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Title of Project Activity

Building Capabilities of
Community
Volunteers and
Faith-Based
Organizations
as Advocates for Child
Protection
Implementing Organization:
National Council of Social Development
Foundation of the Phils, Inc. (NCSD)
Activity Participants :
75 Volunteers From Dagupan City,
Ormoc and Tacloban City
Duration of Activity:
4 day each as a total of 12 days

Activity Goals and Objectives


Goals:
Immediate Goal To train and mobilize 75 faithbased and community volunteers
as Frontline advocates for the
promotion on childs rights.

Long-term Goal To improve the life situation


of 60% of the targetted 400
children in need of special
protection in focused areas with
social and economic support of
60-75 trained volunteers
advocates.

Specific Objectives
At the end of four (4) days,
the 75 volunteers in 3 batches of
training activities are able to:
Acquire a basic understanding
on the history and principles of
volunteerism and attributes of an
effective volunteer;

Know

the situation of
CNSP in the country and
in their specific
communities;

Understand

deeper the basic


needs and rights of a child and
commit
themselves for their
protection and development;
Explain the causes why children
are abused, neglected and
exploited and help prevent these
in their respective communities;

Mobilize

friends,
parishioners, civic leaders in
their city to share part of
their life personally,
financially and others types
of assistance for the
plight
of the CNSP needing
protection and support;

Acquire

skills in undertaking
volunteer work and various
service modalities and
strategies for the
psychosocial interventions
for NCSD

Organize

themselves as a core of
volunteers advocating and
promoting for child protection
and thus making their area as
child-friendly communities;

Develop

a one-year program of
work / re-entry plans on how to
implement
their learning
insights from the seminar in their
own communities.

PROGRAM SCHEDULE
DAY 1
AM -

Opening Amenities
Administration of Pre-Post
Evaluation / Questionnaires
Presentation of Activity Goals,
Objectives and Content
Understanding Volunteerism,
basic principles and
attributes of
effective
volunteers

PM -

Understanding basic needs and


rights of children
Understanding types of abuses on
children and root causes of their behaviors
Understanding psychodynamics and
long term effects on behavior of CNSP.
Methodologies Brainstorming, buzz
sessions, case situation analysis (Joselyn
and Anna) Lecture, Discussion, Video
Presentations (The Daughter and Good
Boy)

DAY 2
AM Summary of Day 1 Learning
Insights
Understanding types of
parents,
parenting behaviors
Factors that lead to child
abuse,
neglect and exploitation
by parents
Protective Behavior Against
Sexual
Abuse of Children

PM -

Salient provisions of child welfare


laws that volunteers should know in
child protection, advocacy and
development
Child and Youth Welfare Code
(PO603)
Special Protection of Children
Against
Child Abuse, Exploitation
and
Discrimination Act RA 7610
Comprehensive Juvenile Justice and
Welfare
System RA 9344
Child Labor Law RA 9231

Methodologies

Brainstorming, case situation


analysis, exercises, lecture /
discussion, large group sharing

DAY 3
AM Summary of Day 2 Learning
Insights
Areas for Volunteer work in
Communities
Responding to the needs for
survival,
protection and development
of Street
children in the area
Panel Discussion DSWD,
CSWDO,
Street educators and
street children

PM

Alternative Family Care for


Children
Foster Home Care / guardianship
Adoption
Family-based Program for children
survivors of
sexual abuse and
exploitation
Community Diversion Services for CICL
Methodologies - Brainstorming, Case
situation analysis, Video Presentations,
Lecture/discussions, large group sharing

DAY 4
AM -

Counseling as effective
intervention model in
helping
CNSP survivors
of abuse,
neglect and exploitation
Ground level resource
generation
Networking / referral system

PM

Team and Commitment


Building
principles and guides
Action Planning for Volunteer Program
for Child
Protection in the City
Faith-based groups
Community Volunteer Advocates
Activity Evaluation and Synthesis
Administration of Post Test
Evaluation Questionnaire
Closing of the Activity

COURSE CONTENT /
RESOURCE / REFERENCES
MATERIALS
A.VOLUNTEERISM
- History, Basic Principles
and attributes

History of Volunteerism
Historically,

volunteerism has always


been an integrative component of
human services anywhere in the world
in varying types, scope and purposes.

When

Jesus Christ selected His


Twelve (12) Apostles to help Him
take care of His Flocks, it was a
genuine act of volunteerism
(except for Judas Iscariot). The
Apostles left their families and
assisted Him in His ministry
without remuneration until His
Ascension.

It

is recorded that the forerunner of


modern day volunteerism started in 1617
when St. Vincent de Paul organized the
Ladies of Charity (now, Daughters of
Charity) and tasked them to help the
poor, the sick, the slaves and others in
misery in those time. This was follows by
the Salesian sisters of St. John Bosco and
the Good Shepherd sisters in 1800
serving the women, slavery and child
labor.

Soon

after, the Catholic Volunteer


Organizations and other Faith-based
groups also made extensive use of
their members and the laity in
reaching out for the poor, victims of
war, and those who suffered most as
a result of economic depressions.

During

World War I and II, the


International Red Cross volunteers
worked underground to help
wounded soldiers and other victims
of war. The Philippine National Red
Cross Volunteers (PNRC) are does the
same not only during armed conflict
but in all situation of natural and
man-made disasters and calamities.

Volunteerism

in the Philippines on
the other hand, dates back from
the history of the countrys
struggle against the oppression of
the colonizers and its clamor
Katipunan and the Guerilla
movements were models of
volunteerism

The

first professionally travel social


workers who founded several
orphanages, YMCA, NCSD were all
volunteerism, too.

Like

other developing country, the


Philippines was recipient of several
direct volunteers service which started
with the coming of the Thomasite
volunteer teachers during the American
occupation and the fielding of the Peace
Corps volunteers in the early 60s up to
the present. They are assigned in far
village and agencies involved in social
welfare, education, agriculture,
environmental protection and
management.

At

present, the Philippines National


Volunteer Service and Coordinating
Agency (PNVSCA) is responsible both
in supervising foreign volunteers and
sending Filipino volunteers in Africa
and other thrill world countries

BASIC POLICIES, PHILOSOPHY, VALUES


AND PRINCIPLES IN EFFECTIVE
VOLUNTEERISM
The development of a functional
volunteer program as an alternative
resource in the delivery of human
services to individuals, groups and
communities requires careful planning
and understanding basic values,
Principles and Guidelines to enhance the
quality of human interactions between
stakeholders and the exchange of
technology in the PLANNED CHANGE OR
SOCIAL TRANSFORMATIONS.

1. Basic Values and Philosophy


Respect

for the worth and dignity of the


individual in whatever level of status they
are.
Belief that every individual has the
capacity to change and rise above the
level person survival the self-efficiency, if
they are given access to opportunities.
Some are just faster and some low.
Upholding the basic human rights and the
rights of the child to SURVIVAL,
PROTECTION, DEVELOPMENT AND
PARTICIPATION.

2. Basic Principles
Confidentiality

not sharing secrets


and privileged information with
others
Self-Determination acceptance that
the individual has the basic right to
decide for himself/herself. Volunteers
are only facilitators for the change
effort.

Non-Judgemental

Attitude
negatively labeling the child such as
malikot, magnanakaw, malandi, etc.
Helping behaviors are their feelings
of hurt, fear, anger, hopelessness,
sadness from being separated from
sibling, mothers, peers rejected by
society, etc.

ATTRIBUTES OF AN EFFECTIVE
VOLUNTEER
1. Emphatic an effective volunteer
Understand the values of others
Sensitive to others culture, beliefs and
traditions
Shares others hopes, aspirations and
hardships t gain trust and confidence
2. Humble
He/she adopts a low key approach and
profile (Hindi mayabang)
Recognizes the wisdom of others
Sheds off authoritarian tendencies

3. Sensitive
He/she is aware of and understands
the needs and emotion of others
Shows concern and lends a hand,
especially during crisis situations
4. Decisive
He/she knows when to act and when
not to act
Takes into account all relevant
information on an issue before
deciding or taking action

5.

Self-Confident
He/she feels capable of meeting
challenges
Has positive self-image

6.

Dependable
He/she is trusted to carry out
his/her roles and responsibilities
and able to deliver what is
expected on time

7. Credible
He/she is trusted to have the
intelligence and integrity to provide
correct information
8. Openness
He/she is willing to listen, learn and
accept new ideas contrary even to
his/her own perception or experience

9.

Transparent
His/her official acts are open to
anyone to review or examine and
people have access to official
documents and records

10.

Accountable
He/she accounts for personal actions
and those of partners
Does his/her task with honesty,
impartiality and morality.

11. Responsible
He/she ensures that actions are
carried out and directions
properly followed
12. Tenacious
He/she has unyielding, drive to
achieve or accomplish
something (A Vision,
Assignment or Mandate)

13. Creative
He/she is innovative, a dreamer,
inventive, imaginative and
resourceful
14. Productive
He/ she are able to produce
more with available or
limited resources.

15. Quality Oriented


He/She has the desire and
passion for excellence
16. Stewarships
He/She has the caretaker
quality inspiring, motivating,
leading

17. Consensus - Seeker


His/Her communication style is geared
toward dialogue, understanding and
harmony and a non-adversarial, winwin relationship.
18. Sense of Urgency
He/She has a burning desire to act
immediately and take advantage of
opportunity to help others.

19. Anticipatory
He/She can identify effects/impact of
issues and events.
20. Futuristic
He/She is able to forecast and tract
future events.

B. BASIC NEEDS OF A CHILD


Material

needs for sufficient


bodily care without which the
child may not be even surviving
such us: Food, Clothing and
Shelter.

Protection

from danger, abuse


and exploitation.

Love,

care and affection as


unconditional needs of every
child.

New

experiences that bring


about intellectual stimulation,
mastery of his/her social
environment

Praise

and recognition.
Encouragement and
reasonable expectations for
their behavior as integral part
of the learning process.

C. RIGHTS OF THE CHILD-UN


Convention on the Rights of the
Child
Four

(4) Broad Categories

1. Survival Rights
Rights of the child for him or her to
live. These include food, health,
shelter, and clothings.

2. Development Rights
The rights of the child for him or
her to attain full potential. These
include education, rest and
recreation, play, spiritual
enrichment, love, car and
affection.

3. Protection Rights
The rights of the child for him or her
to be supported and protection.
These include protection from
mental, physical or sexual abuse,
neglect and exploitation.

4. Participation Rights
The rights of the child which will
enable him or her to express his or
her feelings and thoughts. These
include his or her right to speak his
or her opinion; to have access to
good and important information; to
be with his or her own peers; and
his or her right to have a name and
nationality which he or she needs to
be identified as a member of a
family, community or a society.

The Rights can be


summarized as follows:
Rights

to be born, have a name


and nationality (no to abortion,
to have a birth certificate etc.)

To

have a family who will love and


care for them (own family or
alternative family such as in
adoption, foster home care,
guardianship, kinship care)
To live in a peaceful community
and a wholesome environment
(such as living in armed conflict).

To

have adequate food as a healthy


active body, thru formal education,
alternative learning system (ALS)
To be given opportunity to play and
leisure/recreation; a universal need
of every child

Duties and Responsibilities of


Children (PD 306)
Lend

an upright and virtuous life


Love, respect and obey their
parents
Love his / her brothers and sisters

Develop

his potentials as an
individual
Respect his/her elders, visitors and
cultural traditions
Participate in Civic affairs
Help observe human rights of others

D. SITUATION OF CHILDREN IN
NEED OF SPECIAL PROTECTION
TYPES
Abandoned
Neglected
Sexually
abused/incest
Sexually exploited
Physically abused
Sub-Total
Total
(46.5% are sexual abuses)

FEMALE
560
1,307
4,065

MALE
519
1,242
64

255
784
6,971

29
656
,2510
9,481

Children in Need of Special


Protection
These are children who are. . . . . .
In hazardous & exploitative labor
On the streets
Victims of sexual abuse &
commercial exploitation
Without primary care givers

In

situation of armed conflict


In conflict with the law
With various forms of disability
Girl children
In ethnic / cultural communities
Living with HIV/AIDS

Who are in need of Alternative


Parental Care or the Children
in Need of Special Protection
(CNSP)

Philippine

Population
85.2 million (total population as project
by NSO for year 2005)
43.4% or 32.8 million are children or
below 18 years old
15% or 13.5 million are below 6 years
old

Types of Alternative Parental


Care

ADOPTION

A socio-legal process
which enables a child who cannot be
reared by his biological parents acquire
legal status wherein he/she can benefit
from new relationships with a
permanent family. Adoption establishes
a parent-child relationship resulting in
the same mutual rights and obligations
that exist between children and their
biological parents

FOSTER

/ KINSHIP FAMILY CARE


is the provision of planned substitute
parental care to a child by a licensed
foster family when his/her biological
parents are unable to care for
him/her temporarily or permanently

Street Children
Highly visible children:
More than 4 hours on the streets.
National estimate: 45,000
50,000
75% with families
20% refrain from going home
5% without families

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children


Trafficking
Child Prostitution
Child Pornography

Victims of commercial sexual abuse


are:
Mostly

females, ages 13-18


Initiated into the sex trade as early as age
10
Belong to a large family
Mostly out of school / drop-outs

DSWD Reported Cases of CSEC


CSEC

200
0

2001 2002 200


3

200
4

TOTA
L

Victims of
Pedophilia
Victims of
Prostitution
Victims of
Pornography
Victims of
Trafficking (not only
for sexual
purposes)

40

21

41

185

Total

280 278 379 377 446 1760

32

51

186 224 245 247 269 1171


9

13

40

45

29

95

66

129 364

Children working under the Worst


form of Child Labor
4

Million child laborers ages 5 to 7


59.4% or 2.4 million are exposed to
hazards
6:10 children are unpaid
60% of them are in agricultural
areas

36.5%

of working children do not go


to school
Child Labor as defined by ILO
Forced Labor
Hazardous and exploitative
conditions
Deprived of education opportunities
DSWD 2002-2003 626 cases
[male-251 (40%) / female-375(69%)]

Children in Conflict with the


Law
Profile

of children in Conflict with


the law:
Usually male
Between ages 14-17
Elementary graduate
Middle child; from a low-income
family
Charged with property related
crimes, rape and murder

Exposed

to drugs or gang influence


Youth Offender over 9 but under 18
years of age at time of commission of
Offense
As of September 2005, there were over
4,ooo children in jail and detention
centers all over the country; more than
10,000 cases involving children were
handled by Public Attorneys Office
Most of them were charged with minor
crimes such as petty theft, sniffing of
glue or solvents, vagrancy and
violation

Children without Primary Care


Givers

1993

Survey of households 16%


households have children below 12
years old
1:6 household children without adult
supervision

DSWD Statistics
2002 2003
Abandoned 1079 1134
Neglected
2549 2560

Children in Situation of Armed


Conflict

As

combatants, couriers, guides, medical


aides or spies
13-18% of armed rebel groups
13-17 years old
55% boys; 45% girls
Children of poor farmer
Elementary school drop outs
115 child combatants captured or
surrendered

Children in Various
Circumstances of Disability
More

boys than girls


1:5 children in 0-6 age bracket has
some form of disability
10-14 age group has the highest
prevalence rate
most common forms of impairment
are hearing or visual impairment
more than half are acquired and can
be prevented

Children and HIV/AIDS


Every

minute 6 young people 15-24


years old become infected with
HIV/AIDS
242 AIDS related deaths
38 children are HIV positive
15 children have feel blown AIDS
9 children have died

Children in Ethnic / Cultural


Communities
12-15

million (IPs National Commission


on IPs, 1998)
2.5 million indigenous children
Live I remote areas usually accessible
only by foot
Have limited access to basic social
services
Often suffer from discrimination and
neglect

E. TYPES AND IMMEDIATE


EFFECTS OF CHILD ABUSE
A. Definition of Child Abuse
An act when a person inflicts physical
or psychological harm or injury,
cruelty or neglect, sexual abuse and
exploitation of a child.

B. Types of Child Abuse


1. Child Physical Abuse /
Maltreatment
2. Child Physical Neglect
3. Child Sexual Abuse and
Sexual Exploitation

4. Emotional Child Maltreatment or


Psychological Abuse
5. Child Labor
6. Child Trafficking
7. Child in Conflict with the Law
8. Child Abuse in Armed Conflict
Situation
9. Child in Drug / Substance Abuse

Effects of Child Abuse


1.

Child Physical Abuse /


Maltreatment immediate effect is
injury or even death. Psychologically,
a maltreated child has difficulty in
relating with adult figures, may
develop lack of empathy and social
attachment with others, passiveaggressive behavior, may hurt or
boss other children, hostile, passive
or withdrawn. If not helped, they may
revisit the abuse experience in their
parenting style and may abuse or
hurt their own children and others.

2.

Child Physical Neglect


immediate effect is malnutrition
retardation, illness and even death.
Normal development will be
stunted or delayed, mistrustful,
difficulty in socializing and bonding
with others, persecution complex,
uncaring for others.

Effects of Child
3. Child Sexual Abuse
and Sexual Exploitation
Abuse

immediate effects are; severe anger with abuser,


injury, loss of virginity, blaming uncooperative
mothers and family members in case of incest,
separation from family, peer and school; shame and
guilt for not reporting abuse or accommodation
syndrome. Long-term consequences if not helped by
social workers, mental health disciplines and parents
may include damaged self-esteem and self-image,
mood swings worthlessness, relationship problems
including with spouse and children. Sexual
problems / sexual identities, difficulty in expressing
emotions or tendency to suppress feelings, difficulty
in trusting others, distant, an aloof, cannot provide
physical affections with children, chronic depression,
and worst, psychosis. When they become parents,
they may revisit the experience and abuse their own
children.

4.

Children Emotional
Maltreatment or Psychological
Abuse - immediate effect is low
self-esteem, hostile, withdrawn.
Hey can be passive-aggressive,
low self-image, revengeful and
unable to trust others, violent at
times.

Effects of Child
5. Child Labor
Abuse
immediate effects are frequent

illness and even death due to accidents and


exposure to hazardous physical environment,
grave danger of being sexually abused, exploited
and maltreated or involved in high-risk behaviors
such as substances abuse, prostitution and
alcohol. The normal growth and development of
these children are stunted or delayed due inability
to pursue education, participate in appropriate
group play and recreation, acquisition of positive
new experiences which will enrich their life.
<moreover, this sectoral group has tendency to
blame their parents and society in general due the
culture of poverty and hopelessness they are in.

Effects of Child
Abuse

6. Child Trafficking - immediate effect is


fear for security and safety, sadness, due
to separation from parents and siblings,
severe anger to traffickers and those
responsible for the trafficking which may
even include family members, shame in
case they are pushed to prostitution and
others, feelings of helplessness and
hopelessness for being trapped to an
abuse situation.

Effects of Child
Abuse
7. Child in Conflict
with the Law -

immediate
effect is fear, anger towards authority,
aggression and hostility, longing to see
mother and siblings, affects normal
development, trauma of incarceration
which may result to severe anger with
parents and society, anti-social behavior
and loss of conscience even hurting others
and going deep into becoming a career
criminal. Some justifies aggression and
criminal behaviors for their survival and
revenge to the persons who hurt and
neglected them.

Effects of Child
8. Child in Armed
Conflict - immediate effect is
Abuse
fear for safety and security for self and
family, anger and hurt for death of some
members of the family which may be too
traumatic resulting to deep feelings of
revenge pushing of them to become child
combatants, couriers, guides or spies of the
rebel groups. Some children have also
become objects of attack, assault, torture
and other inhumane treatment. Since many
children in armed conflict areas are in
evacuation centers, they are unable to
pursue education, have limited nutritious
foods and other basic amenities for child
survival resulting to illness, some disabling
conditions and even death to some.

Effects of Child
Abuse
9. Child in Drug
/ Substance Abuse /

Dependency immediate effect is


aloofness, hostility and aggression. Those
in chronic drug abuse may be violent and
commit acts against persons and property.
Intoxification will affect the childs
alertness, thinking, perceptions, decisionmaking and behaviors that are either
different or bizarre. Acute intoxification
may also lead to accidents, suffocation,
injuries, convulsions or even sudden death.

F. PSYCHODYNAMICS / BEHAVIORS COMMON TO


ABUSED AND EXPLOITED CHILDREN
TYPES OF
CHILD
ABUSE

HOW THE CHILD MAY


APPEAR PHYSICALLY

Group I
1. Child Unexplained bruises and
Physical welts in face, body and
torso,back
Abuse
Unexplained

burns from
cigarettes butts, in palms,
back or buttocks
Unexplained wounds in
face, head and arms or any
parts of the body.

HOW THE CHILD MAY


BEHAVE

Wary

of contact with adults


Aggressive
Hostile
Guilty
Angry
Withdrawn
Frightened of parents
Fearful and mistrustful
Becomes uneasy when
another child cries
Serious problem of running
away, self mutilation,
withdrawn suicide
attempts, violent

F. PSYCHODYNAMICS / BEHAVIORS COMMON TO


ABUSED AND EXPLOITED CHILDREN
TYPES OF
CHILD
ABUSE

Group I
2. Child
Physical
Neglect

HOW THE CHILD MAY


APPEAR PHYSICALLY

Always

hungry
Has poor hygiene
(uncombed hair, has
not taken baths, has
dirty or inappropriate
clothes)
Looks sickly,
malnourished
Un-socialized and
primitive eating
behaviors

HOW THE CHILD MAY


BEHAVE

Begs

for food or
money
Steals food / hoarding
food
Always feels tired or
weak, unusual fatigue
Angry
Hostile
Poor school
performance
Negative attitude
toward parents

TYPES OF
CHILD
ABUSE

HOW THE CHILD MAY


APPEAR PHYSICALLY

HOW THE CHILD MAY


BEHAVE

Group 2
1. Child
Sexual
Abuse

Has

difficulty in walking
Has pain or itchiness in
genital area
Has bleeding in genital
area.
Has severe bruises around
vagina and anus
Recurrent bladder
infections
Sexually transmitted
infections
Pregnancy
Fear of showers, bathrooms
or closed or open doors
Unwilling to take a bath or
takes a bath several times a

Severe

feelings of anger,
guilt, and shame
Hostile
Sad
Fearful
Fantasizes
Often stares blankly
Restless and seldom able
to finish an activity
Mistrustful of adults
motives
Quarrelsome
Rage / shouts at the top
of her/his voice
Depersonalization /
temporary amnesia

TYPES OF
CHILD
ABUSE

HOW THE CHILD MAY


APPEAR PHYSICALLY

HOW THE CHILD MAY


BEHAVE

Wearing

Suicide

Group 2

several layers
of clothing
Sexualized behavior,
often talks about sex,
wear skimpy clothing,
attracts opposite sex,
masturbates

ideation
Frequent flash
backs / bad dreams
hallucinations
Sudden change in
school performance
Leaving the house
frequently without
any reason
May go into drugs,
prostitution or alcohol

TYPES OF
CHILD
ABUSE

HOW THE CHILD MAY


APPEAR PHYSICALLY

HOW THE CHILD MAY BEHAVE

Group 2
4. Child
Emotional
Maltreatme
nt or
Psychologic
al Abuse

Shy,

Low self-esteem
isolate from
others
Hostile with abusive family
Stammering speech
members
Delayed physical
Always angry
development
Has neurotic traits or tantrums
Stays inside the room
Sad
often or stays out with Fearful
friends late.
Violent at times
Uneasy joining family
Move or acts in an abnormal
activities even at
meantime. Eats alone. fashions
Suicide ideation
May be in substance
May be on unwed pregnancy
abuse or alcohol
or early live-in relationship to
escape or punish parent

TYPES OF
CHILD
ABUSE

HOW THE CHILD MAY APPEAR


PHYSICALLY

HOW THE CHILD


MAY BEHAVE

Always

Withdrawn

Group 3

5. Child
Labor

hungry
Malnourished/underweight
Unable to pursue /always absent
from school
Filthy clothing
Dirty due to exposure to
pollution / dirt with uncut hair
Unattended medical and dental
care
Shy, timid
Has scars in some body parts
engages, in begging or scavenging
Sometimes engages in pick
pocket/mugging to fend for their
survival
Filthy language or highly

Hostile
Sad
Angry

for being

poor
Always feels
tired and fatigued
Fearful of their
future
Violent at times
for survival
Obedient to
parents
Development
delayed / stunted

TYPES OF
CHILD
ABUSE

HOW THE CHILD MAY


APPEAR PHYSICALLY

HOW THE CHILD MAY


BEHAVE

Group 3
6. Child
Victim of
Trafficking

Cannot

speak normally
to express feelings
Bruises / injuries on
some parts of the body
Internal injuries
caused by punch
Reluctance to talk
about incident of
trafficking
Hyper-vigilant, fearful
and guarded adults
Uneasy and anxious

Fearful

angry to
traffickers or with
parents
Withdrawn
Sad
Hostile to talk about
incident
Trauma may affect
cognitive functioning
of the child

TYPES OF
CHILD
ABUSE

HOW THE CHILD MAY


APPEAR PHYSICALLY

HOW THE CHILD MAY


BEHAVE

Group 4
7. Child in
Armed
Conflict

8. Child in
Conflict with
the Law

Seldom

smile/ solemn

faced
Fearful / aloof to strangers
Underweight due to
insufficient food in
evacuation center
Has

scars and signs of


injuries
Shy / withdrawn / resistant
to talk
Has tattoos in some parts
of the body
Wear earrings
Suspicious that he/she is

Mistrust
Aggressive,

eager to fight
back / revengeful

Hostile
Aggressive
Sad

for separation from


mothers and siblings
Fearful for negative
group norms
Rebellious

TYPES
OF
CHILD
ABUSE
Group 4
9. Child in
Drug
Substance
Abuse

HOW THE CHILD MAY


APPEAR PHYSICALLY

Always

sleeps or at

daze
Inconsistent behavior
Very weak, loss of
appetite, looks always
tired and drowsy
Thin, looks
malnourished

HOW THE CHILD


MAY BEHAVE

Can

be violent and
hurt others
Vulnerable to other
high risk behaviors
such as sexual abuse,
criminality, etc.

G. TYPES OF PARENTS AND


PARENTING BEHAVIORS

Types of Parents Characteristics


1. Procreator Parent (Taga-luwal, Tagaanak lamang, child bearer)
Low

emotions, does not express love and


affection to the child
Neglected, abusive
Does not give herself/himself to the child
They only bore, the child, there is no
love, emotional bonding between the
child and the parent

2. Dilettante Parent (inconsistent,


pasulpot-sulpot)
Emotion is high but does no
give much herself/himself to
the child: example rich families
and many (yaya) takes care of
the child

G. TYPES OF PARENTS AND


PARENTING BEHAVIORS
3. Determinative Parent (Diktador)
Gives a lot of physical attention to
the child but has low emotional
involvement
Experts a lot from the child because
he/she has to give too much to the
child. Example: Aalagaan kita pero
dapat aalagaan mo rin ako

4. Generative / Optimal Parent


(nakikipagkapwa mapagmahal)
High

emotional involvement on the


child. Gives a lot to the child
Look at the children as persons
They listen and negotiate with the child
Indulgent, accepting but not controlling
Consult their children

H. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCES


PARENTING BEHAVIORS WHICH MAY
RESULT TO ABUSE, NEGLECT AND
EXPLOITATION
EMERGING
ISSUES AND TRENDS AFFECTING
PARENTING RESPONSIBILITIES
The worsening spectrum of family disintegration
threatening family solidarity, the basic unit of
society where social functioning is learned
ordinarily by all human being. The relationship
problems at home often results to separation,
annulment, divorce, pushing the children to leave
their homes and stay elsewhere, sometimes on the
streets.

Increasing

number of common-law
and live-in relationship
Increasing domestic violence,
battering of women in an intimate
relationship
Increasing number of cases of child
sexual abuse perpetuated by family
members (fathers, brothers, uncle,
siblings, grandfathers, stepfathers)
Increasing number of common-law
and live-in relationship

Poverty in the rural areas encourages the

families to more to the urban centers for


survival and consequently feelings of
hopelessness in urban life. The loss of
family support, lack of access, advice and
protection while in urban centers makes
the members of the family vulnerable to
exploitation, harassment and other forms
of abuse.

The feminization of industry and overseas

employment of parents alienating any of them


(father or mother) from their children from
deep emotional bonding and attachment
between them. Sometimes, this results to
sexual abuse and others forms of
maladjustments in the family relationships or
parent child relationships

Emergence

of new family
structures and systems which
affects / challenges the traditional
value systems. No more or
demonizing buffer zones or
mediation role by the extended
family nuclear and in-laws.
Grandparents are no longer
accepted in the nuclear family
home

The improvement of information

technology and tri-media which changes


the socio-cultural values among people
and which also exposes. The children from
undesirable image of violence and sex
which are not checked or reviewed by
MTRCB and the parents themselves.

The widespread use of cellphone (text

messaging / internet caf which bring


about negative / adverse effects on the
quality of parent-children relationship).
It diminishes socialization among family
members

Increasing value of consumerism and

materialism by families resulting to


commoditification of children where
parent/s stepparents would even push their
children to the flesh trade or prostitution or
exploitative child labor for money.

Social and economic dislocation of

families as result of armed conflict,


natural calamities affecting family
relationships and development

RISK FACTORS IN PARENTING


The following are some of the risk factors in parenting
which they affect quality of parent child
relationship / interactions
1. Childhood history of parents where they were also
abused and neglected and had little nurturing.
Resulting Problem:
Unable to trust others
Fearful about life / situations
Main repeat parenting patterns of family abuse
Emotionally needy / low self-esteem
Unable to establish positive bonding and
attachment to their own children, due to lack of
nurturing experience themselves

2. Parent history crime, substance abuse,


alcohol, mental, illness
Resulting Problem:
Unable to attend to the care and needs
of the children due to intoxication
Mental illness or improvement makes
the parent unavailable to this children
May harm the children when out of
control

3. Discipline Problems with children


Resulting Problem:
Increased stress of the parents
4. Low self-esteem, social isolation,
depression and poor coping skills of parents.
Resulting Problem:
Delays in the social development of
children
Poor problem solving skills
High stress levels in parents and
children may result to low energy and
impatience

5. Multiple Stresses and Crisis in the


Family
Resulting Problems:
High stress levels in parents and
kids may result to poor coping skills
Little time of energy to focus on
children needs
Domestic violence

6.

Potential Violence within the Family


home
Resulting Problems:
Physical and emotional harm to
parent(s) and / or children
Parental violence is modeled to
the children
Little energy to focus on the
children

7.

Unrealistic expectation for the child.


Lacks knowledge on child / care
development
Resulting Problems:
Parents perceive child as always
demanding, provocative
Child does not experience mastery,
has low self-esteem
Parents respond inconsistency to
child and child gets confused

8.

Child is neglected or at risk for


poor bonding or poor parent-child
interaction
Resulting Problems:
Attachment disorder
Negative feelings towards child
Less love or more impatience
Less time for the child

9.

Harsh punishment of the


rejected / unwanted child
Resulting Problems:
Harm to the child (physical or
emotional)
Parental frustration, feeling of
hurt, rejection or anger

I. SALIENT PROVISON OF CHILD WELFARE


LEGISLATIONS THAT VOLUNTEERS
SHOULD KNOW FOR EFFECTIVE
PARTICIPATION AND ADVOCACY ON CHILD
PROTECTION
1. Child and Youth Welfare Code Presidential

Decree 603
Article 19 Absence or death of Parents,
Grandparents and in their defaults, the oldest
brother or sister who is at least 18 years of age
or relative who has actual custody of the child
shall exercise parental although in case of
absence or death by both parent.

Article 21 Dependent, Abandoned and

Neglected Child. The dependent, abandoned


and neglected child shall be under the parental
authority of the suitable or accredited person
or an institution that is caring for him/her as
provided for under the law. After the child has
been declared either by the court or the
DSWD. This means that when a child is found
abandoned or unattended to in a place, the
volunteer must not take the child to the
DSWD and not to any private person.

Article 142 Petition for Involuntary Commitment of a child.

The DSWD or his authorized representative or any duly


licensed child placement agency having knowledge of a child
who appears to be dependent, abandoned or neglected, may
file a verified petition for involuntary commitment of said child
to the case of a licensed agency or individual to the proper
court.
The court upon hearing the case may terminate the rights
of parents under Article 151 and can file for restoration of
custody under Article 164 provided the child in the meantime
has not been priority given away for adoption nor has left the
country with adopting parents or guardian (Article 163). The
petition for restoration of custody shall be verified by the court
and shall be verified by the court and shall state that the
petitioners (parent) is now able to take proper custody and
care of the said child.

Article 154 Voluntary Commitment of a

child to an institution. The parent or guardian


of a dependent, abandoned or neglected child
may voluntary commit him/her to the DSWD
or any licensed child placement agency or
individual subject the provision of the court.
It must be in writing (Art. 155). It can only be
restored by parent after six (6) months after
surrender or voluntary commitment after
verification that they are already capable to
care and support the child (Art. 161)

2. Domestic Adoption Act of


1998 RA 8552
Article

1 Section 3 Simulation of
Birth. This is tampering of the civil
registry making it appear in the
birth records that a certain child
was born to a person who is not
his/her biological mother, causing
child to lose his/her true identity
and status

Article

VII Section 21 - Violations and


Penalties. Any Person who shall
cause the fictitious registration of a
child under the name(s) of a
person(s) shall be guilty of
SIMULATION OF BIRTH and shall be
punished prison major (6 months to
12 years imprisonment) or fine not
exceeding fifty Thousand Pesos (P
50,000.00).

3. Republic Act 7610 Special


Protection of Children against Child
Abuse, Exploitation and
Discrimination. Act July 22, 1991.
Age

Coverage persons below eighteen


(18) years of age of those over but are
unable to fully take over of themselves or
protect themselves from abuse, neglect,
cruelty, exploitation or discrimination
because of a physical or mental disability
or condition. This means that 20 years old
mentally challenge (retarded) is abused
(sexually, physically, and emotionally), she
is covered by the law.

Types of Abuse covered by the Law


1. Psychological and Physical abuse, neglect,
sexual abuse and emotional maltreatment.
Incest by fathers, siblings, grandfathers
Rape by other persons and relatives including
a child below 18 yrs old who will be
prosecuted under RA 9344, or comprehensive
Juvenile Justice and Welfare System Act
Child Prostitution
Acts of lasciviousness / molestation
Child Trafficking
Pornography
Child Labor
Abandoned, neglect other forms of abuse

2. Any act by deeds or words that debases,


degrades or demeans the intrinsic worth
and
dignity of a child as human being.
3. Unreasonable deprivation of the child basic
needs for survival such as food and shelter.
4. Failure to immediately give medical treatment to
an injured child resulting to serious
impairment of his/her growth and
development
or permanent incapacity or death.

WHO MAY FILE A COMPLAINT


The

offended party (the child


voluntarily or assisted by an adult. If
parents are not supportive, she/he
can file by herself/himself alone)
Parents or guardians
Ascendant or collateral relative
within the 3rd degree of
consanguinity or blood relations

Officer,

social worker or representative


of a licensed child-caring institution
Officer or social worker of the DSWD /
LGU
Barangay Chairman
At least 3 concerned, responsible,
officials citizens where violation
occurred
Teacher, government workers, officials
involved with children
Private / Public hospitals / Clinical

WHEN TO REPORT
Within forty eight (48) hours upon
knowledge of the abused
WHERE TO REPORT
DSWD or LGU Social Welfare and
Development Office (M/CSWDO), Law
Enforcement (Police), Prosecutor
(Fiscal) Court, BCPC (Barangay).

IMMUNITY FOR REPORT (Section 7)


A person who, acting in good
faith, shall report a case of child
abuse shall be free from any civil
or administrative liability arising
there from. There is shall be a
presumption that any such person
acted in good faith.

4. Republic Act 9231 An Act


Providing for Elimination of the
Worst Forms of Child Labor
5. Republic Act 92551 An Act
Allowing Illegitimate Children to use
the surname of their fathers
6. Guidelines for Birth Registration of
Children: CNSP, Delayed birth
registration

SALIENT PROVISIONS OF R.A. 9344


(An Act Establishing the Juvenile
Justice and Welfare Act)
a) Basic Principles and Rights
The passage of the law is pursuant to
Art. 40 of UNCRC which provides for the:
promotion of worth provides for and
legal safeguards for a child accused
of having been in conflict with the
law

application

of the principle of
restorative justice

right

not to be subjected to
fortune and other cruel
inhuman or degrading
treatment or punishment.

right

not to be imposed a sentence


of capital punishment or life
imprisonment without possibility
of release.
right not to be deprived, unlawfully
or arbitrarily of his / her liberty;
detention or imprisonment being
a disposition of last resort and shall
be for the shortest appropriate
period of time.

right

to privacy, bail,
recognizance and diversion
right to automatic suspension of
sentence, probation as alternative
to imprisonment.

b. Minimum Age of Criminal /


Responsibility / Coverage
A

child fifteen (15) years of age or


under at the time of the
commission of the offense shall
be EXEMPT from criminal liability.
However, the child shall be
subjected to an intervention
program.

child above fifteen (15) years but


below eighteen (18) years of age
shall likewise be exempt from
criminal liability and be subjected to
an intervention program, unless
HE/SHE HAS ACTED WITH
DISCERNMENT (to perceive clearly
with the mind or senses or showing
good judgment in his / her
perception) in which case, such child
shall be subjected to appropriate
proceedings (in justice system) in
accordance with this Law.

c.) Determination of Age


Birth Certificate
Baptismal Certificate
Other pertinent documents
His / her own testimonies or other
persons
Physical appearance
In case of doubt of his /her age it shall
be resolved in his / her favor!
In case of contest / complain regarding
his age, he court should decide the
case within 24 hours upon receipt of
case appropriate pleadings of all

d.) Structures
A Juvenile Justice and Welfare Council is
created to oversee the implementation of
the law. The Council shall be under
administrative supervision BUT chaired
by the DSWD.

e.) Treatment of Children below 15 years old


Immediately release the child to the custody of parents
or guardian or in absence thereof: to the
Nearest relative or if they cannot be located or refuse to
take custody of the child to:
licensed NGO
religious organization
barangay official or a member of BCPC
Local Social Welfare and Development
DSWD
if abandoned, neglected or abused or parents will
not comply, the DSWD or LSWDO to file petition
for involuntary commitment to proper court
(PD603)

f.) Treatment of Children above 15 but below 18


years but who acted without discernment
- follow the same treatment as (e)
g.) Treatment for those above 15 years but below
who acted with discernment:
Rather than detention, the CICL shall undergo
DIVERSION PROGRAM without undergoing
court proceedings. (Diversion refers to an
alternative child-appropriate process of
determining the responsibility and treatment of
CICL)

If imposable penalty is not more than six (6)

years, the law enforcement officer (police) or


punong barangay with the help of the local
social welfare and development office (city or
municipality) or other members of the LCPC
shall conduct Mediation, Family Conferences
and Conciliation or other Modes of Conflict
Resolution modes to achieve restorative
justice. The result of mediation shall be in
writing and signed by parties concerned and
appropriate authorities

In victimless crimes (no private offended

party) where the imposable penalty is not


more than six (6) years imprisonment, the
local social welfare and development
officer shall meet the child and his / her
parents or guardians for the development
of appropriate diversion and rehabilitation
in coordination with the BCPC

Where the imposable penalty for the

crime committed exceeds six (6) years


of imprisonment, diversion measures
may be resorted only be the court.

If the impossible penalty exceeds six (6)

months and the parents or guardian DOES


NOT CONSENT TO DIVERSION, the
Punong Baranggay and the law enforcement
officer handling the case shall within 3 days
forward the record to the prosecutor or to the
judge concerned for the conduct of inquest or
preliminary investigation to determine need
whether or not the child should remain in
custody or correspondingly charged in court.

h.) Factors in determining diversion


program
The

nature and circumstances of the


offense charged.
The frequency and severity of the act.
The circumstances of the child (e.g: age,
maturity, intelligence etc.)
The influence of the family and
environment on the growth of the child.
The reparation of injury to the victims.
The weight of the evidence against the
child.
The safety of the community.
The best interest of the child.

i.) Factors in the Formulation of the


Diversion Program.
The

childs feelings of remorse (deep regret for


wrongdoing) for the offense he/she committed.
The parents or legal guardians ability to guide
and supervise the child.
The victims view about the propriety
(correctness of the behavior) of the measures
to be imposed
The availability of community-based programs
for the rehabilitation and reintegration of the
child

j. Kinds of Diversion Programs


(Only for 45 days)
1. At the level of the Punong
Baranggay
Restitution of property
Reparation of the damaged caused.
Indemnification of consequential
damages (compensation for damaged
done)
Written or oral apology
Care, guidance and supervision orders.

Counseling

for the CICL and the childs

family
Attendance in trainings, seminars and
lectures on:
anger management skills
problem solving / conflict resolution skills
values formation
other skills which will aid the child in
dealing with situations which can lead to
repetition of the offense.
Participation in available community-based
programs including community service
Participation in education, vocational and
life skills programs

2. At the level of the law enforcement officer


Diversion same at Punong baranggay
level
Confiscation and forfeiture of the
proceeds or instruments of the crime.
3. At the level of the Appropriate Court
Diversion same as Punong Baranggay
and Law Enforcement
Written or oral reprimand
Fine
Payment of the cost of proceedings
Institutional care and custody

k.) If the diversion at different


levels is successful and the child
and parent cooperate, the social
worker recommends to the court
to dismiss the case. If not
successful, the case is returned
to the court for appropriate
action / disposition upon reading
18 years old.

l.) If the court finds the CICL have


failed to willfully complied with
conditions of the rehabilitation
program. The court may be
brought before the court for
execution of judgment. The court
may also decide extend the
rehabilitation program until
reaching age 21 years old.

AREAS FOR VOLUNTEERISM IN


COMMUNITIES/ PARISHES

For the Parish and Community to become


Child-Friendly environment for children

HIGH RISK CHILDREN


Generally, the following children are
at risk
ILLEGITIMATE
NO

POSITIVE BONDING AND


ATTACHMENT WITH PARENTS DURING
EARLY CHILDHOOD 0 6 YEARS OLD
EMOTIONALLY REJECTED, NEGLECTED
BY PARENTS / GUARDIANS
BORN WITH DISABILITY (Physically and
mentally challenged, down syndrome,
hearing or visually impaired, palsy etc)

PARENTS

ARE ABSENT FOR


OVERSEAS EMPLOYMENT WHEN
STILL A BABY OR UNDER SIX,
EXPERIENCED MATERNAL
DEPRIVATION
EFFEMINATE / TOMBOYISH
NOT EDUCATED / OUT OF SCHOOL
ENGAGED IN CHILD LABOUR
(WORST FORMS)
PARENTS SEPARATED, STAYING WITH
ABUSIVE STEP PARENTS

LIVING

WITH DYSFUNCTIONAL,
SEVERELY DISTURED/CHAOTIC
PARENTS
PARENTS MENTALLY ILL
INSTITUTIONALIZED
LOW SELF-ESTEEM
FATHER DOMESTICATED UNDER DE
SAYA
CHILDREN OF INCARCERATED PARENTS
SUFFERING FROM TRAUMA/SURVIVAL

PARENTS

WERE ABUSED THEMSELVES


AS A CHILD AND ARE LIKELY
REPEATING/REVISITING THE ABUSE
EXPERIENCE WITH OWN CHILDREN
CHILDREN WHO EXPERIENCED
VIOLENCE AND ARMED CONFLICT
INDIGENOUS PEOPLE
BIG FAMILY
IN POVERTY SITUATION
BIRTH NOT REGISTERED

CHILDREN IN NEED OF SPECIAL


PROTECTION
1. ABANDONED / SURRENDERED
Those left in hospitals, clinic,
foundlings or given up by parents
due to poverty or unwed pregnancy.
Recent information says that about 5
10 children are abandoned by
mothers in hospitals a month 9772000 data of CWC/UNICEF balding
head and other forms of abuse
1,606 as of 2002 UNICEF/CWC data

2. CHILD LABOUR Worst


forms of child labour
includes exploitation in
sugar cane plantation,
pyrotechniques, deep sea
fishing, prostitution, mining,
and domestic work 4
million as of 2003

3. NEGLECTED Unreasonable
deprivation of their basic needs
for survival such as food, clothing
and shelter, health services, lack
of physical care, malnourished
and others that are prejudicial to
their normal development 2,532
(2002 data of DSWD)

4. PSYCHOLOGICAL/EMOTIONAL
ABUSE/MALTREATMENT Behaviors
which attacks childs self-esteem
and social competence affecting
their intrinsic worth and dignity as
a child as a human being. It
includes constant nagging,
rejecting, being judgemental,
terrorizing, ignoring, belittling,
calling names, using degrading
words and similar behaviors by
adults or peers no available data.

5. SUBSTANCE/POLYDRUG
USERS Normally taken by
street children and children
with deep-seated emotional
problems no available data

RESPONDING TO THE NEEDS


AND PROTECTION OF
STREET CHILDREN IN THE
CITY

In close coordination with the City


Social Welfare and Development
Office focal person handling street
children and street educators. The
volunteers (community advocates,
faith-based) can undertake the
following: (some of these can be part
of the re-entry plan)

1.1 Survival Needs /


Protection
Survival Needs / Protection
Providing them food at least twice
a day. Some of possible strategies
are:
Supplemented nutrition feeding of
CSWDO, NGO, Parish and Peoples
Organizations

Mobilizing

community /
parishioners and volunteers
themselves to alternately feed
2 to 3 street children daily
while they are not yet reunited
with families, referred to a
residential facility or
placement in other alternative
homes.

Negotiating

with the wet market


administrator to all the children clean
(without child labor) the market
place daily but in return motivate
fish/meal/vegetable vendors to
donate a fish each/day and butobuto, rice and vegetables. Have the
street educators supervise the
cooking for the childrens meals.

Negotiating

with the food /


restaurants to donate food for
the street children and taong
grasa (tramps/beggars). Have
these recycled / re-cooked in the
identified volunteer kitchen

Student

volunteers to be
mobilized for feeding needs of
street children
Other strategies applicable in
the area

2.2

Safety and Security

From the hazards of the street


(accident, harassment by bystanders,
police and pollution)

Assisting

Street Educators look a safe


house where they can sleep
particularly during rainy season and
typhoons meanwhile that they are still
on the street. (abandoned houses,
school, tents, construction of bahay
kubo, abandoned jeepney / trucks put
together and repainted, abandoned
container van / repainted etc)

Facilitating

reunification with
parents / relatives or immediate
referral in residential care
facilities

Negotiating

with LGU (police for


curfew hour for street children
and placing all of the city and
cockfits during nighttime. Streetbased education sessions can be
conducted her as it is a more
controlled settling.

Constructing

improvised
sleeping quarters in
marketplace.
Other Strategies applicable in
the area.

2.3 ALTERNATIVE HOME


PLACEMENT
It abandoned or cannot be immediate
returned to parents

Recruitment

of Parish Councils /
Faith-based leaders to apply as
DSWD Licensed Foster Homes /
Parents on Temporary or Longterm

Some

may be motivated to
become adoptive parents (thru
court) although this may be
very expensive-costs ranges
from P 20, 000 to P 80,000 due
to lawyers fee, newspaper
publication, court fees etc.

Street

Children may be
discussed I the pulpit during
masses or announced in the
Bulletin Board. The DSWD /
CDSWDO technical staff may be
requested to conduct Foster
Home Care and Adoption clinics
on Sundays.

The

volunteers may help the


Street Educators search for the
Childrens relatives and place
them on Kinship Care. Kins may
be provided support with jobs so
they will be able to finally support
the maintenance of the street
children. Kins must not be
abusive.
Other alternative strategic
applicable in the area.

2.4 HEALTH AND MEDICAL


SERVICES
Helping the Street Educators take /
refer the children for medical
consultation and treatment in local
clinics / hospitals
Conducting regular medical mission in
the Parish Church / Community
Mobilizing physicians / clinics students
to done medicines and vitamins for
the street children

2.5 PLAY AND RECREATION


Soliciting funds for purchased
of play equipment / supplies,
uniform, shoes
Sponsoring sports fest
competitions among street
children
Requesting schools to conduct
sports clinics

2.6 LIVELIHOOD AND JOB


PLACEMENTS
Helping the bigger street
children undertake livelihood
activities appropriate for
their age, level of maturity
and health without violation
of child labor laws. Vending
activities

Finding

jobs to street children


not violation of child labor
laws such as gardener,
service crew I restaurants,
street sweeper, garbage
collectors using carts, wet
market baggers, church
janitors and similar jobs

2.7 SPIRITUAL FUNCTION


Catechism with sessions on
values education
Bible studies

3. ABANDONED / FOUNDING
AND TOTAL ORPHANS
NEGELECTED WITHOUT
PRIMARY CAREGIVERS
Referring these children
immediately to the City Social
Welfare Office or any licensed
child caring institution. Volunteers
should not take these children in
their homes unless they are
licensed as foster homes by
DSWD. They can be charged of
Child Trafficking

Never

give these children to


private families and simulate
the birth of the child. This is
illegal and has corresponding
sanctions under existing law
(Domestic Adoption Law)

Report

Founding (found in
garage, street etc) to the
CSWO or to the police for
immediate investigation

4. SEXUALLY ABUSED /
SEXUALLY EXPLOITED CHILD
Request

the Priest or Pastor of


your parish to report the case to
the Barangay Chairman or direct
to the City Social Welfare Office or
the Local Police within 48 hours
upon knowledge of the abuse.

If

the abuser is the father and


put to jail and the mother has no
source of income for the survival
or education of the children.
Volunteers should conduct a
ground level resource generation
so they solicit funds for the
familys livelihood activity.

Volunteers

should provide crisis


counseling to the grieving
mother and children and help
them go through the mourning
period.

Priest

/ Pastors should
announce in the pulpit to help
child and family not be subject
of nasty rumors. After all, the
abuse is not the fault of child.
She is the victim and should not
be blamed or be shamed as
result of the abuse experience.

Helping

the child and the


parent undertake / supervise
the healing and recovery
treatment interventions while
at home in close coordinator
with the local social worker.

Conducting

session on
protective behavior against
child sexual abuse with the
help of the local social
workers

Developing

a community program for


early detection and prevention of
child sexual abuse and sexual
exploitation (commercial sex
exploitation, pornography, cybersex
and similar sexual exploitation illegal
activities). Have this reported to the
local police or NBI or City Social
welfare for arrest.

Reporting

to NBI / Police Child


Prostitution Brothers or Sex
Dens where children are hired
on commercial sex exploitation.

Facilitating

application of avail
of the DOJ Victim Assistance and
compensation to children
victims of sexual abuse with six
months after filing of cases. The
children can avail of P 10,000
victim compensation assistance.

5. CHILDREN IN CONFLICT
WITH THE LAW
Assisting

the CSWO and


Barangay in organizing and
implementation of Communitybased diversion programs in
coordination with parents

Assisting

the Barangay leaders


in providing counseling for CICL
on diversion together with their
families or guardians.

6. EARLY CHILDHOOD AND


ENRICHMENT PROGRAM
Conducting

neighborhood ECCD
session with parents (group of 510 parents) focused on effective
child-rearing, pregnancy health
care, nutrition education,
sanitation, effects of waterborne
disease, oral dehydration etc.

Conducting

session of family
planning and values
education.

BASIC COUNSELING
COUNSELING
It is a planned interaction between the
client and the worker to assist client in
altering his present behavior. It is the
process of helping the client discover for
her/his self the coping mechanisms that
have been helpful to him/her in the past
and how they can be used or modified
for the present situation or how to
develop new coping mechanisms.

Counseling

is ENABLING and
should be differentiated from
ADVICE GIVING. The counselor
is not an ADVISER or a person
of authority. The counselor is a
person who FACILITATES SELFDISCOVERY

BASIC COUNSELING SKILLS:


OBJECTIVES OF COUNSELING
To build a trusting relationship
where the client can
communicate her concerns and
describe her problems, feelings
and behaviors without fear of
judgment.

To

encourage the client to see


the helping or problem-solving
process as a mutual
responsibility where she makes
active decisions and where she
can value her ideas and
support her endeavors.

To

reduce the clients fear and


distrust of helping/treatment
programs and thereby
encourage her to continue
attending the treatment
programs

B. AN IDEAL COUNSELOR IS
SOMEONE WHO:
Is

creative and imaginative


Shows self-awareness by not imposing
personal concerns on clients
Has good common sense and social
awareness
Shows respect for clients
Is action oriented

C. THINGS TO AVOID IN
COUNSELING:
Ordering

and Commanding
Warning and Threatening
Giving advice or providing
solutions
Arguing or persuading

Moralizing
Disagreeing,

judging and

criticizing
Ridiculing or labeling
Reassuring or sympathizing
Withdrawing or distracting

D. SHOW EMPATHY RATHER


THAN SYMPATHY
Listen to clients problems
and understand their feeling.
Look straight to their eyes and
asks what it is like to be in the
place of this person.

E. ASK OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS AND


ENCOURAGE HER TO ELABORATE
Do not ask questions answerable by yes or no or one-word answer.
IN TAKE INTERVIEW FOR COUNSELLING
GOALS
WHAT DOES CLIENT DESIRE?
IS CHANGE DESIRED?
ASSESSMENT OF
PROBLEM SITUATION
WHAT IS THE SITUATION AND
WHAT CAN BE DONE ABOUT IT?
IS IT A CHANGE IN THE
SITUATION OR A CHANGE IN
RELATIONSHIP THAT IS DESIRED?
APPROACHES TO THE HOW WILL CLIENT APPROACH
PROBLEM
THE SITUATION TO ACHIEVE
THE DESIRED CHANGES?
WHAT ACTIVITIES WILL CLIENT
ACTION PLANNING
UNDERTAKE TO ACHIEVE THE
DESIRED CHANGES?

National Council of Social


Development