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CURIE TEMPERATURE

AND HALL EFFECT

BY :
ABHINANDAN YADAV
suvashis maithy
shivam arora

Curie temperature(by Shivam Arora


)

Dielectric:Substance when put in electric field, becomes


polarized.

Polarization:Dipole moment per unit volume.


P= 0E

We can define dielectric


constant as
=C/C0
C Capacitance of
capacitor with dielectric
C0Capacitance of
capacitor with air

Ferroelectricity (discovered
in 1920):Characteristics of having spontaneous polarization
Ability to reverse the direction of polarization with
external electric field

Curie temperature:Above this temperature substance is paramagnetic


Below this temperature substance is ferroelectric

Perovskite:One of the largest oxide families, among which


most important group is ferroelectric oxide
Posses extremely high value of dielectric
constant
Ferro electricity in perovskite discovered in
1940
Crystal structure ABO3 (O= oxygen)

A located at the corner


B located at the center
O located on the face
Resulting perovskite
structure can also be
described by BO6
(octahedral)

Perovskite with multifunction


structure

Reason for changing cubic to


tetragonal structure
Due to temperature change distortion in BO6
Due to this distortion BaTiO3
It will go cubic to tetragonal structure
( decreasing temperature )

Size effect
It will told us degree of distortion

For simple cubic case , geometrically relation


a= 1.44(rA+ rB)= 2(rB + rO)
t= (rA+rO)/1.44(rB +rO)
t is called gold schmithed tolerance factor
If rA is smaller than ideal value than t become
smaller than 1 as result BO6 octahedral will tilt
in order to fill space

Structure base on (t)


Cubic -> .89<t<1
Ex SrTiO3
T=1.00
rA=1.44A0
, rB= .60A0
Low value of t reduce the symmetry
t=.81
orthorhombic

Barium Titanate(BaTiO3)
Used in electronic application due to its excellent
Ferroelectric properties with high dielectric
constant.
It was the first oxide ferroelectric of the form ABO 3.
Above Curie Temperature --> Cubic Structure
Size of Barium ion --> 158pm
Size of Titanate ion --> 60m

Properties of Barium
Titanate
chemical formula

BaTiO3

Molar mass

233.192g

Appearance

White crystal

density

6.02g/cm3

Melting point

1625C

Band gap

3.2eV

Refractive index

2.412

Effect of temperature
At the Curie temperature crystal undergoes phase
transition which is called displacement phase
transition.
Above the Curie temperature Cubic structure is
stable with a= 4.009.
When cooling down below 130C -0C then the
structure is tetragonal with a=3.992 and
c=4.035.
Cooling below 0C tetragonal structure change to
orthorhombic structure and below -90C unit cell
changes to rhombohedral

Concept of spontaneous
polarization
Below the Curie Point one of the axis (c-axis )
stretched about 1% and other axis shrink to
become tetragonal .
In this case titanium ion will occupy the position
near the oxygen ion being displaced by 0.12
from the body centre due to this spontaneous
polarization occur.

In the Para-electric cubic face the centre of

the positive charge coincide with the negative


charge .
Cooling below curie temperature tetragonal
face develop where the centre of the positive
ion displaced relative to negative ion which
leads to the formation of electric dipole. Due
to this spontaneous polarization occurs.

Applications of BaTiO

In the pure from it is electrical insulator but

when dropped with small amount of metal


most notably scandium yttrium etc. become
semiconducting.
As a semiconductor it possesses positive
temperature coefficient of resistance and this
property is used in thermal switch.
Thermal switch is a device which can save our
circuit from heating

Second application of
BaTiO3:BaTiO3 has piezoelectric properties so we can
use it transducer
TRANSDUCER:- device which converts one form
of energy to other form.
Using BaTiO3 we can measure pressure.

HALL EFFECT
THEORY AND APPLICATIONS

By Abhinandan Yadav

OBJECTIVE
To find the Hall coefficient, carrier density and

carrier mobility of the given specimen and


also find the whether the specimen are p-type
or n-type.

LORENTZ FORCE
When a charge particle moving in magnetic

field, charge particle experiences a force due to


magnetic field this forces is called Lorentz force.
This force is perpendicular to the plane of
interactions.

HALL EFFECT
The Hall effect comes from the magnetic

forces on the carriers.


Discovered in 1879 by Edwin Herbart Hall.
The Hall effect is the productions of voltage

difference across current carrying bar in the


presence of magnetic field, perpendicular to
current and magnetic field.

HALL EFFECT

MOBILITY
Mobility is a characteristic property of charge

carriers.

CONDUCTIVITY
Conductivity is the characteristic of the

specimen
conductivity of specimen is given by

nqv
N is number of carrier
q is charge on the carrier
v is velocity of charge carrier

FORMULAS
Hall coefficient
Carrier density
Mobility

R is the Hall coefficient, Vh is the Hall


voltage, H is magnetic field intensity, q is
charge on the carrier, n is carrier density, is
mobility of carrier, is conductivity of carrier.

APPLICATIONS
Magnetometers to measure magnetic field
Hall effect sensor or current sensor
Magnetic positions sensing in brushless DC

electric motor
Automotive fuel level indicator
Spacecraft propulsion
And many more

Hall Effect Sensor


Hall effect sensor is transducer that varies its

output voltage in response to a magnetic


field.

A wheel containing two


magnets passing by a Hall
effect sensor

HALL EFFECT SENSOR


CIRCUIT FOR SENSOR

Automotive Fuel Level


Indicator
The main principle of operations of such

indicator is position sensing of floating


element.
A button magnet is mounted on the surface
of a floating object the current carrying
conductor is fixed on the top of the tank
linking up with this magnet.
As the level of the fuel rises, an increases
magnetic field is applied on the current
carrying conductor resulting higher
voltage

Spacecraft Propulsion
HALL EFFECT THRUSTER
Hall effect thruster is a type of

thruster in which the propellant


is accelerated by an electric field

SPACECRAFT
PROPULSION

Hall thruster. Hall thrusters are largely axially symmetric. This is a


cross-section containing that axis.

RESULT
(CALCULATION,
GRAPH, ERROR
ANALYSIS)
By Suvashis Maity

Curie temperature
Temperature v/s dielectric constant graph
Curie temperature is about 1360c
Above this temperature dielectric is
paramagnetic, does not show
spontaneous polarization
Below this temperature dielectric is
ferroelectric
This temperature is also called
transition temperature.

If we farther decrease the temperature we get this


curve:-

1.Above curie temperature ( Cubic structure)


2. 50c to curie temperature ( Tetragonal structure)
3. -800c to 50c (Orthorhombic structure)
4. <-800c ( Rhombohedral structure)

Behaviour of dielectric constant() with temperature


Above curie temperature
Above curie temperature crystal is paraelectric.
With increase of temperature vibration of each

dipole increase randomness increase


alignment decrease decrease

Below curie temperature


Below curie temperature crystal is ferroelectric.
BaTiO3 is polycrystalline structure form

grains optical and mechanical activity of


each crystal are same in a grain
Spontaneous polarization each domain
aligned
Effective +ve and ve charges appear at each
boundary of grain called space charge
oppose spontaneous polarization
With decrease of temperature space charge
increase dielectric constant decrease

Hall effect

Calibration
curve

Current vs Hall
voltage

Magnetic field vs
Hall voltage

Calculations:-

By variable mag. field method we get R=0.21*10-3 volt m amp-1


-1

Source of errors:1. Effect of earths magnetic field:


a. Horizontal component of earth magnetic field
can effects
the resultant magnetic
field produces by the coil
b. Effect is very less(around 0.6 gauss)
2. Temperature effect:
Increase in temperature scattering increases mobility
decreases

Error analysis:-

Why hall effect?


There are also some methods to

find carrier density and carrier


mobility.
(Wien effect, field effect mobility)
Apply current in +x direction,
Magnetic field in +y direction,
Force will be at +z direction and
mejority carrier gets attracted by
the force .
Corresponding to electron and
hole we get +ve and ve voltage.
Using Hall effect we can find the
types of semiconductor.

REFERENCES:Introduction to Solid State

PhysicsbyCharles Kittel
Solid State Physics byS. O. Pillai
Spontaneous polarizatand ferroelectricity of
BaTiO3 type ceramics by muRata
Electrons and holes in semiconductor by
william shockley
Electronic circuits and theory by Millman and
Halkias
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hall_effect