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NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASIS

OF BEHAVIOR
Chapter 2
Psy 1 General Psychology

Nervous System
Division of the Nervous System
Central Nervous System

Cerebrum
Cerebellum
Brainstem
Spinal Cord

Peripheral Nervous System


Somatic Nervous System
Spinal Nerves
Cranial Nerves

Autonomous Nervous System


Sympathetic
Parasympathetic

Brainstem
Medulla - lower part of the
brainstem, soft marrow like center of
an organ, myelencephalon
Pons bridge, connects nerves
between midbrain, medulla and
cerebrum, part of metencephalon
Midbrain - mesencephalon
Interbrain - telencephalon

Cerebellum

Little brain
Coordination
Movement
Balance

Cerebrum
Highest Center executive function
Sensation - function of the low-level biochemical
and neurological events that begin with the
impinging of a stimulus upon the receptor cells of a
sensory organ. It is the detection of the elementary
properties of a stimulus
Perception - is the mental process or state that is
reflected representing awareness or understanding
of the real-world cause of the sensory input. The
goal of sensation is detection, the goal of
perception is to create useful information of the
surroundings.

Cerebrum
Cognition - is a faculty for the
processing of information, applying
knowledge, and changing preferences
Emotions - is the generic term for
subjective, conscious experience that is
characterized primarily by
psychophysiological expressions,
biological reactions, and mental states

Structure of the Brain


Gyrus ridges of the cerebral cortex
Sulcus crevice or a groove on the surface of
the brain
Fissure deeper crevice or groove that usually
serves as a natural division
Lobes a clear anatomical division of an organ
Nuclei group or cluster of neurons
White matter represented by presence of
myelin
Gray matter there is absence of myelin

Peripheral Nervous System


Divided into
Somatic Nervous system
Voluntary characteristic
Innervates skeletal muscles

Autonomic Nervous system


Involuntary characteristics
sympathetic and parasympathetic
Innervates visceral and internal organs

Somatic Nervous System


Spinal nerves nerves that comes from the spinal
cord and goes out of the spinal vertebrae
Divided into different segments of the spinal vertebral
column (31 pairs)
Functions as motor and sensory fibers or both (mixed)

Cranial nerves nerves that usually originates


from the brain stem and comes out of the cranium
Classified according to their functions or innervations
Functions as motor and sensory fibers or both (mixed)
There are 12 pairs

Autonomic nervous system


These are nerve fibers that originates
from either or both the brain and
spinal cord and travels outside of the
spinal vertebrae towards their target
organs
Examples of the target organs are
the adrenal glands and thyroid
glands and soft tissues or smooth
muscles

Neuron
The smallest anatomical functioning unit of the
nervous system
Parts of the neurons
Dendrites branched projection of a neuron that
received stimulation from others
Axon long slender projection that transmit impulse
away
Soma body of the neuron containing most
organelles
Synaptic cleft - the space between neurons at a
nerve synapse across which a nerve impulse is
transmitted by a neurotransmitter

Nerve Impulse Transmission


Polarization process of changing polarity
Depolarization changing previous polarized
state
Repolarization returning to previous polarized
state

Endocrine System
Endocrine glands glands without ducts
Pituitary gland master gland (Hypophysis)
Adenohypophysis - anterior
Neurohypohysis - posterior

Pineal gland responsible for wake/sleep


pattern
Thyroid gland bodily metabolism
Adrenal glands stress response
Pancreas (Islet of Langerhans) - insulin
production

Gene and Behavior