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# KNS 2113 FLUID MECHANICS

FLUID KINEMATICS
Control Volume and System Representations
The Reynolds Transport Theorem
Prepared By: Dr. Charles Bong Hin Joo

## Department of Civil Engineering

Universiti Malaysia Sarawak

## Control Volume and Control System Representations

Fluids behavior is governed by fundamental physical laws which are
approximated by appropriate set of equations.
Application of laws such as conservation of mass, Newtons law of
motion and laws of thermodynamics form the foundation of fluid
mechanics analyses.
Various ways these governing laws can be applied including system
approach and control volume approach.
A system is a collection of matter of fixed identity (have same atoms
or fluid particles) which may move, flow and interact with its
surrounding.
A control volume is a volume in space (a geometric entity,
independent of mass) through which fluid may flow.
Prepared By: Dr. Charles Bong Hin Joo

## Chapter 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

System Approach
A system is specific, identifiable quantity of matter.
May consist of relatively large amount of mass (such as all of earths
atmosphere) or may be an infinitesimal size (dyed red) that can be
continually identified as they move.
It may continually change size
same mass.

## Example; a mass of air drawn into an air compressor changes

shape and size (it is compressed), its temperature may change and
eventually expelled through the outlet of the compressor.

## Chapter 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

Control Volume
Control volume is a specific geometric identity, independent of the flowing
fluid.
In control volume, a specific volume in space is identified and analyze the
fluid flow within, through or around that volume.
Examples of figure below: a) fluid flows through pipe; the fixed control
surface consists of the inside surface of pipe, the outlet end at section (2)
and a section across the pipe at (1); b) Rectangular volume surrounding the
jet engine; the air that was inside at time t=t1 (a system) has passed through
the engine and is outside the control volume at later time t=t2; c) the
deflating balloon provides an example of a deforming control volume.

## The Reynolds Transport Theorem

The Reynolds Transport Theorem is an analytical tool to shift from
one representation to the other, i.e. to describe the governing laws
of fluid motion using both system concepts (consider a given mass
of the fluid) and the control volume concepts (consider a given
volume).
All physical laws are stated in terms of various physical parameters
such as velocity, acceleration, mass, temperature and momentum.
Let B represent any of these (or other) fluid parameters and b
represent the amount of that parameter per unit mass:

## where m is the mass of interest. The parameter B is termed the

extensive property and the parameter b is termed an intensive
property. The value B is directly proportional to amount of mass
while b is independent of the amount of mass.
Prepared By: Dr. Charles Bong Hin Joo

B

b=B/m

mV

0.5mV2

0.5V2

## The Reynolds Transport Theorem

The amount of an extensive property that a system possesses at a given
instant, Bsys can be determined by adding up the amount associated with
each fluid particle in the system.

Most of the laws governing fluid motion involve the time rate of change of an
extensive property of a fluid system:

## To formulate the laws into a control volume approach, we must obtain an

expression for the time rate of change of an extensive property within a
control volume, Bcv, not within a system:

Example 1
Question

## Chapter 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

Example 1
Solution
If B = m, the system mass, it follows that b=1:

Physically these represent the time rate of change of mass within the
system and the time rate of change of mass within the control volume
respectively.

## Chapter 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

Example 1
If mass is to be conserved (one of the basic laws governing fluid
motion), the mass of the fluid in the system is constant, so that:

On the other hand, it is equally clear that some of the fluid has left
the control volume through the nozzle on the tank. Hence, the
amount of mass within the tank (the control volume) decreases with
time.

## Derivation of the Reynolds Transport

Theorem

Consider a variable area duct section in a); the control volume to be the
stationary volume within the duct between sections (1) and (2) as indicated
in b).
A short time later, at time t+t the system moved slightly to the right and fluid
particles coincided with section (2) of the control volume at the time t have
moved a distance of l2=V2t. Similarly fluid initially at section (1) has
moved a distance l1=V1t, where V1 is the fluid velocity at section (1).
In c), the outflow from control volume from time t to t+t is denoted as
volume II, the inflow as volume I, and the control system itself as CV. Thus
the system at time t consists of the fluid section CV; that is SYS=CV at
time t. At time t+t the system consists of the same fluid that now occupies
sections (CV-I)+II. That is SYS=CV-I+II at time t+t. The control volume
remains as section CV for all time.

Theorem

## If B is the extensive parameter of the system, then the value of it for

the system at time t is:

Since the system and the fluid within the control system coincide at
this time. Its value at time t+t is:

## Thus, the change in the amount of B in the system in the time

interval t divided by this time interval is given by:

Theorem

## At initial time t, Bsys(t) = Bcv(t), rearranging:

In the limit t0, the first term on right hand side is seen to be the time rate
of change of the amount B within the control volume:

The third term represents the rate at which the extensive parameter B flows
from the control volume, across the control surface. This can be seen from
the fact that the amount of B within region II, the outflow region is its amount
per unit volume, pb, times the volume
. Hence:

## Derivation of the Reynolds Transport

Theorem

Thus, the rate at which the property flows from the control volume
is given by:

Similarly , the inflow B into the control volume across section (1)
during the time interval t corresponds to that in region I and is given
by the amount per unit volume times the volume
Hence:

Thus, the rate of inflow of the property B into the control volume
is given by:

Theorem

## Combining the previous equations, the relationship between the

time rate of change B for the system and that for the control volume
is given by:

Example 2
Question

Solution

Example 2

## Derivation of the Reynolds Transport

Theorem

The term
represents the net flowrate of the property B from the control
volume. Its value can arise from the addition (integration) of the
contributions through each infinitesimal area element of size A on the
portion of the control surface dividing region II and the control volume. This
surface is denoted as
In figure below, in time t the volume of fluid that passes across each
element is given by
where
is the height (normal to
the base) of the small element, and is the angle between the velocity
vector and the outward pointing normal surface
Thus
, the amount of property B carried across the
area element A in the time interval t is given by:

## Derivation of the Reynolds Transport

Theorem

The rate at which B is carried out of the control volume across the
small area element A, denoted
is

Writing

Theorem

## In a similar fashion, considering the inflow portion of the control

surface, CSin, the inflow rate of B into the control volume is:

## Derivation of the Reynolds Transport

Theorem
In standard notation, the unit normal vector to the control surface
points out from the control volume. As shown in the figure below,
-90<<90 for outflow regions (the normal component of V is
positive;
). For inflow regions 90< <270 (the normal
component of V is negative
). The value of cos is
therefore positive on the CVout portions of the control surface and
negative on the CVin portions.
The net flux (flowrate) of parameter B across the entire control
surface is:

Theorem

## Chapter 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

Physical Interpretation

## The left hand-side may represent the rate of change of mass,

momentum, energy or angular momentum of the system, depending
on the choice of the parameter B.
The first term on the right side represents the rate of change B
within the control volume as the fluid flows through it.
The last term (an integral over the control surface) represents the
net flowrate of the parameter B across the entire control surface.

## the equations reduces to:

For steady flows the amount of the property B within the control
volume does not change with time.

The amount of the property associated with the system may or may
not change with time depending on the particular property
considered the flow situation involved.

## Chapter 4: Kinematics of Fluid Motion

For unsteady situations in which the rate of inflow of parameter B is exactly
balanced by its rate of outflow, it follows
and the equation
reduces to:

For example in the figure below, the magnitude of momentum efflux across
the outlet (2) is the same as the magnitude of the momentum influx across
the inlet (1). However the sign is opposite
for outflow and
for inflow. Thus
at (1) and
at (2) and A1=A2.

## Moving Control Volumes

As shown in figure below, the shape, size and orientation of the
control volume does not change with time. The control volume
merely translates with the constant velocity Vcv.
The main difference between fixed and moving control volume is
that the relative velocity , W that carries fluid across the moving
control volume whereas it is the absolute velocity V that carries the
fluid across the fixed control surface.

## Moving Control Volumes

The Reynolds transport theorem for a control volume moving with
constant velocity is given by:

## Selection of a Control Volume

Any volume in space can be considered as a control volume.
None are wrong but some are much better than others.
Example in figure below, to determine pressure at (1), the selection
of the control volume (a) is better than (b) because point (1) lies on
the control surface. Similarly control volume (a) is better than (c)
because the flow is normal to the inlet and exit portions of the
control volume. None are wrong (a) will be easier to use.

## Department of Civil Engineering

Universiti Malaysia Sarawak