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Output equation
Pa = E Ia x 10 -3 = (p/A)(ZN/60) Iz A 10 -3
= {2 Bave ac x10-3 } D2 L n = Co D2 L n
Where, Co = output coefficient
Generator: Pa = (P/) (FW & Iron losses) ;

Pa = P + (FW & Iron losses)

For large machines : FW & Iron losses are neglected i.e.,

Pa = P/ (Generator)
= P (Motor)
For small machines : FW & Iron losses can be taken as 1/3 rd of the total losses. So,
Pa = (P/) (1/3) P (1-)/ = P(2+ )/(3 ) (Generator)
= P + (1/3) P (1-)/ = P(1+2)/(3 ) (Motor)

Choice of specific magnetic loading (Bave)

B max in the iron part of the magnetic circuit:

B max maximum allowable density i.e.,
Bt = Bave Ys /wt (non-salient pole machines);
Ys = slot-pitch and wt = tooth width &
Bt = (Bave /)Ys /wt (salient pole machines)
Where, = pole arc /pole-pitch ratio.
If Ys =2 wt and = 0.667 , then
Bt = 3 Bave : For example, if Bt is to be limited to 2.2 Wb/m2 ,
Bave should excced 2.2/3 = 0.73 Wb/m2.
Magnetizing current:
large Bave high magnetizing current large core loss

Choice of specific electric loading (ac)

i) Temperature rise()
depends on Q (losses),which in turn depends on ac. Allowable depends on insulating material used.
ii) Cooling coefficient (C)
is also proportional to the cooling coefficient;
a machine with a better ventilation has a lower C and then higher ac can be used.
iii) Operating voltage (V)
In high voltage machines, the slot space factor, Sf is less and so only smaller ac can be used. It also
depends on the shape of the conductors, circular or rectangular in cross section.
iv) Current Density ()
choice of depends on cooling; higher C higher value in the choice of ac.

Constraints in the design of DC machines

i) Peripheral speed, v 45 m/s

ii) Frequency of flux reversal, f 50 Hz
iii) Current per brush arm 400 A
iv) Armature MMF per pole 7000 A
)The MMF required for the airgap = 50% of the armature MMF and
gap contraction factor = 1.1.
)The current per brush arm (Ib) = 2Ia/p , A
)For square poles: L = D/p
In the design process, choose p based on f& Ib and then calculate D and L

Losses and efficiency in DC machines

1. I2R losses : copper loss in

i) armature
ii) Field
iii) Inter pole winding

Rotational losses :
i) Friction &windage
ii)Iron loss
a) Hysterises =Kh Bm^1.6 f
b) Eddy current loss =Ke Bm^2 f^2t^2

For the calculation of copper losses , the total length and area cross section of each
of the windings should be first calculated.