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THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

Evy Sulistyoningrum
Histology Department
Medical Faculty of UNSOED

Outlines

Introduction
Hypophysis
Adrenal glands
Thyroid
Parathyroid
Pancreas
Pineal gland

The Endocrine System


Function: synthesis and secretion of
hormones
Coordinate with nervous system
Integrate functions of physiologic
systems
Endocrine system: a system composed
of specialized glands and group of cells
which secretes hormones

Regulatory system
Nervous system
Neurotransmitters
Direct
communication
via synapsis
Brief response
Transient effect

Endocrine system
Hormones
Indirect
communication via
bloodstream
Longer response
Long lasting effect

Means of cell signaling

Endocrine Glands
Structure
Ductless x Exocrine
Ectodermal or endodermal origin
Hormones secreted directly into the
vascular system (circulation)
Glands often have special
microcirculation
Secretions absorbed from interstitium
into blood
Target cell express proper receptor

Endocrine vs Exocrine
Gland

ENDOCRINE GLANDS
HYPOTHALAMUS
GLAND

PARATHYROID

HYPOPHYSIS (PITUITARY) SUPRARENAL


(ADRENAL)
PINEAL GLAND
PANCREAS
(EPIPHYSIS CEREBRI)
THYROID GLAND

Other non-specific
endocrine glands

Stomach
Heart
Kidney
Thymus
Gonads

DNES (diffuse neuro-endocrine


system)

Hypothalamus
Control Center for internal
environment
Acts via 3 mechanisms:
1. ANS centers exert nervous control on
adrenal medulla
2. ADH and oxytocin production (direct
acting)
3. Regulatory hormone production (RH
and IH) controls pituitary gland directly
and all other endocrine glands
indirectly

Hypothalamus
Consists of neurons arranged into nuclei
Neurons secrets many hormones in
neurosecretoric vesicles
Neurosecretoric vesicles are transported
via axon to:
Hypothalamohypophyseal tract
released absorbed by capilarries
transported into hypophysis (IH or RH)
Pass hypothalamohypophyseal tract
Neurohypophysis released (ADH &
oxytocin)

Hypothalamic
hormones/factors

TRH
CRH
SRH
GnRH
PRH
PIF

ADH
Oxytocin

The Pituitary
Hypophyses
Location: sella tursica
Was known as the major regulation of
other endocrine tissues (The Master
Gland)
Thyroid
Adrenal gland
Gonads
Others
2 Major area: (embryological based)
Adenohypophysis (oral ectoderm)
Neurohypophysis (neural
ectoderm)

Embryology of hypophysis

Hypophysis
Lobus
Pars distalis Anterior
Pars tuberalis
Pars intermedia

Adenohipofisis

Lobus
Poster
Neurohipofisis Pars nervosa ior
Infundibulum
Eminentia mediana

Hypophysi
s

Zona
Intermedia

Hipofisis anterior/Adenohipofisis

Hipofisis
posterior/Neurohipofisis

Hipofisis
anterior/Adenohipofisis

Hipofisis
posterior/Neurohipofisis

Zona Intermedia

Adenohypophysis
Pars distalis
Pars intermedia
Pars tuberalis

Adenohypophysis: pars
distalis
Fibrous capsule
Parenchymal cells : epithelial gland
cells formed as chord
Sinusoidal capillaries +++
Fenestrated endothelial lining

Connective tissues with reticular


fibers

Cells
Cell types (based on dyes affinity)
Chromophils
Acidophils (>>>)
Basophils
Chromophobes
Small cell with very little
cytoplasm dont take up stain
well, not produce any hormone
Undifferentiated stem cell
Degranulated chromophils
Phagocytic cell

Adenohypophysis: pars
distalis

Adenohypophysis: pars
distalis

Azan, A: Acidophil, B: basophil, C: chromophob

Adenohypophysis: pars
distalis
Cells (based on secretory granules
within)
Acidophils
Somatotrophs
GH (somatotropin)
Secretory granules: 300 nm in diameter
Centrally placed nucleus
Mitochondria, Golgi, RER >>
Mammotrophs
Prolactin
Secretory granules: 600-900 nm in

Cells (based on secretory


granules within)
Basophils
Corticotrophs
ACTH
Secretory granules 200-500 nm in diameter
Round to ovoid cells, eccentric nucleus

Thyrotrophs
TSH
Secretory granules 60-160 nm in diameter

Gonadotrophs
FSH & LH

Cellls of adenohypophisis

Adenohypophysis : Pars
intermedia
Between pars distalis
and pars nervosa
Cuboidal cells
Rathkes cysts (colloid
containing cysts)
Zona intermedia (in
human)
Basophilic cells
Produce POMC
MSH
Corticotropin
-Lipotropin
-Endorphin

Pars Intermedia
Epithelial origin
Contains cells
similar to
corticotrophs
(basophillic cells)
Not well defined in
the human
Often has cystic
structures contain
colloid

Adenohypophysis
Pars tuberalis
Surrounds
hypophyseal stalk
Highly vascularized
Cuboidal or lowcolumnar basophilic
cells
Small dense
granules
Colloid droplet
Glycogen
No spesific hormones

ADENOHYPOPHYS
IS
TROPHIC HORMONES

HORMONES ACTING DIRECTLY

(TROPHINS)

ON PERIPHERAL TISSUES

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

Growth Hormone

(GH)/Somatostrophin)
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

Prolactin (Luteotrophi

Hormone/LTH)
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

PARS INTERMEDIA*)
(MSH)

Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone

Neurohypophysis
Posterior pituitary
Down-growth of hypothalamus
Hypothalamohypophyseal
tract
Axons of neurosecretory
cells extend into the
posterior hypophysis
Neurosecretory cells:
paraventricular & supraoptical
nuclei
Direct acting hormone: ADH,

Neurohypophysis
Non-myelinated nerve fibers (axons) from
neurosecretory cells in hypothalamus
Distentions of axon containing neurosecretory
granules: Herring bodies
Capillaries
Supportive cells: pituicytes (neuroglial cells)
lipid droplet, lipochrome pigment, intermediate
filaments
Cytoplasmic processes
25% volume
Basophillic invasion

Neurohypophysis

Herrings
body

1 = neuron fibers
2 = pituicytes
3 = herrings body

NEUROHYPOPHYSIS
SUPRAOPTIC
NUCLEUS
(SON)

Blood
circulation

ADH
ADH/
OXY
NEUROHYPOPHYSIS
(sinusoids)

NEURO
SECRETORY
CELLS
(hypothalamus)
PARAVENTRICULAR
NUCLEUS (PVN)
(ADH: antidiuretic
hormone/vasopressin)

OXYTOCIN

VASOPRESSIN (ADH)

SON
(OSMORECEPTOR)

COLLECTING TUBULES
INCREASED OSMOTIC PRESSURE
OF THE BLOOD (Haemoconcentration)
INCREASED REABSORPTION
OF WATER
STRENOUS WORK

1.

CONCENTRATED URINE
(retain water:haemodilution)
RF/IF

(in a hot environment)


2. HYPOTHALAMUS
(RF/IF)

ADENOHYPOPHYSIS
(cords/clumps of endocrine cells)
Hypothalamohypophyseal
portal system
Trophic hormone
(Trophin)
TARGET GLAND
TARGET CELLS/TISSUES

HORMONE

THE TYROID GLAND

LOCATION
ANTERIOR AND LATERAL TO THE TRACHEA AND
LARYNX
BUTTERFLY-SHAPED
2 LATERAL LOBES
ISTHMUS
OUTER CAPSULE (dense connective tissue)
LOBULES
(Contain: numerous follicles,
lined by a simple cuboidal epithelium
THYROID HORMONE (THYROXIN)
BOUND TO TRACHEA BY PRETRACHEAL FASCIA
MOVES WITH LARYNX (when swallowing)

Thyroid glands
Stores large amount of
hormone
Functional unit : the
follicle
simple cuboidal
epithelium
Contain colloid
inactive hormone
bound to a
glycoprotein
(thyroglobulin)

Thyroid

Follicular cells
Endodermal origin
Squamous to columnar cell (Height of
cells proportional to activity)
Round to ovoid nucleus
Short villi projecs to lumen
Basophilic cytoplasm
RER
Apical lysosomes
Mitochondria
Pre-hormone storage as extracellular
fluid in lumen (colloid)

Thyroid follicular cells

inactive

active

Parafollicular cell
C cell
Between follicular
cells
Clear cytoplasm
clear cell
Contain small
secretoric
granules
Produce calcitonin
blood calcium
homeostasis (with
Parathormone)

THYROID GLAND
THYROID GLAND1
2. para(T3)
follic. cell

1. follicular Cell

THYROXIN (T4)

TRIIODOTHYRONINE

HYPERTHYROIDISM OVERPRODUCTION OF
OF THYROXIN
Metabolic rate increase
2. THYROCALCITONINE
(CALCITONINE)
(nervous, weight loss, tremor,
tachycardia, active,
intolerance to heat, sweating easily)
CONTROLLED BY
HYPOTHYROIDISM INSUFFICIENT AMOUNT
SERUM CALCIUM LEVEL
OF THYROXIN
Metabolic rate decrease
(sluggish, long sleeping-16 hr/day, body weight
increase, falling hair, scaly skin, decreased heat
production and sensitivity to cold, myxedema)

PARATHYROID GLAND
Endodermal origin
2 superior + 2 inferior, at the
posterior aspect of thyroid gland
Separated by connective tissue
with the thytoid gland
5 mm in length, 4 mm wide, 2
mm thickness
Fibrous capsule extended into
septa
Clusters of epithelial cells : chief
cells & oxyphil cells
Supported by reticular fiber

Parathyroid gland

Parathyroid
Chief cells

Major functional cell


Secrete PTH
5-8 m in diameter
Small round nuclei
Variably eosinophilic cytoplasm
Secretory granules 200 to 400 nm in
diameter

Oxyphil cells
Larger cell
More lightly eosinophilic cells
Unknown function

Parathyroid

Parathyroid

Parathyroid
Function
Together with calcitonin
regulate calcium and phosphorus
levels
Primarily responds to decreased
calcium in order to raised blood
calcium level
Increase absorption of calcium
from intestine
bone demineralization
Reduce calcium excretion from

Adrenal Gland
Located above kidney suprarenal
gland
Functionally divided into 2 regions
Cortex steroid hormones
Mineralocorticoids
Glucocorticoids
Sex hormones
Medulla neuroendocrine
Epinephrine
Norepinephrine
Regulation
Cortex pituitary (ACTH), Kidney

Adrenal Gland
Enveloped by capsule
Cortex
Mesodermal origin
Functional and
structural zones
Glomerulosa
Fasciculata
Reticularis
Medulla
Neural crest origin
No separate zones

Adrenal gland

1. Capsula
2. Zona
glomerulos
a
3. Zona
fasciculata
4. Zona
reticularis
5. Medulla
6. Medullary
vein

Adrenal gland

Cortex
Capsula
Glomerulosa
Fasci
culat
a

Medulla
Reticularis

Glomerulosa
Outermost
13-15% total volume
Irregular clusters of
small collumnar cell
Little glomeruli
Surrounded by
capillary
Acidophillic
cytoplasm, SER >>,
mitochondria >>
Secrete
mineralocorticoids,
mainly Aldosterone

Glomerulosa

Fasciculata
Middle zone
Largest zone (80%)
Cords of cells
arranged in radial
coloumn (fasciculus)
Polyhedral cells
Rich in lipid
vacuolated
(spongiocytes)
Sinusoidal capllaries
Secrete
glucocorticoids,
mainly cortisol &

Fasciculata

Reticularis
Innermost
Thinnest layer (7%)
Small cells in
branching cords make
reticulum
Small dark
eosinophillic cells
Often has significant
amount of
hemosiderin/lipofuchs
in granules
Secretes androgenic

Reticularis

Medulla
Supported by a
highly vascular
stroma
Cells:
Sympathetic
ganglion cells
Chromaffin or
phaeochrome
cells

Chromaffins of the medulla


Large epitheloid
cells
Granules
Synthesize and
store
catecholamines
Adrenalin
Noradrenalin
Also secrete
enchephalins
pain control
Controlled by
sympathetic

H&E stain

Chrome salt fixation

SUPRARENAL (ADRENAL)
GLAND

CONSISTS OF

(1) CORTEX

GLUCOCORTICOID:
cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone
MINERALOCORTICOID

ACTH

ADENOHYPOPHYSIS

SUPRARENAL GLAND

(CRF)

HYPOTHALAMUS

STRESS

GLUCOCORTICOID
sympathetic nerve

(2) MEDULLA

(CRF: corticotrophic
releasing factor)

EPINEPHRINE/
NOREPINEPHRINE

BRAINSTEM
FIGHT/FLIGHT

Pancreas
Exocrine & endocrine gland
25 cm long, 5 cm wide, 1-2 cm
thick
Surrounded by fibrous capsule
that form septa
Septa subdivided glands into
lobules
Exocrine : pancreatic acini
Endocrine: islets of

Pancreas

Endocrine Pancreas
Cells form clusters:
pancreatic islets, or islets of
Langerhans
4 Types of Cells in Pancreatic Islets
Alpha cells: produce glucagon, increase
blood glucose level
Beta cells: secrete insulin, antagonist of
glucagon
Delta cells: produce peptide hormone
identical to GH-IH (somatostatin) &
gastrin
F cells: secrete pancreatic polypeptide

Endocrine Pancreas

Islets cells
cell
70%, scattered but concentrated
in the center of islet
Granules :300 nm in diameter

cell
20%, islet periphery
Granules : 250 nm in diameter

cell
1 %, scattered
Granules : 350 nm in diameter

Insulin (Beta cells)

Glucagon (alpha cells)

PANCREAS
PANCREAS
EXOCRINE GLAND DIGESTIVE ENZYMES
ENDOCRINE GLAND
ALPHA CELL
GLUCAGON
(ISLETS OF
GLUCOSE
LANGERHANS BETA CELL
INSULIN
GLUCOSE

* somatostatin
F cell : secretes pancreatic polypeptide (regulates the
release of pancreatic digestive enzymes)

Pineal Gland

Epiphysis cerebri
Conical shape, 3-5 mm x
5-8 mm
Surrounded by piamater in
infiltrated to form septa
Function photoreceptor
organ
Secretes melatonin
Neuroendocrine
transducer
Regulates circadian
rhythms
Onset of puberty

Pineal gland

Pineal Gland/pineal body


Stromal tissue with
blood vessels
Cells
Pineal (chief) cells
Neurons
Modified
photoreceptors
Contain melatonin
and serotonin
Neuroglial
cells/interstitial cells
Pineal sand
metaplastic calcification

Epiphysis cerebri

Epiphysis cerebri

MOOD
PINEAL GLAND
SEROTONIN
PINEALOCYTES
&
(EPIPHYSIS CEREBRI)
MELATONIN
CIRCADIAN RHYTHM
&

Thank you..

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