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I.

SUBJECT & VERB AGREEMENT


Please remember that subject and verb in a sentence must
agree with each other.
Example:
The

elevator works very well. (singular)

The

elevators work very well. (plural)

1. Subject separated from the verb:


- In English, subject and verb are often separated from each
other. English learners have a bit difficulty to decide exactly
how they are agreed in person and number.
Example:
The boys in the room (is or are) watching TV

- Very often, if the subject and verb are separated, they will be
separated by a prepositional phrase. The prepositional phrase
had no effect on the verb.
Subject + [prepostional phrase] + verb
More Examples:
Several

theories on this subject have been proposed.

The

study of languages is very interesting.

The

view of these disciplines varies from time to time.

The

danger of forest fires is not to be taken lightly.

- The following expressions also have no effect


on the verb:
together with along with
accompanied by as well as
Example:
The actress, along with her manager and
some friends, is going to a party tonight.
Mr. Robbins, accompanied by his wife and
children, is arriving tonight.

2. Words that always take singular verbs and pronouns:

Some words are often confused by English learners as being plural.


The following words must be followed by singular verbs and
pronouns in formal written English.

any + singular noun

no + singular noun

some + singular noun

anybody

nobody

Somebody

anyone

noone

Someone

anything

nothing

Something

every + singular noun

each + singular noun

everybody

Each person

everyone

*either

everything

*neither

* Either and Neither are singular if they are not used with or and nor.
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Examples:
- Everybody who has not purchased a ticket should be in this
line.
- Something is under the table.
- If either of you takes a vacation now, we will not be able to
finish the project.
- Anybody who has lost his ticket should report to the desk.
- No problem is harder to solve than this one.
- Nobody works harder than him.

Either / Neither:
When either and neither are followed by or and nor, the
verb may be singular or plural, depending on whether the
noun following or and nor is singular or plural. Let's check
out the following formulas.
neither/either + noun + nor / or + plural noun + plural
verb
Example:
Neither Bob nor his friends are going to the beach today.
Either Bob or his friends are going to the beach today.
neither/either + noun + nor/or + singular noun +
singular verb
Example:
Neither John nor Bill is going to the beach today.
Either John or Bill is going to the beach today.

3. None / No:
3.1. None can take either singular or plural verb, depending on the noun
which follows it.
none + of the + non-count noun + singular verb
Example:
None of the counterfeit money has been found.
none + of the + plural count noun + plural verb
Example:
None of the students have finished the exam yet.
3.2. No can take either a singular or plural verb depending on the noun
which follows it.
no + singular / non count noun + singular verb
Example:
No ticket is required.
no + plural noun + plural verb
Example:
No tickets are required.
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4. Gerunds As Subjects:
If a sentence begins with {verb+ing} (gerund), the verb
must be a singular. Let's study the following examples.
Example:
- Working for him is the best choice I've made.
- Going out at night doesn't seems interesting to me.
- Not studying has cause him many problems.

5. Collective Nouns
- Many words indicating a number of people or animals are singular. The following
nouns are usually singular. In some cases they are plural if sentence indicates
that the individual members are acting separately.

congress

family

group

committee

class

organization

team

army

club

crowd

government

jury

majority*

Minority

public

* majority can be singular or plural. If it is alone it is usually singular; if it is followed


by plural noun, it is usually plural.
The majority believes that we are in no danger.
The majority of the students believe him to be innocent.
Examples of collective nouns:
- The committee has met, and it has rejected the proposal.
- The family was elated by the news.
- The crowd was wild with excitement.
- Congress has initiated a new plan to combat inflation.
- The organization has lost many members this years.
- Our team is going to win the game.

flock of birds, sheep

school of fish

herd of cattle

pride of lions

pack of dogs
Examples:
+ The flock of birds is circlling overhead.
+ The herd of cattle is breaking away.
+ A school of fish is being attacked by sharks.

6. A Number Of / The Number Of :


A number of + plural noun + plural verb.....: mt s
The number of + plural noun + singular verb....: s
Example:
- A number of students are going to the class picnic. (a number
of = many)
- The number of the days in a week is seven.
- A number of the applicants have already been interviewed.
- The number of residents who have been questioned on this
matter is quite small.

7. Nouns are that always plural:


The following nouns are always considered plural. They can not be
singular. In order to speak of them as singular, we must say "a pair of
eyeglasses".
scissors

shorts

pants

jeans

trousers

eyeglasses

pliers

tweezers

tongs

Let's study the following examples:


- The pants are in the drawer.
- A pair of pants is in the drawer.
- The pliers were on the table.
- The pair of pliers was on the table.
- These scissors are dull.
- This pair of scissors is dull.
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Lu :
DANH T C (S) NHNG DNG S T:
- Nhm Mn hc: physics (vt
l ),mathematics (ton)....
- Nhm Bnh tt: Measles (si), mumps (quai
b ).
Nhm Tn nc : The United States (Nc M),
the Philipines,
- Ch NEWS: tin tc

Exercise: Choose the correct form of the verb in the following


sentences.
1. Neither Bill nor Mary (is / are) going to the play tonight.
2. Anything (is / are) better than going to another movie tonight.
3. Skating (is / are) becoming more popular every day.
4. A number of reporters (was / were) at the conference yesterday.
5. Anybody who (has / have) a fever must go home immediately.
6. Your glasses (was / were) on the bureau last night.
7. There (was / were) some people at the meeting last night.
8. The committee (has / have) already reached a decision.
9. A pair of jeans (was / were) in the washing machine this morning.
10. Each student (has / have) answered the first three questions.

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11. Either John or his wife (make, makes) breakfast each morning.
12. After she had perused the material, the secretary decided that
everything (was / were) in order.
13. The crowd at the basketball game (was / were) wild with
excitement.
14. A pack of wild dogs (has / have) frightened all the ducks away.
15. The jury (is / are) trying to reach a decision.
16. The army (has / have) eliminated this section of the training test.
17. The number of students who have withdrawn from class this quarter
(is / are) appalling.
18. There (has / have) been too many interruptions in this class.
19. Every elementary school teacher (has / have) to take this
examination.
20. Neither Jill nor her parents (has / have) seen this movie before.

1. C th xy ra ( hin ti)
Mt ng c vin tng thng ni rng: Nu ti tr thnh
tng thng, ti s b nhim anh lm th k.
2. Gi nh, khng c tht, khng th xy ra ( hin ti)
Mt ngi khng ra ng c tng thng ni rng:
Nu ti tr thnh tng thng, ti s b nhim anh lm th k.
3. Khng xy ra, gi nh trong qu kh
Mt ngi ng c tng thng nhng khng trng c ni
rng:
Nu ti tr thnh tng thng vo nm ngoi th ti b
nhim anh lm th k.

I. FIRST CONDITIONALS
A. Form
We use the present simple tense in the if
clause and the future with will in the main
clause. We usually use a comma (,) when the if
clause is first, but not when the main clause is first.
If she eats all that ice cream, she will feel terrible.
If I have time, Ill phone you later.
Youll be hungry if you dont have some dinner.
They wont arrive on time if they miss the bus.
Note: We do not use will in the if clause.
If it rains, well go to the cinema.
NOT If it will rain, well go to the cinema.
.

B. Use
First conditionals predict the results of a real
or probable action or event.
If you get up late, youll miss the
appointment.
(There is a real chance that youll get up
late.)
We wont go if it rains.
(There is a real chance that it will rain.)

II. SECOND CONDITIONALS


A. Form
- We use the past simple form in the if clause and
would + infinitive without to in the main clause.
- We usually use a comma (,) when the if clause is first,
but not when the main clause is first.
If I had enough money, I would buy that house.
If you didnt eat so much, youd lose weight.
Hed feel better if he didnt smoke so much.
They wouldnt play tennis if it was raining.
Note: We do not use would in the if clause.
If I had enough money
NOT If I would have enough money

B. Use
Second conditionals describe unreal, unlikely, or
imaginary situations.
If we had more money, wed travel business class.
What would you do if you saw a ghost?

III. THIRD CONDITIONALS


A. Form
We use the past perfect (continuous) form in the
if clause and would have + past participle in the
main clause.
We usually use a comma (,) when the if clause is
first, but not when the main clause is first.
If you hadnt studied so hard, you would have
failed.
I would have passed if Id worked harder.
They wouldnt have come if they hadnt wanted
to see you.

B. Use
- We use third conditionals to describe something that
didnt happen, an imaginary situation in the past.
If I had worked harder I would have passed the exam.
(I didnt work hard, and I didnt pass the exam.)
You wouldnt have crashed if you hadnt been driving
so fast.
(You were driving too fast, and you crashed.)

- Without using if
Had I worked harder I would have passed the exam.
Had you not been driving so fast, You wouldnt have
crashed.

1. If they had left the house earlier, they _______ (be; negative) so late
getting to the airport that they could not check their baggage
2. If I finish the dress before Friday, I --- (give) it to my sister for her
birthday.
3. If I had seen the movie. I _______ (tell) you about it last night.
4. Had Bob not interfered in his sister`s marital problems, there
(be) peace between them.
5. He would give you the money if he _____ (have) it.
6. She would call you immediately if she _____ (need) help.
7. Had they arrived at the sale early, they ______ (find) a better
selection.
8. If you have enough time, please ___(paint) the chair before you
leave.
9. We could go for a drive if today _______ (be) Saturday.
10. If she wins the prize, it will be because she ______ (write) very well. .
11. I (accept) if they invite me to the party.
12. If your mother ________(buy) that car for you, will you be happy?
13. If he _____(decide) earlier, he could have left on the afternoon flight.
14. Had we known your address, we _______ (write) you a letter.
15. If the roofer doesn`t come soon, the rain _______ (leak) inside.
16. My dog always wakes me up if he ______ (hear) strange noises.
17. If you _______ (see) Mary today, please ask her to call me.
18. If he ______ (get) the raise, it will be because he does a good job.
19. The teacher will not accept our work if we ______ (turn) it in late.
20. If he had left already, he ______ (call) us.
21. If they had known him, they ______ (talk) to him.
22. He would understand it if you ______ (explain) it to him more slowly.
23. I could understand the French teacher if she ___(speak) more slowly.

c lt qua cc cu hi trc.
Khi c bi c, lu n cc ni dung lin
quan n cu hi.
c lt, b qua nhng t vng khng bit, c
th on ngha.
Tr li cc cu hi.

Thng tin tha (redundancy)


Khng dng song song c 2 t di y trong cng mt cu:
advance forward
proceed forward
progress forward
return back
revert back

C 3 t advance, proceed, progress u c ngha tin ln, tin v pha trc: "to
move in a forward direction". V vy forward l tha.
C 2 t return, revert u c ngha: "to go back, to send back". V vy back l
tha.

sufficient enought

Hai t ny ngha nh nhau

compete together

compete = ua tranh, cnh tranh vi nhau "to take part in a contest against
others"

reason... because

Hai t ny c ngha nh nhau. Mu ng phi l "reason... that"

join together

join c ngha "to bring together", "to put together", "to become a part or a
member of..."

repeat again

repeat c ngha "to say again"

new innovation

innovation c ngha l mt tng mi "a new idea"

matinee performance

matinee = bui biu din chiu

same identical

hai t ny ngha ging nhau

two twins

twins = two brothers or sisters

the time / when

Hai t ny ngha ging nhau

the place / where

Hai t ny ngha ging nhau

Khi thng tin trong cu b lp i lp li khng cn thit


th n b gi l thng tin tha, cn phi loi b phn
tha .
V d: Ngi Anh khng dng the time when m ch
dng mt trong hai.
It is (the time/ when) I got home.
Ngi Anh khng dng the place where m ch dng
mt trong hai.
It is (the place/ where) I was born.

Cu trc song song trong cu


Khi thng tin trong mt cu c a ra di dng lit k th cc
thnh phn c lit k phi tng ng vi nhau v mt t loi
(noun - noun, adjective - adjective, ...). V d:
SAI

NG

Mr. Henry is a lawyer, a politician,


and he teaches.

Mr. Henry is a lawyer, a politician, and a


teacher.

Peter is rich, handsome, and many


people like him.

Peter is rich, handsome, and popular.

The cat approached the mouse


slowly and silent.

The cat approached the mouse slowly and


silently.

She like to fish, swim and surfing.

She like to fish, to swim and to surf.


She like fishing, swimming and surfing.

When teenagers finish highschool,


they have several choices: going to
college, getting a job, or the army.

When teenagers finish highschool, they


have several choices: going to college,
getting a job, or joining the army.

Tim entered the room, sat down, and


is opening his book.

Tim entered the room, sat down, and


opened his book.

Tuy nhin nu thi gian trong cc mnh khc


nhau ca cu l khc nhau th ng t cng
phi tun theo qui lut thi gian. Lc cu trc
cu song song v thi ca cc ng t (nh v
d dng cui bng trn) khng c p dng.
V
d:
She is a senior, studies every day, and will
graduate a semester early.

Mt s ng ng t (phrasal verb) thng


gp
l nhng ng t kt hp vi 1, 2 hoc i khi 3
gii t, khi kt hp dng nh vy ng ngha ca
chng
thay
i
soon
vituyt.
ngha ban u.
To
break off:
chm
dt,hn
ct t,
To bring up: nu ra, a ln mt vn
To call on: yu cu / n thm
To care for: thch / trng nom, sn sc (look after)
To check out (of/from) a library: mn sch th vin v
To check out: iu tra, xem xt.
To check out (of): lm th tc ra (khch sn, sn bay) <> check in.
To check (up) on: iu tra, xem xt.
To close in (on): tin li gn, chy li gn
To come along with: i cng vi
To count on = depend on = rely on
To come down with: mc phi mt cn bnh
To do away with = get rid of: tng kh, loi b, tr kh
To daw up = to draft: son tho (mt k hoch, mt hp ng)
To drop out of = to withdraw from: b (c bit l b hc gia chng)

To figure out: Hnh dung ra c, hiu c.


To find out: khm ph ra, pht hin ra.
To get by: Ln hi qua ngy, sng st qua c
To get through with: kt thc
To get through to: thng tin c cho ai, gi c cho (in thoi), tm
cch lm cho hiu
To get up: dy/ t chc.
To give up: b, t b
To go along with: ng vi
To hold on to: vn gi vng, duy tr
To hold up: cp / vn gi vng, vn duy tr, vn sng bnh thng,
vn dng c (bt chp sc p bn ngoi hoc s dng lu)
To keep on doing smt: vn tip tc khng ngng lm g
To look after: trng nom, sn sc
To look into: iu tra, xem xt
To pass out = to faint: ngt (ni ng t, khng dng b ng)
To pick out: chn ra, la ra, nht ra
To point out: ch ra, vch ra

To figure out: Hnh dung ra c, hiu c.


To find out: khm ph ra, pht hin ra.
To get by: Ln hi qua ngy, sng st qua c
To get through with: kt thc
To get through to: thng tin c cho ai, gi c cho (in thoi), tm
cch lm cho hiu
To get up: dy/ t chc.
To give up: b, t b
To go along with: ng vi
To hold on to: vn gi vng, duy tr
To hold up: cp / vn gi vng, vn duy tr, vn sng bnh thng,
vn dng c (bt chp sc p bn ngoi hoc s dng lu)
To keep on doing smt: vn tip tc khng ngng lm g
To look after: trng nom, sn sc
To look into: iu tra, xem xt
To pass out = to faint: ngt (ni ng t, khng dng b ng)
To pick out: chn ra, la ra, nht ra
To point out: ch ra, vch ra

To put off: tr hon, nh hon


To run across: khm ph, pht hin ra (tnh c)
To run into sb: gp ai bt ng
To see about to: lo lng, sn sc, chy vy
To take off: ct cnh <> to land
To take over for: thay th cho
to talk over: bn son, tho lun v
to try out: th nghim, dng th (sn phm)
to try out for: th vai, th ging (1 v kch, bui biu din)
To turn in: giao np, trnh / i ng
To watch out for: cnh gic, mt, trng chng (c ngha en
ln ngha bng)

Cu hi ui l mt dng cu hi rt thng dng trong


ting Anh. Mc d cu tr li cho cu hi ui cng ging
nh cu tr li cho cu hi YES-NO, nhng cu hi ui c
sc thi ngha ring bit.

Cu hi ui c thnh lp sau mt cu ni khng nh


hoc ph nh, c ngn cch bng du phy (,) v vy
ngi t cu hi c thng tin v cu tr li. Tuy
nhin, thng th ngi hi khng chc chn lm v
thng tin ny.

Nu ngi hi chc chn, t tin rng mnh c thng tin


v cu tr li nhng vn hi th khi chm dt cu hi
ui, ngi hi s ln ging.

* Nguyn tc chung khi lp cu hi ui:


- Nu cu ni trc du phy l cu khng nh, cu
hi ui phi th ph nh.
- Nu cu ni trc du phy l cu ph nh, cu
hi ui phi th khng nh
Cu to ca cu hi ui:
- Cu hi ui gm mt tr ng t tng ng vi th
c dng trong cu ni trc du phy, c NOT
hoc khng c NOT v mt i t nhn xng tng
ng vi ch ng ca cu ni trc du phy.
TD: You are afraid, aren't you?

You didn't do your homework, did you?

Cch thnh lp cu hi ui cho cc th


1. Hin ti n vi TO BE:
- He is handsome, isn't he?
2. Hin ti n vi ng t thng: mn tr ng t
DO hoc DOES ty theo ch ng
- They like me, don't they?
- She loves you, doesn't she?
3. Th qu kh n vi ng t thng: mn tr ng
t DID, qu kh n vi TO BE: WAS hoc WERE
4. Th hin ti hon thnh hoc hin ti hon thnh
tip din: mn tr ng t HAVE hoc HAS
- They have left, haven't they?
- The rain has stopped, hasn't it?

Cch thnh lp cu hi ui cho cc th

5. Th qu kh hon thnh hoc qu kh hon


thnh tip din: mn tr ng t HAD:
- He hadn't met you before, had he?
6. Th tng lai n:
- It will rain, won't it?

* Nhng trng hp c bit cn lu


** HAD BETTER: thng c vit ngn gn thnh 'D
BETTER ch cn mn tr ng t HAD lp cu
hi ui.
TD: He'd better stay, hadn't he?
** WOULD RATHER: thng c vit gn l 'D
RATHER ch cn mn tr ng t WOULD lp
cu hi ui.
- TD: You'd rather go, wouldn't you?
** If the main clause is " I am" , tag question must be
"aren't I?
EX: I am coming here ,aren't I?
Vi I AM NOT, cu hi ui s l AM I nh quy tc.
+ I am not guilty, am i?

If the main clause have "let's",tag question


must be " shall we?"
TD: Let's go to the movies, shall we?
If the main clause is request, tag question
must be "will you?"
TD: Open the window, will you?
If the main clause is invation, tag question
must be "won't you?"
TD: Take your seat, won't you?
If the main clause have: "seldom, rarely,
hardly, no, without, never,..." , tag
question must be affirmation.
TD: He never goes to school late, does he?

Trc nghim

Nhng li d mc trong ting Anh

'Everyday' l mt tinh t trong ting


Anh.

Trc nghim

cc t din t thng tin tri ngc

Trc nghim v nhng t d nhm ln

Trc nghim

Mu cu thch hp khi vit th

Trc nghim

Nguyn nhn v h qu