Hhgj

© All Rights Reserved

2 visualizações

Hhgj

© All Rights Reserved

- Transat Multiphase Flow in Pipes
- flow simulation SW 2012
- 6.5.3 Calculation of the Reaction Force
- 02 Natcon - Victoria University
- Analysis of Colloidal Pigment Aggregation and Ink Media Interactions in Porous Medial
- Sun 1994 Creative Mechanical Design
- 2012 Problem Set 3(2)
- the Next Generation Inflow Control the Next Step to Increase Recovery on Norwegian Continental Shelf
- At 03835 FAQ Pipe Flow Hydraulic Analysis
- Fluid Flow
- Gad-el-Hak - The Fluid Mechanics of Microdevices - The Freeman Scholar Lecture.pdf
- pump calc
- Fluid Flow Characterisation inside the Gap of a Parallel Disc Device
- hadiphy.docx
- Entropy Generation Due to Micropolar Fluid Flow Between c 2018 Ain Shams Eng
- handout.pdf
- Drag Estimation
- SLIDE-1
- G 170 – 01 _RZE3MC0WMQ__.pdf
- 10.5923.j.ijhe.20180702.03

Você está na página 1de 29

FLUID KINEMATICS

Control Volume and System Representations

The Reynolds Transport Theorem

Prepared By: Dr. Charles Bong Hin Joo

Universiti Malaysia Sarawak

Fluids behavior is governed by fundamental physical laws which are

approximated by appropriate set of equations.

Application of laws such as conservation of mass, Newtons law of

motion and laws of thermodynamics form the foundation of fluid

mechanics analyses.

Various ways these governing laws can be applied including system

approach and control volume approach.

A system is a collection of matter of fixed identity (have same atoms

or fluid particles) which may move, flow and interact with its

surrounding.

A control volume is a volume in space (a geometric entity,

independent of mass) through which fluid may flow.

Prepared By: Dr. Charles Bong Hin Joo

System Approach

A system is specific, identifiable quantity of matter.

May consist of relatively large amount of mass (such as all of earths

atmosphere) or may be an infinitesimal size (dyed red) that can be

continually identified as they move.

It may continually change size

same mass.

shape and size (it is compressed), its temperature may change and

eventually expelled through the outlet of the compressor.

Control Volume

Control volume is a specific geometric identity, independent of the flowing

fluid.

In control volume, a specific volume in space is identified and analyze the

fluid flow within, through or around that volume.

Examples of figure below: a) fluid flows through pipe; the fixed control

surface consists of the inside surface of pipe, the outlet end at section (2)

and a section across the pipe at (1); b) Rectangular volume surrounding the

jet engine; the air that was inside at time t=t1 (a system) has passed through

the engine and is outside the control volume at later time t=t2; c) the

deflating balloon provides an example of a deforming control volume.

The Reynolds Transport Theorem is an analytical tool to shift from

one representation to the other, i.e. to describe the governing laws

of fluid motion using both system concepts (consider a given mass

of the fluid) and the control volume concepts (consider a given

volume).

All physical laws are stated in terms of various physical parameters

such as velocity, acceleration, mass, temperature and momentum.

Let B represent any of these (or other) fluid parameters and b

represent the amount of that parameter per unit mass:

extensive property and the parameter b is termed an intensive

property. The value B is directly proportional to amount of mass

while b is independent of the amount of mass.

Prepared By: Dr. Charles Bong Hin Joo

B

b=B/m

mV

0.5mV2

0.5V2

The amount of an extensive property that a system possesses at a given

instant, Bsys can be determined by adding up the amount associated with

each fluid particle in the system.

Most of the laws governing fluid motion involve the time rate of change of an

extensive property of a fluid system:

expression for the time rate of change of an extensive property within a

control volume, Bcv, not within a system:

Example 1

Question

Example 1

Solution

If B = m, the system mass, it follows that b=1:

Physically these represent the time rate of change of mass within the

system and the time rate of change of mass within the control volume

respectively.

Example 1

If mass is to be conserved (one of the basic laws governing fluid

motion), the mass of the fluid in the system is constant, so that:

On the other hand, it is equally clear that some of the fluid has left

the control volume through the nozzle on the tank. Hence, the

amount of mass within the tank (the control volume) decreases with

time.

Theorem

Consider a variable area duct section in a); the control volume to be the

stationary volume within the duct between sections (1) and (2) as indicated

in b).

A short time later, at time t+t the system moved slightly to the right and fluid

particles coincided with section (2) of the control volume at the time t have

moved a distance of l2=V2t. Similarly fluid initially at section (1) has

moved a distance l1=V1t, where V1 is the fluid velocity at section (1).

In c), the outflow from control volume from time t to t+t is denoted as

volume II, the inflow as volume I, and the control system itself as CV. Thus

the system at time t consists of the fluid section CV; that is SYS=CV at

time t. At time t+t the system consists of the same fluid that now occupies

sections (CV-I)+II. That is SYS=CV-I+II at time t+t. The control volume

remains as section CV for all time.

Theorem

the system at time t is:

Since the system and the fluid within the control system coincide at

this time. Its value at time t+t is:

interval t divided by this time interval is given by:

Theorem

In the limit t0, the first term on right hand side is seen to be the time rate

of change of the amount B within the control volume:

The third term represents the rate at which the extensive parameter B flows

from the control volume, across the control surface. This can be seen from

the fact that the amount of B within region II, the outflow region is its amount

per unit volume, pb, times the volume

. Hence:

Theorem

Thus, the rate at which the property flows from the control volume

is given by:

Similarly , the inflow B into the control volume across section (1)

during the time interval t corresponds to that in region I and is given

by the amount per unit volume times the volume

Hence:

Thus, the rate of inflow of the property B into the control volume

is given by:

Theorem

time rate of change B for the system and that for the control volume

is given by:

Example 2

Question

Solution

Example 2

Theorem

The term

represents the net flowrate of the property B from the control

volume. Its value can arise from the addition (integration) of the

contributions through each infinitesimal area element of size A on the

portion of the control surface dividing region II and the control volume. This

surface is denoted as

In figure below, in time t the volume of fluid that passes across each

element is given by

where

is the height (normal to

the base) of the small element, and is the angle between the velocity

vector and the outward pointing normal surface

Thus

, the amount of property B carried across the

area element A in the time interval t is given by:

Theorem

The rate at which B is carried out of the control volume across the

small area element A, denoted

is

Writing

Theorem

surface, CSin, the inflow rate of B into the control volume is:

Theorem

In standard notation, the unit normal vector to the control surface

points out from the control volume. As shown in the figure below,

-90<<90 for outflow regions (the normal component of V is

positive;

). For inflow regions 90< <270 (the normal

component of V is negative

). The value of cos is

therefore positive on the CVout portions of the control surface and

negative on the CVin portions.

The net flux (flowrate) of parameter B across the entire control

surface is:

Theorem

Physical Interpretation

momentum, energy or angular momentum of the system, depending

on the choice of the parameter B.

The first term on the right side represents the rate of change B

within the control volume as the fluid flows through it.

The last term (an integral over the control surface) represents the

net flowrate of the parameter B across the entire control surface.

Steady Effects

Consider steady flow,

For steady flows the amount of the property B within the control

volume does not change with time.

The amount of the property associated with the system may or may

not change with time depending on the particular property

considered the flow situation involved.

Unsteady Effects

For unsteady situations in which the rate of inflow of parameter B is exactly

balanced by its rate of outflow, it follows

and the equation

reduces to:

For example in the figure below, the magnitude of momentum efflux across

the outlet (2) is the same as the magnitude of the momentum influx across

the inlet (1). However the sign is opposite

for outflow and

for inflow. Thus

at (1) and

at (2) and A1=A2.

As shown in figure below, the shape, size and orientation of the

control volume does not change with time. The control volume

merely translates with the constant velocity Vcv.

The main difference between fixed and moving control volume is

that the relative velocity , W that carries fluid across the moving

control volume whereas it is the absolute velocity V that carries the

fluid across the fixed control surface.

The Reynolds transport theorem for a control volume moving with

constant velocity is given by:

Any volume in space can be considered as a control volume.

None are wrong but some are much better than others.

Example in figure below, to determine pressure at (1), the selection

of the control volume (a) is better than (b) because point (1) lies on

the control surface. Similarly control volume (a) is better than (c)

because the flow is normal to the inlet and exit portions of the

control volume. None are wrong (a) will be easier to use.

Universiti Malaysia Sarawak

- Transat Multiphase Flow in PipesEnviado porPrashant
- flow simulation SW 2012Enviado porDimas Satria
- 6.5.3 Calculation of the Reaction ForceEnviado porsammar_10
- 02 Natcon - Victoria UniversityEnviado porOsama Ibrahim
- Analysis of Colloidal Pigment Aggregation and Ink Media Interactions in Porous MedialEnviado porkarthiktv006
- Sun 1994 Creative Mechanical DesignEnviado porMehul Jogani
- 2012 Problem Set 3(2)Enviado porFiona Pu
- the Next Generation Inflow Control the Next Step to Increase Recovery on Norwegian Continental ShelfEnviado porAvtar Singh
- At 03835 FAQ Pipe Flow Hydraulic AnalysisEnviado porphantanthanh
- Fluid FlowEnviado porKN
- Gad-el-Hak - The Fluid Mechanics of Microdevices - The Freeman Scholar Lecture.pdfEnviado porLiana Ritter
- pump calcEnviado porTiffany Combs
- Fluid Flow Characterisation inside the Gap of a Parallel Disc DeviceEnviado porIJRASETPublications
- hadiphy.docxEnviado poradil
- Entropy Generation Due to Micropolar Fluid Flow Between c 2018 Ain Shams EngEnviado porAnonymous u9WmSgap
- handout.pdfEnviado porEphraim
- Drag EstimationEnviado porsek
- SLIDE-1Enviado porEmtiazEmon
- G 170 – 01 _RZE3MC0WMQ__.pdfEnviado porSamuel Eduardo
- 10.5923.j.ijhe.20180702.03Enviado porqwertyytrewq251931
- b60458b9d1cb8cee001ac0aacef68e2ae5aa (1).pdfEnviado porEd Gar Yunda
- Experimental Investigation of Steady Asymmetric Vortex SheddingEnviado porrob
- Fees stracture For Civil _ Architecture.pdfEnviado porKrupal Patel
- Mechanical Engineering 2006 Sem IIIEnviado porAmal Ayyappan
- Pbc h 14 Fluids NotesEnviado porMahir Mahmood
- me509_fn_sp2016_sol.pdfEnviado porAnonymous 80p9OV
- MEScchap4-2cEnviado porWaqar A. Khan
- ieconEnviado pordhineshp
- simulacion tk skimer.pdfEnviado porWil Vasquez C
- Slide_Training_1.pdfEnviado porSadia Afrin

- Rules for differentiation.docxEnviado porijat
- water filter guideline.docxEnviado porijat
- invert level in lakshmi nagar.docxEnviado porijat
- level of sin.docxEnviado porijat
- ssaaaqbbwbbw.docxEnviado porijat
- hdhehahagwhw.docxEnviado porijat
- hdhehahagwhw.docxEnviado porijat
- QwuiopEnviado porijat
- 1478241748596.pdfEnviado porijat

- CYBERPOLITICSEnviado porParis Arnopoulos
- Analysis of Spread Spectrum in Matlab(10)Enviado porشيماءعبدربة
- HW_CH4(S)Enviado porAbd Tash
- Class DiagramsEnviado porchamari_madushani_silva
- MathDeptNewsletter1 110114.pdfEnviado porMatthew Webbe
- SMD Resistor Code CalculatorEnviado porNisar Ahmed
- Anna University Embedded Systems SyllabusEnviado porIsmaiel Kaladi
- java configur kitEnviado porGunawan
- Zador CodeEnviado porOscar Ariza Caro
- FLOCALC Calc DetailsEnviado porsaeidian
- Ch8 Exergy a Measure of Work Potential-13!3!2014Enviado porFaisal Mumtaz
- Physics I Problems (151).pdfEnviado porBOSS BOSS
- 323322797-class-12-ip-fileEnviado porsada asd
- Casa Valdez Studios: Gary Campbell's Triad Pairs for Jazz.pdfEnviado porJazzBassEdu
- Wave Prop Periodic Structure MeadEnviado porJames Sargianis
- FIN 515 Week 6 Second Course ProjectEnviado pornidal charaf eddine
- TOBCTJ-8-171Enviado porEng Venance Masanja
- Performance of Pyramidal Fin ArraysEnviado pornbaddour
- Industrial Engineering powerpoint.pptxEnviado pormervin velez
- Rose11Enviado porAbdulhameed Olayiwola
- Chapter 9 - The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)Enviado porJoydeep Adak
- Cultural Analytics of Large Datasets From Flickr_2012_DigHumEnviado porgerschgersch
- Mehta Catalogue 2014Enviado pormixfz
- Ch1 2 3 ExercisesEnviado porJermaine La'Nard Hubbard
- 1 6 a discoverengineering docx akeemEnviado porapi-276168925
- Chicken Soup for ProcessEnviado porsamvit4u
- Management Aptitude TestEnviado porrajesh pal
- AppendixEnviado porpuyang48
- Book ListEnviado porShimeque Smith
- Active-HDL 9.1 Release NotesEnviado porAmy Bryant