverb very modifies the adjective
You are so sweet. (The adverb so modifies the adjective sweet.)

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Adverbs can also modify other adverbs.

He walked very slowly. (The adverb very modifies the adverb slowly.)
She sang extremely well. (The adverb extremely modifies the adverb

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Kinds of Adverbs

Adverbs of Manner

Adverbs of Place

Adverbs of Frequency
Focusing Adverbs
Adverbs of Purpose

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Adverbs of Time

Formation of Adverbs
Most adverbs are formed by adding -ly to their corresponding
adjectives. Examples are: kindly (kind), slowly (slow), hardly (hard),
sweetly (sweet) etc.

She is very beautiful (adjective).

She is beautifully (adverb) dressed.
He is a strange (adjective) person.
He behaved strangely (adverb).

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Points to be noted
1. If the adjective ends in -y, replace it with -i and then add -ly.








2. If the adjective ends in -able, -ible, or -le, replace the -e with -y.

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3. If the adjective ends in -ic, add -ally.







This rule, however, has an exception. The adverb formed

from public is publicly, and not publically.

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Adverbs of Manner

Points To Be Noted

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Adverbs of manner say how something happens or is done.
Examples are: happily, angrily, slowly, carefully, fast etc.
She walked slowly.
John drove carefully.
The soldiers fought bravely.

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Adverbs of manner normally go in end position

(at the end of a clause).
She sang well.
He talked loudly.
She walked slowly.
He managed it skillfully.
She speaks English well.

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An adverb of manner modifying an adjective or another adverb

normally goes before it.

She is seriously ill.

I was terribly busy.

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Points To Be Noted

1. Adverbs of manner can come in mid position if the adverb is not

important to the meaning of the verb.
She angrily tore up the letter. (The manner in which she tore up
the letter is not important.)
His health slowly began to improve.

2. If there is a preposition before the object, we can place the adverb

either before the preposition or after the object.
The man walked happily towards his home.
The man walked towards his home happily.

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Points To Be Noted - Continued

3. To emphasize the point, sometimes, an adverb of manner is placed

before the main verb.
He gently woke up the woman.

4. Some writers put adverbs of manner at the beginning of a sentence

to catch our attention.
Happily Tom went home.
Slowly he walked away.

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Adverbs of Place

Adverbs of Place tell us where something happens.

Examples are: upstairs, here, there, nearby, everywhere, in, out etc.
She looked for him everywhere.
Please come in.
They bought a house nearby.
He lives here.
The boss has gone out.
He was seen nowhere.

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Certain adverbs of place express both movement and location.

Examples are: ahead, abroad, overseas, uphill, downhill, sideways,
indoor, outdoors etc.

My parents live abroad.

They climbed uphill.
She fell backwards.

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They are normally placed at the end of a clause.

She took him out.

They all went away.
We went ahead.
The children were playing upstairs.
He jumped out.

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They can also come at the beginning of a clause. This is

common in literary writing.
On the hilltop an old castle stood majestically.
At around the corner there is a big banyan tree.
Out he jumped.
Upstairs the children were playing.

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Adverbs of Indefinite Frequency


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Points To Be Noted


Adverbs of indefinite frequency tell us how often something happens.

Common examples are: always, ever, usually, normally, often,
frequently, seldom, never etc.

I am never late for office.

Have you ever been to the US?
I often work late.

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Adverbs of indefinite frequency go in mid position. They are normally
placed after the auxiliary verbs and before other verbs. When there
are two auxiliary verbs, the adverb goes after the first.

I always get up early. (adverb + main verb)

I am seldom late for work. (is/am/are/was/were + adverb)
We frequently visit them. (adverb + main verb)
I often read comics. (adverb + main verb)
I have never seen a dolphin. (auxiliary verb + adverb + main verb)

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Points to be noted

1. Usually, normally, often, frequently, sometimes and occasionally can

also go at the beginning or end of a clause.

We visit them occasionally.

Often we trust the wrong person.

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2. Always, ever, rarely, seldom and never can go only in mid

They never admitted their fault.
You can always trust him.


However, always and never can begin imperative clauses.

Always look before you leap.
Never ask her about her age.

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Focusing Adverbs
Focusing adverbs point to a particular part of a clause.
Most common examples are: also, just, even, only, mainly, mostly, either, neither etc.

As focusing adverbs point to a particular part of a sentence, the meaning conveyed
often depends upon their position. It is best to place them in front of and next to the
word or words modified by them.

Only John helped me to buy the house. (= Only John and no one else
helped me.)
John only helped me to buy the house. (= John helped me to buy the
house, but didn't actually buy it for me.)

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Too and as well are exceptions to this rule. They normally go in
end position.

She not only speaks English; she speaks French as well.

He not only sings; he plays the piano too.

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Adverbs of Purpose

Adverbs of Certainty
Adverbs of Degree

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Adverbs of Degree

Adverbs of Degree tell us about the degree or extent of an action,

quality or manner.
Examples are: almost, little, enough, much, too, partly, fully, so,
rather, quite, nearly, just, too, hardly, scarcely, very etc.
She is very beautiful.
I am extremely sorry.
She is quite strong.
They are fully prepared.

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Adverbs of degree normally come in mid position with the verb.
They are placed after the auxiliary verbs and before other verbs. If
there are two auxiliary verbs, the adverb comes after the first.
He had hardly begun. (auxiliary verb + adverb + main verb)
My work is almost finished. (is/am/are/was/were + adverb)
I just asked. (adverb + main verb)
She hardly realized what she was doing. (adverb + main verb)
He is entirely right. (is/am/are/was/were + adverb)
She was rather busy. (is/am/are/was/were + adverb)

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An adverb of degree qualifying an adjective or another adverb

normally goes before it.
She is very beautiful.
Those mangoes were very sweet.
I am extremely sorry.
Enough is an exception to this rule. It is placed after the adjective or
adverb it qualifies.
You are not old enough to marry.
This is good enough to be true.
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Adverbs of Certainty
Adverbs of certainty express how certain or sure we feel about an
action or event.

Common examples are: certainly, definitely, probably, undoubtedly,

clearly, obviously etc.
He is undoubtedly a great leader.
There is clearly something wrong.
She is definitely taller than you.

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Adverbs of certainty usually go in mid position. They are placed after
auxiliary verbs and before other verbs. When there are two or more
auxiliaries, the adverb goes after the first.
He is undoubtedly a great leader. (is/am/are/was/were + adverb)
She will probably come. (auxiliary verb + adverb + main verb)
It will certainly rain this evening. (auxiliary verb + adverb + main verb)
I certainly feel better today. (adverb + main verb)
You have definitely been working too hard. (first auxiliary + adverb +
second auxiliary + other verb)

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Perhaps and may be are exceptions to this rule. They usually

go at the beginning of a clause.
Perhaps she will come.
May be you are right.

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Adverbs of Time and Definite Frequency

Adverbs of time and definite frequency tell us when something

Examples are: today, yesterday, later, now, all day, not long,
for a while, since, last year, sometimes, frequently, never,
often, yearly etc.
shall go there tomorrow.
You must get up early.
I have seen him before.
Let us start now.
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Most of them go in end position.

I met him yesterday.
He died last year.
They are leaving for England tomorrow.
He visits us daily.
I haven't seen him lately.
Initial position is also common.
Yesterday I met him.
Tomorrow I am leaving for the US.

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Finally, already, soon, and last can also go in mid position.
She has finally got a job.
They soon realized their mistake.
Still and just can only go in mid position.
I just asked.
He is still working for the same firm.

Note that a mid position adverb is placed after the auxiliary verbs
and before other verbs. When there are two auxiliary verbs, the adverb normally
comes after the first.

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Adjectives or Adverbs? Confusing cases

Some words ending in -ly are adjectives, and not normally adverbs.
Common examples are: costly, cowardly, deadly,
friendly, likely, lively, lonely, lovely, silly, ugly and
She has a lovely daughter.
Don't be silly.
It was a lively discussion.

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Some adverbs and adjectives have the same form.

Examples are: fast, hard, high, late, near, straight, wrong,
daily, early, leisurely etc.
It is a fast (adjective) car.
A fast (adjective) car goes fast (adverb).
He drove fast (adverb).
Hard (adjective) work pays.
You must work hard (adverb).
He is an early (adjective) riser.
I got up early (adverb) today.
It is easy (adjective).
Take it easy (adverb)

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Spelling of Adverbs
Most of adjectives can be converted to adverbs, just adding -ly, to the
end of the adjective.
correct - correctly
easy - easily

Adjectives that end in -y, change the -y to -i, and add -ly.
lucky - luckily
happy - happily

Adjectives that end in -ble, drop the -e, and -add -ly.
respectable - respectably
comfortable - comfortably

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Adjectives that end in -ic, change the -ic to -al, and add -ly.


problematic - problematically
hectic - hectically

There are exceptions to the rule.

public - publicly

Adjectives that end in -e, just add -ly.

rude - rudely
live - lively

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Adjectives that end in -le, drop the -e, and add -ly.
accountable - accountability
predictable - predictablbly


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Please note not all words that end in -ly,

are not adverbs.

Other Information About Adverbs

Position Of
Lists & Do
Order Of

Notes On

Adverb Order



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Focus, and

Using Adverbs in a Numbered List

Within the normal flow of text, it's nearly always a bad idea to number
items beyond three or four, at the most. Anything beyond that, you're
better off with a vertical list that uses numbers (1, 2, 3, etc.). Also, in
such a list, don't use adverbs (with an -ly ending); use instead the
uninflected ordinal number (first, second, third, fourth, fifth, etc.). First
(not firstly), it's unclear what the adverb is modifying. Second (not
secondly), it's unnecessary. Third (not thirdly), after you get beyond
"secondly," it starts to sound silly. Adverbs that number in this manner
are treated as disjuncts.

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Adverbs We Can Do Without

Here is some advice on adverbs that we can eliminate to the

benefit of our prose: intensifiers such as very, extremely,
and really that don't intensify anything and expletive
constructions ("There are several books that address this

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Positions of Adverbs

One of the hallmarks of adverbs is their ability to move around in a

sentence. Adverbs of manner are particularly flexible in this regard.
This is something I have always stressed to my students, adverbs
do not always go in one position only.

Solemnly the minister addressed her congregation.

The minister solemnly addressed her congregation.
The minister addressed her congregation solemnly.

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The following adverbs of frequency appear in various points in these

Before the main verb: I never get up before nine o'clock.
Between the auxiliary verb and the main verb: I have rarely written to my
brother without a good reason.
Before the verb used to: I always used to see him at his summer home.

Indefinite adverbs of time can appear either before the verb or

between the auxiliary and the main verb:
He finally showed up for batting practice.
She has recently retired.

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Order of Adverbs
There is a basic order in which adverbs will appear when there is more
than one. It is similar to The Royal Order of Adjectives, but it is even
more flexible.






Beth swims


in the pool

every morning

before dawn

to keep in shape.

Dad walks


into town

every afternoon

in her room

every morning


before supper to get a newspaper.

before lunch.

In actual practice, of course, it would be highly unusual to have a string of adverbial

modifiers beyond two or three (at the most). Because the placement of adverbs is so
flexible, one or two of the modifiers would probably move to the beginning of the
sentence: "Every afternoon before supper, Dad impatiently walks into town to get a
newspaper." When that happens, the introductory adverbial modifiers are usually set off
with a comma.

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More Notes on Adverb Order

As a general principle, shorter adverbial phrases precede longer
adverbial phrases, regardless of content. In the following sentence, an
adverb of time precedes an adverb of frequency because it is shorter
(and simpler):
Dad takes a brisk walk before breakfast every day of his life.

A second principle: among similar adverbial phrases of kind (manner,

place, frequency, etc.), the more specific adverbial phrase comes first:
My grandmother was born in a sod house on the plains of northern
She promised to meet him for lunch next Tuesday.

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Bringing an adverbial modifier to the beginning of the sentence can

place special emphasis on that modifier. This is particularly useful
with adverbs of manner:

Slowly, ever so carefully, Jesse filled the coffee cup up to the brim, even
above the brim.
Occasionally, but only occasionally, one of these lemons will get by the

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Inappropriate Adverb Order

Review the section on Misplaced Modifiers for some additional ideas
on placement. Modifiers can sometimes attach themselves to and thus
modify words that they ought not to modify.

They reported that Giuseppe Balle, a European rock star, had died on
the six o'clock news.

Clearly, it would be better to move the underlined modifier to a

position immediately after "they reported" or even to the beginning
of the sentence so the poor man doesn't die on television.

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Misplacement can also occur with very simple modifiers,

such as only and barely:
She only grew to be four feet tall

It would be better if "She grew to be only four feet tall."

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Adjuncts, Disjuncts, and Conjuncts

Regardless of its position, an adverb is often neatly integrated into the flow of
a sentence. When this is true, as it almost always is, the adverb is called an
adjunct. (Notice the underlined adjuncts or adjunctive adverbs in the first two
sentences of this paragraph.) When the adverb does not fit into the flow of the
clause, it is called a disjunct or a conjunct and is often set off by a comma or
set of commas. A disjunct frequently acts as a kind of evaluation of the rest of
the sentence. Although it usually modifies the verb, we could say that it
modifies the entire clause, too. Notice how "too" is a disjunct in the sentence
immediately before this one; that same word can also serve as an adjunct
adverbial modifier: It's too hot to play outside. Here are two more disjunctive
Frankly, Martha, I don't give a hoot.
Fortunately, no one was hurt.

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Conjuncts, on the other hand, serve a connector function within

the flow of the text, signaling a transition between ideas.
If they start smoking those awful cigars, then I'm not staying.
We've told the landlord about this ceiling again and again, and yet
he's done nothing to fix it.

At the extreme edge of this category, we have the purely conjunctive

device known as the conjunctive adverb (often called the adverbial
Jose has spent years preparing for this event; nevertheless, he's the
most nervous person here.
I love this school; however, I don't think I can afford the tuition.

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Some Special Cases

The adverbs enough and not enough usually take a postmodifier position:
Is that music loud enough?
These shoes are not big enough.
In a roomful of elderly people, you must remember to speak loudly
Notice, though, that when enough functions as an adjective, it can come before the
Did she give us enough time?
The adverb enough is often followed by an infinitive:
She didn't run fast enough to win.

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The adverb too comes before adjectives and other adverbs:

She ran too fast.
She works too quickly.

If too comes after the adverb it is probably a disjunct (meaning also)

and is usually set off with a comma:
Yasmin works hard. She works quickly, too.

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The adverb too is often followed by an infinitive:

She runs too slowly to enter this race.

Another common construction with the adverb too is too followed by a

prepositional phrase for + the object of the preposition followed
by an infinitive:
This milk is too hot for a baby to drink.

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Relative Adverbs
Adjectival clauses are sometimes introduced by what are called the
relative adverbs: where, when, and why. Although the entire clause
is adjectival and will modify a noun, the relative word itself fulfills an
adverbial function (modifying a verb within its own clause).
The relative adverb where will begin a clause that modifies a noun of place:
My entire family now worships in the church where my great
grandfather used to be minister.

The relative pronoun "where" modifies the verb "used to be" (which
makes it adverbial), but the entire clause ("where my great grandfather
used to be minister") modifies the word "church."

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A when clause will modify nouns of time:

My favorite month is always February, when we celebrate Valentine's Day and
Presidents' Day

And a why clause will modify the noun reason:

Do you know the reason why Isabel isn't in class today?

We sometimes leave out the relative adverb in such clauses, and many
writers prefer "that" to "why" in a clause referring to "reason":
Do you know the reason why Isabel isn't in class today?
I always look forward to the day when we begin our summer vacation.
I know the reason that men like motorcycles.

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Viewpoint, Focus, and Negative Adverbs

A viewpoint adverb generally comes after a noun and is related to an
adjective that precedes that noun:
A successful athletic team is often a good team scholastically.
Investing all our money in snowmobiles was probably not a sound idea

You will sometimes hear a phrase like "scholastically speaking" or

"financially speaking" in these circumstances, but the word "speaking"
is seldom necessary.

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A focus adverb indicates that what is being communicated is limited

to the part that is focused; a focus adverb will tend either to limit the
sense of the sentence ("He got an A just for attending the class.") or
to act as an additive ("He got an A in addition to being published."
Although negative constructions like the words "not" and "never" are
usually found embedded within a verb string "He has never been
much help to his mother." they are technically not part of the verb;
they are, indeed, adverbs. However, a so-called negative adverb
creates a negative meaning in a sentence without the use of the usual
no/not/neither/nor/never constructions:
He seldom visits.
She hardly eats anything since the accident.
After her long and tedious lectures, rarely was anyone
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Quiz Time
1. My grandfather walks extremely slowly.
a) Modifies a verb
b) Modifies an adverb

Modifies a noun

2. Your roommate is quite shy, isn't she?

a) Modifies a verb
b) Modifies an adjective

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Modifies an adverb

Wrong, try again!

Very good!!

3. We rarely go to the movies on the weekends.

a) Modifies an adverb
b) Modifies a pronoun

Modifies a verb

4. Our house is practically on the highway.

a) Modifies sentence
b) Modifies prepositional phrase

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Modifies a verb

Wrong, try again!

Very good!!

5. We rarely go to the movies on the weekends.

a) adjective
b) adverb

6. Our house is practically on the highway.

a) adjective
b) adverb

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Wrong, try again!

Very good!!

7. We rarely go to the movies on the weekends.

a) preposition
b) adverb

8. Our house is practically on the highway.

a) often friends and I
b) friends and I often

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friends often and I

Wrong, try again!

Very good!!

9. ..bake a batch of cookies.

a) Later, we will

Wrong, try again!

b) We later will

We will later

10. Please..so that we can go shopping.

a) Finish your homework quickly
b) Finish your quickly homework

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Your quickly finish homework

Very good!!


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