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ARTIFICIAL
INTELLIGENCE

Introduction &
Review at Glance

What is AI? Views of AI fall into four categories: Thinking humanly Acting humanly Thinking rationally Acting rationally The textbook advocates "acting rationally"   .

learning  Predicted that by 2000.Acting humanly: Turing Test  Turing (1950) "Computing machinery and intelligence":  "Can machines think?"  "Can machines behave intelligently?"  Operational test for intelligent behavior: the Imitation Game  Anticipated all major arguments against AI in following 50 years  Suggested major components of AI: knowledge. language understanding. a machine might have a 30% chance of fooling a lay person for 5 minutes . reasoning.

Cognitive Science and Cognitive Neuroscience)  are now distinct from AI .How to validate? Requires 1) Predicting and testing behavior of human subjects (top-down) or 2) Direct identification from neurological data (bottom-up)  Both approaches (roughly.Thinking humanly: cognitive modeling  1960s "cognitive revolution": information-processing psychology  Requires scientific theories of internal activities of the brain  -.

Thinking rationally: "laws of thought" Aristotle: what are correct arguments/thought processes?  Several Greek schools developed various forms of logic: notation and rules of derivation for thoughts. may or may not have proceeded to the idea of mechanization  Direct line through mathematics and philosophy to modern AI  Problems: 1. What is the purpose of thinking? What thoughts should I have?  . Not all intelligent behavior is mediated by logical deliberation 2.

g. blinking reflex – but thinking should be in the service of rational action .Acting rationally: rational agent  Rational behavior: doing the right thing  The right thing: that which is expected to maximize goal achievement. given the available information  Doesn't necessarily involve thinking – e..

Rational agents  An agent is an entity that perceives and acts  This course is about designing rational agents  Abstractly. we seek the agent (or class of agents) with the best performance  Caveat: computational limitations make perfect rationality unachievable  design best program for given machine resources   . an agent is a function from percept histories to actions: [f: P*  A]  For any given class of environments and tasks.

grammar . probability  Economics utility. decision theory  Neuroscience physical substrate for mental activity  Psychology phenomena of perception and motor control. computation. language. rationality  Mathematics Formal representation and proof algorithms. mind as physical system foundations of learning. (un)decidability.AI prehistory  Philosophy Logic. methods of reasoning. experimental techniques  Computer building fast computers engineering  Control theory design systems that maximize an objective function over time  Linguistics knowledge representation. (in)tractability.

Newell & Simon's Logic Theorist. no hands! Early AI programs. including Samuel's checkers program.Abridged history of AI      1943 1950 1956 1952—69 1950s  1965  1966—73      1969—79 1980-1986-1987-1995-- McCulloch & Pitts: Boolean circuit model of brain Turing's "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" Dartmouth meeting: "Artificial Intelligence" adopted Look. Ma. Gelernter's Geometry Engine Robinson's complete algorithm for logical reasoning AI discovers computational complexity Neural network research almost disappears Early development of knowledge-based systems AI becomes an industry Neural networks return to popularity AI becomes a science The emergence of intelligent agents .

000 vehicles. cargo.State of the art  Deep Blue defeated the reigning world chess champion Garry      Kasparov in 1997 Proved a mathematical conjecture (Robbins conjecture) unsolved for decades No hands across America (driving autonomously 98% of the time from Pittsburgh to San Diego) During the 1991 Gulf War. and people NASA's on-board autonomous planning program controlled the scheduling of operations for a spacecraft Proverb solves crossword puzzles better than most humans . US forces deployed an AI logistics planning and scheduling program that involved up to 50.

 merupakan salah satu bidang dari ilmu komputer yang membahas tentang kemungkinan komputer untuk dapat berlaku secara intelligen seperti halnya manusia . biologi. psikologi. matematika dan teknik. ilmu bahasa.Artificial Intelligence (AI) atau kecerdasan buatan adalah:  suatu ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi yang berdasarkan pada disiplin ilmu seperti ilmu komputer.

berjalan. mendengar. berbicara. belajar dan memecahkan masalah. menarik kesimpulan. dan merasakan  pengembangan fungsi normal komputer yang digabungkan dengan kecerdasan manusia.Tujuan AI  menciptakan komputer-komputer yang dapat berfikir (dan juga) dapat melihat. seperti memberi alasan. .

Apakah perkembangan komputer sejauh ini belum memperlihatkan prilaku intelijen tersebut ? ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… .

Teknik-teknik AI  Teknik-teknik AI terutama digunakan untuk mengatasi masalah yang bersifat non Algoritmik  Contoh teknik AI :  General Problem Solving  Fuzzy Logic  Neural Network  Neural Fuzzy  Genetic algorithm  ……… .

Beberapa bidang yang telah digarap AI :  Game Playing  Robotic  Natural Language Processing  Pattern (Vision/Speech )Recognition  Expert System  Proyek Penelitian di Jepang : Komputer Biologis .

……………………………………… …….Mungkinkah komputer dapat berpikir mandiri ? (Berpikir sebagai salah satu kriteria cerdas) ……………………………………….. ………………………………….. ..

Credit Card Purchase Approval One of the first successful applications of artificial intelligence in a business setting was the "Authorisor's Assistant. The system uses those rules and the unique profile that the user establishes by their pattern of purchases to ensure that the purchase is appropriate ." developed for American Express. The system allows the approval of most transactions without human intervention. Summarized in the system are a number of rules that relate to the approval of purchases.

and using AI in capital planning. using approaches such as neural networks. information about such systems is generally limited. and large sums of money. since disclosure of successful approaches could lead to the loss of competitive advantage. One activity that appears to be generating the greatest interest on Wall Street is that of data mining. . However.AI on Wall Street Perhaps the biggest return on AI is potentially on Wall Street. integrating AI into capital management. Substantial attention has been has been given to the development of automated trading systems.

Task Domains of Artificial Intelligence  Bidang lain yang berkaitan erat dengan bidang Artificial Intelligence  Filsafat. Psikologi. Bahasa. … .

Jantung riset modern di bidang pemrograman AI : Hipotesis Sistem Symbol  Newel dan Simon mengemukakan aktivitas/mesin cerdas (intelligence) dapat dicapai melalui : • Pola-pola simbol untuk merepresentasikan problem • Operasi-operasi untuk menghasilkan berbagai solusi Asumsi yang mungkin • Proses pencarian (searching) untuk memilih solusi terbaik Representasi Pengetahuan Searching .

Dasar Teknik Pemrograman AI:  Algoritma:  Searching:  Logika/Logika formal/predikat kalkulus  backtracking  Data:  Representasi Pengetahuan:  List/Graf  Database .

Bahasa Pemrograman AI:  Prolog  Lisp  Shell C  C++ .

Aplikasi Artificial Intelligence (AI) A R T IF IC IA L IN T E L L IG E N C E A p lik a i Ilm u F a ls a f a h  S is te m P a k a r  S is te m B e rb a s is P e n g e ta h u a n  S is te m B e la ja r  s is te m L o g ic Fuzzy A p lik a s i Ilm u K o m p u te r  G en era si K e lim a K o m p u te r  P em ro se sa n P a ra rel  P em ro se sa n S im b o lik  J a rin g a n N eu ra l A p lik a s i R o b o tic s  P e rsep si V is u a l  P e ra b a a n  D e c te rity  P e n g a n g k u ta n  N a v ig a s i A p lik a s i B a h a s a A la m i  P B  P P  P B e n g e rtia n ahasa id a to engakuan e n te rje m a h a n ahasa .

kulit. dll) yang kemudian dikirim ke otak.Sistem Pemrosesan Informasi Manusia  Aliran proses informasi manusia dimulai dari ditangkapnya stimulus atau rangsangan dari lingkungan sekitar oleh indera kita (mata. Di dalam otak semua stimulus ini diproses yang kemudian menghasilkan berbagai keluaran seperti membuat keputusan. .

Sistem Pemrosesan Informasi pada Manusia S u b s is te m P e n y im p a n a n M em o ri Jangka P a n ja n g S u b s is te m P e ra sa S u b s is te m P e m ro s e s a n In f o rm a s i M a ta T e lin g a In d e ra P e ra s a L a in M em o ri Jan gka P endek C on d a P enga D a to h n ku an ta H a s il R e s p o n P e m b u a ta n K e p u tu s a n K e p u tu s a n D ib u a t P ro se s P e n y e s u a ia n T ugas D ija la n k a n P e m b a g ia n T u g a s H a s il F is ik .

Short Term Memory (STM) juga berhubungan dengan kemampuan kita untuk bekerja lebih dari satu tugas dalam satu waktu. Short Term Memory (STM) merupakan unit processor yang digunakan unutk mendukung proses input atau output. Chuck ini dapat berupa simbol seperti kata-kata. angka. .Short Term Memory (STM) atau Memori Jangka Pendek  Short Term Memory (STM) dapat menyimpan beberapa unit atau chuck informasi dalam beberapa detik. atau gambar.

akan tetapi membutuhkan waktu lebih lama untuk menyimpan atau mengingat informasi . Hanya dibutuhkan sepersekian detik untuk memanggil satu unit informasi dari Long Term Memory (LTM).Long Term Memory (LTM) atau Memori Jangka Panjang  Long Term Memory (LTM) memiliki kapasitas yang hampir tidak terbatas untuk menyimpan informasi.

yang memiliki fungsi sebagai konsultan.Expert Systems (Sistem Pakar)  Sistem pakar (expert systems) merupakan suatu pengembangan dari Decision Support Systems (DSS). Sistem pakar merupakan salah satu aplikasi dari Artificial Inteligence (AI) yang banyak dimanfaatkan dalam dunia bisnis .

Perbedaan antara Sistem Pakar dan Decision Support Systems DSS Karakteristik ES Fungsi Mencerminkan gaya dan kemampuan manajer untuk memecahkan masalah Membuat keputusan melebihi kemampuan manajer Alur Penalaran Tidak terperinci Terperinci dengan jelas Kemampuan memberikan alasan Tidak ada Ada. terbatas Kemampuan menjelaskan Terbatas Ada Pengambil Keputusan Manusia dan/atau sistem Sistem Metode manipulasi data Numerik Simbolik .

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