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# Newton-Raphson Iteration

Group 4
1.Liga Indriyani
2.Irene Fransisca Theresia
3.Ananta Galih Nusantara
4.Aga Batry Heksaprilla

Method

Newton

Rhapson

Newton-Raphson Iteration
Newton Raphson method described by Isaac
Newton in De analyst peraequationes numero
terminorum infinitas(written in 1669, published
in 1711 by William Jones) and the De metodis
fluxionum et serierum infinitarium(written in
1671, translated and published as Method of
Fluxions 1736 by John Colson). Newton used the
method only for the polynomial function. He did
not calculate estimate of Xn but calculate
sequence of polynomials which generate an
approximate value for the root x.In 1690,
Joseph Raphson published a simplified
description in Analyst aequationum universalis.
He introduced the method of estimation Xn.

Newton-Raphson Iteration
It isnt always possible to find iterative formulae of
the type

x n 1 g ( x n )

## that will find the solution of every equation.

Another iterative method that is useful is called the
Newton-Raphson method.
Newton-Raphson method is approach that uses
single starting point and approached it with regard
the slope at that point.

Newton-Raphson Iteration

## This is a fixed point estimation method

and you need to use an estimate of the
root as a starting point.
Start with an estimate,x1, for a root of
f(x)=0.
Draw the tangent to the curve at this
point and take the point where this
tangent crosses the x axis as the next
estimate, x2.

Newton-Raphson Iteration
Suppose we want to find an approximate solution to
the equation

f ( x) 0

## To see how the method works, well sketch y f ( x )

using f ( x ) x 3 x 1 .
The root
lies between
1 and 2.
Well zoom in
near

y f ( x)

Newton-Raphson Iteration

y f ( x)

x2

x1

x0

## Suppose our first estimate or initial value is given by x 0

We draw the tangent to the curve at x 0
The point where the tangent meets the x-axis we
call x1 .
Repeating . . .
Each point x1 , x 2 , . . . is closer to .

Newton-Raphson Iteration
To carry out the iteration we need to find the points
where the tangents meet the x-axis.

( x 0 , y 0 )x

y0

y f ( x)

x 0 x1
x1
The grad. of the tangent

x0

the change in y
the change in x

y0
dy

at x 0
dx
x 0 x1

Newton-Raphson Iteration
We have dy

y0
and we need to find
.
at x 0
x1
dx
x 0 x1
dy
Using y 0 and
at x 0 in the formula isnt very
dx
convenient, so, since y f ( x ) we have
y0
dy
y0 f ( x0 )
and
at x 0
f / ( x0 )
dx
x 0 x1
Then,
f ( x0 )
/
f ( x0 )
x 0 x1
f ( x0 )
f ( x0 )
Rearranging:
x 0 x1 /
x1 x 0 /
f ( x0 )
f ( x0 )

Newton-Raphson Iteration

f ( x0 )
x1 x0 /
f ( x0 )

So,

## We just need to alter the subscripts to find

x 2 x1
Generalising gives

x n 1 x n

x2 :

f ( x1 )
f / ( x1 )
f ( xn )
f / ( xn )

## We dont need a diagram to use this formula but

we must know how to differentiate f ( x ) .
Convergence is often very fast.

Newton-Raphson Iteration
The Newton-Raphson method will fail if
This Methode cannot be used when approach point or initial
point is at extreme points, Because at this point value of
F x
1
F (x) = 0 hence value of denominator F x is equal to zero ,
we can see according to the graphic below:
1

f ( x0 )
x1 x0 /
f ( x0 )

Newton-Raphson Iteration

y x3 2x2 5x 1

x0
With

x 0 1 9
x 1 576

## instead of the closer root

x 0 187

Newton-Raphson Iteration
SUMMARY
To use the Newton-Raphson method to estimate a
root of an equation:
rearrange the equation into the form f ( x ) 0
differentiate f ( x ) to find f / ( x )
substitute f ( x ) and f / ( x ) into the formula

x n 1 x n

f ( xn )
f / ( xn )

## choose a suitable starting value for

x0

Newton-Raphson Iteration

Step of solution :
Deternine the initial value X0
Calculate f(x0) and then check convergence of f(x0)
Determine the function of f(x) and then calculate value of f(
Iteration of x0 and calculate the estimated value of the next

## check the convergence of the x tolerance

Newton-Raphson Iteration

Newton-Raphson Iteration

Contoh Soal
Selesaikan persamaan x - e-x = 0
dengan titik pendekatan awal x0 =0
f(x) = x - e-x f(x)=1+e-x
f(x0) = 0 - e-0 = -1
f(x0) = 1 + e-0 = 2
f x0
1
x1 x0 1
0
0,5
f x0
2

Newton-Raphson Iteration

Contoh Soal
f(x1) = -0,106631 dan f1(x1) = 1,60653
x2 =

x1

f x1

f 1 x1

0,106531
0,5
0,566311
1,60653

f(x2) = -0,00130451
dan f1(x2)0,=
1,56762
f x2
00130451
x3 = x 2 f 1 x 2 0,566311 1,56762 0,567143
f(x3) = -1,96.10-7. Suatu bilangan yang sangat
kecil.
Sehingga akar persamaan x = 0,567143.

Newton-Raphson Iteration

Contoh

## x - e-x = 0 x0 =0, e = 0.00001

Example 2
You are working for DOWN THE TOILET COMPANY that
makes floats for ABC commodes. The floating ball has a
specific gravity of 0.6 and has a radius of 5.5 cm. You
are asked to find the depth to which the ball is submerged
when floating in water.

## Figure 3 Floating ball problem.

http://numericalmethods.eng.usf.edu

Newton-Raphson Iteration

Example
The equation that gives the depth x in meters to
which the ball is submerged under water is given by

## Use the Newtons method of finding roots of equations to find

-the depth x to which the ball is submerged under water.

Newton-Raphson Iteration

Example 1 Cont.
Solution
To aid in the understanding
of how this method works
to find the root of an
equation, the graph of f(x)
is shown to the right,
where

## f x x 3-0.165 x 2+3.993 10- 4

Figure 4 Graph of the function
f(x)

Newton-Raphson Iteration

Example
Solve for f ' x

## f x x 3-0.165 x 2+3.993 10- 4

f ' x 3x 2 -0.33x

## Let us assume the initial guess of the root off x 0

isx0 0.05m . This is a reasonable guess (discuss
x 0.11
x0
why
and
are not good choices) as the
extreme values of the depth x would be 0 and the
diameter (0.11 m) of the ball.

Newton-Raphson Iteration

Example
Iteration 1
The estimate of the root is

f x0
x1 x0
f ' x0
3
2

## 0.05 0.165 0.05 3.993 10 4

0.05
2
3 0.05 0.33 0.05

1.118 10 4
0.05
9 10 3
0.05 0.01242
0.06242

Newton-Raphson Iteration

Example 1 Cont.

## Figure 5 Estimate of the root for the first

iteration.

Newton-Raphson Iteration