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Stonehenge, prehistoric monument on Salisbury Plain,

north of Salisbury, in southwestern England, that dates
from the late Stone and early Bronze ages (about 30001000 bc). The monument, now in ruins, consists of a
circular group of large upright stones surrounded by a
circular earthwork. Stonehenge is the best preserved and
most celebrated of the megalithic monuments of Europe. It
is not known for certain what purpose Stonehenge served,
but many scholars believe the monument was used as a
ceremonial or religious center.
Stonehenge, the circular arrangement of large stones near
Salisbury, England, was probably built in three stages
between about 3000 and 1000 bc. The function of the
monument remains unknown: once believed to be a temple
for Druids or Romans, Stonehenge is now often thought to
have been either a temple for sun worshipers or a type of
astronomical clock or calendar. As the only natural building
stones within 21 km (13 mi), Stonehenge has been
decimated through the centuries by builders and by normal
climatic forces

No tour of England is complete without a visit to Elizabethan Stratford-on- Avon,

birthplace of the most famous writer of that age,- William Shakespeare- and home to
many historic buidings. In the evening we will see a play at the world famous Royal
Shakespeare Theatre.

Hadrians Wall, ancient Roman stone and masonry wall,

constructed to protect the northern boundary of Roman
Britain against hostile tribes. Emperor Hadrian of Rome
ordered its construction around ad 122. The wall extended
117 km (73 mi) from Solway Firth to the mouth of the Tyne
River and was about 6 m (about 20 ft) high and about 2.4 m
(about 8 ft) wide. A military road ran along the south side of
the wall, and a series of heavily garrisoned forts and sentry
posts were built along its length. The wall also marked the
frontier of Roman civil jurisdiction. A few sections of Hadrian's
Wall remain standing in present-day Great Britain.
Little is known of the relations between the Britons and their
conquerors between 85 and 115. Shortly after 115, the
natives rose in revolt against their overlords and annihilated
the Roman garrison at Eboracum (now York). As a result, the
Roman emperor Hadrian visited Britain in 122 and began the
construction of a rampart 117 km (73 mi) long, reaching from
Solway Firth, on the Irish Sea, to the mouth of the Tyne River.
Fragments of this wall, called Hadrian's wall, still stand.
Twenty years later, another wall, called the Antonine Wall,
was built across the narrowest part of the island, from the
Firth of Forth to the Firth of Clyde. The region between the
two walls was a defense area against the Caledonians, who
were eventually driven north of Hadrian's Wall in the 3rd
century. The wall marked the northern Roman frontier during
the next 200 years, a period of relative peace.

Tower of London, historic fortress of the City of London, on the north bank of the
Thames River, built on the remains of Roman fortifications. The tower complex,
which contains 7.5 hectares (18 acres), stands on a slight rise known as Tower
Hill. The original tower, known as the White Tower or Keep, is flanked by four
turrets and enclosed by two lines of fortifications. William the Conqueror ordered
the original tower built and work was begun in 1078. It was designed by Gundulf,
bishop of Rochester, and completed in 1097. Although its exterior was restored in
the 18th century, the interior still has much of its original Norman character. Later
buildings surrounding the original keep include a barracks and a chapel built in the
14th century and restored in the 16th century. The inner fortifications (Ballium
Wall) have 12 towers; the most important are the following: Bloody Tower, so
called from the tradition that the English child king Edward V and his brother
Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, were murdered there in 1483; Record or
Wakefield Tower, where the records were formerly kept and the royal regalia
(symbols and emblems, such as crowns and scepters) are now guarded;
Devereux Tower, named for its most famous prisoner, Robert Devereux, earl of
Essex, who was held there before his execution for treason in 1601, and where, in
1478, George Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence, supposedly was drowned in a barrel
of wine; and Jewel Tower, which formerly housed the regalia.The tower was used
as a royal residence as well as for a prison until Elizabethan times. Use of the
tower as a prison was discontinued in the 19th century. Executions were held
either in the central keep or outside the tower on Tower Hill. It is now largely a
showplace and museum. It holds the crown jewels of England and is one of the
country's greatest tourist attractions. A popular feature is the Yeomen of the Guard,
known as Beefeaters, who still wear colorful uniforms of the Tudor period. The
Tower was once surrounded by a wide moat, which was filled in during the 19th
century because of stagnating water. Work to restore the moat began in the late
1990s, and archaeologists working at the site unearthed centuries-old artifacts.
The most impressive of these were the remains of a 13th-century tower that once
existed in front of todays entrance and a wooden bridge. Other artifacts include an
almost-intact wicker fishing basket from the late 15th or early 16th century, a
money box, pots, and pipes.

Hastings (borough, England), borough, East Sussex,

southeastern England, on the English Channel. The borough is
a popular summer resort, with sandy beaches and a seaside
boulevard. The site was probably occupied in prehistoric times.
By the early Middle Ages the town was a flourishing port, and in
the 11th century it was enfranchised as one of the Cinque
Ports. The duke of Normandy, later William I, king of England,
led his invading army ashore in the vicinity of Hastings on
September 28, 1066. The subsequent battle, known as the
Battle of Hastings, in which William defeated the English king
Harold II, occurred inland from the town. After 1377, when it
was raided and burned by the French, Hastings declined in
importance as a seaport. Its development as a resort dates
from the late 18th century. Population (1991) 81,139

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