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Arts and Science


The Spaniards integrated into the

Filipinos their religion, language,
customs, arts, and sciences.
The Church and State inseparably
carried out Spanish policy in the country.
They destroyed the carved idols out of
wood and stone because these artworks
were regarded as abominable to the faith.

The Spanish Catholic missionaries were

able to remodel Filipino culture and
The Spanish authorities clustered the
Filipino population into village
settlements .
The friars took on the roles as Kings
representatives and interpreters.
Spanish urbanization was centered in

Infrastructure showing Spanish

domination in the country were
Initially, buildings during the Spanish era
were of thatch and bamboo.
After accidental fires that hit some of
them, stones, wood, bricks, and tiles
were used for construction.

The bahay na bato at kahoy (aka

bahay na mestiza), perpetuated the
features of the pre-Hispanic bahay na
The ground floor was used for storage
and for parking vehicles.
Habitation took place upstairs with
specific rooms for guests (azotoea and
sala), dining(comedor), cooking

Spaniards imposed the feudal system.

They created towns and estates by
converging the people through
reduccion, referring to the resettlement
of inhabitants in Spanish-style
poblaciones or at least bajo de las
campanas (within hearing distance of
the church bells)

Poblacion (town center) was organized

around rectangular plaza, with the church
(the most important structure of the plaza
complex) and convent on one side, bounded
by the tribunal or municipio, and by the
houses of Spanish officials and
principales (elite).
The presence of principalia residences in
the plaza complex reflected the
socioeconomic ascendancy.

Spanish society had always stressed

purity of blood in indicating societal
At the top of the social pyramid were
the espaoles, with both Spanish
Espaoles peninsulares born in
Spanish peninsula
Espaoles insulares or Filipinos born
in the colony

Below the espaoles were the

mestizos and mestizas children of an
espaol and an indio or india.
The term mestizo referred to the
mestizos de sangley or Chinese
mestizos, while Spanish mestizos
were called mestizos de espaol

Constituting the majority of the

population were the indios or indios
naturales, pertaining to the natives of
the Philippines without Spanish or
Chinese ancestry.
The colonizers believed that the indios
could not comprehend more than the
basic knowledge.

The ceremonial splendor of the Roman

Catholic Church aroused the admiration of
the natives
More religious orders came to the Philippines
after Legaspis expedition.
Fray Domingo de Salazar was the first
bishop of Manila
He was succeeded by Fray Ignacio de
Santibaez, who became the first
Archbishop of Manila.

By the 16th century, there were Filipinos like

Tomas Pinpin (the first Filipino printer), who
became conversant with the Spanish
He wrote the first published Tagalog book
titled Librong Pag-aaralan nang manga
Tagalog nang uicang Castila (Book that
the Tagalogs Should Study to Learn Spanish)
for the benefit of unlettered Filipinos in the
Spanish language

Basic education were rendered by

parochial schools. The first one was
established in Cebu.
Archbishop Domingo de Salazar ordered
that every town was to have one school for
boys and one for girls.
Attendance was made compulsory
Parents paid the teachers salaries
Catechism, reading and writing in the dialect,
music, the rudiments of arithmetic, and

The Spanish aristocracy tried to

distinguish themselves from the indios

with the use of language and level of
High education was established
exclusively for the Spaniards and
Filipinos, referring to those born in the
colony to Spanish parents.
Colleges and universities were closed to

The Jesuits in Manila founded the first college

for boys in 1589.
It was originally called College of Manila, and
later changed to College of San Ignacio.
It was elevated to the rank of a university by
Pope Gregory XV and was named University
of San Ignacio.
The school was closed in 1768 when the
Jesuits were expelled from the country.
In 1601, the Colegio de San Jose was

In 1611, Fray Miguel de Benavides, the

third archbishop of Manila established the
Colegio de Nuestra Seora del
Santissimo Rosario, later renamed
Universidad de Santo Tomas in 1645
by Pope Innocent X.
The Dominican order that administered
Colegio de Santo Tomas also established
the Colegio de San Juan de Letran to

The girls were also given special

Schools were of two kinds: colegio
(regular school) and beaterio (a
combined school and nunnery).
College of Santa Potenciana (1594)
was the first college for girls in the
The students transferred to College of

In 1621, the Franciscan nuns established

the Real Monasterio de Santa Clara
(now St. Calire Convent of Manila), the
furst nunnery in the Philippines.
In 1694, the Beaterio de la Compania
de Jesus, which was directed under the
Jesuits was founded by Mother Ignacia
del Espiritu Santo, a Filipino nun. This
was established to accommodate Filipina

Escuela Normal (Normal School) for

the training of male teachers for
elementary instruction, was delegated to
In 1893, it became the Normal
Superior, which trained teachers of
secondary courses.

Archbishop Juan A. Rodriguez

founded the Escuela de Tiples in 1743.
It was to provide elementary education
and offer courses in vocal and
instrumental performance.
Damian Domingo founded the
Academy of Fine Arts, the first school
in painting in Manila. He was called
Father of Filipino Painting.

The Academia de Dibujo y Pintura

(Academy of Drawing and Painting) was
founded in 1824.
Some of its students were sent by the
government to pursue higher studies in
Madrid, Rome, and Paris.

In the 19th century, various technical

schools were established.
The School of Mercantile Accounting
and Modern Languages
Commerce was introduced as a three-year
vocational course, with a degree of perito
to be earned by the student after studying.

Mechanics and other vocational

courses were offered in secondary
instruction leading to the bachillerato en
After finishing the course, the students
should take examinations for the title of
perito mecanico (mechanical expert).
Surveying was also introduced as a
vocational course, which conferred the

A nautical school was opened upon

orders of the queen in 1860.
It was placed under the commander
of the fleet.
After four years, the student was to
board a ship.
The degree of piloto de marina
mercante was to be given after the

The seeds of vocational education were

sown by the early Spanish missionaries
who taught the natives better methods
of farming, the cultivation of foreign
plants like indigo, corn, cotton and
wheat, and various crafts like painting,
carpentry, masonry, and dyeing.

The early missionaries were also the first to

establish a printing press in the Philippines.
Books were printed by xylographic
method, using engraved wood blocks.
The first book printed was the Doctrina
Christiana en lengua espaol y tagala
(1593), written by Fray Juan de Oliver.
This catechetical book sought to explain
the importance of Christ, chastity, and
devotion to God in the vernacular.

At the beginning of the 19th century,

pasion was the prevalent form in print.
Written in verse and chanted
during Lent, it depicted the life and
passion of Jesus Christ.
The first Tagalog passion was written by
Gaspar Aquino de Belen.
It was published in 1704.

The second written passion titled Casaysayan

ng Pasiong Mahal ni Jesucristong
Panginoon Natin na Sucat Ipag-alab ng
Sinong Babasa (The Story of the Holy Passion
of Our Lord Jesus Christ that Should Inflame the
Heart of the Reader, circa 1814) was preferred
over the first one.
It was also known as Pasyong Genesis.
This version was edited by Father Mariano
Pilapil and published by the Imprenta de

Jose dela Cruz was the most prominent

poet in the oral tradition during the first
half of the 19th century.
He was said to have written many literary
pieces in elegant Tagalog language.
Among them were: Doce Pares de
Francia; Bernardo Carpio; and, Adela
and Florante.
He was popularly known as the Huseng

Pedro Bukaneg, the blind poet who wrote

the popular Ilocano epic, Lam-Ang, was
hailed as the Father of Ilocos Literature.
Among the Tagalogs, Francisno Balagtas
(later dubbed as the Prince of Tagalog
Poets) became popular with hid poetical
pieces particularly, Florante at Laura.

The first recorded drama was staged in

Cebu in 1598. a comedia written by
Vicente Puche.
It was performed in honor of Msgr. Pedro
de Agurto, Cebus first bishop.
Christian victory over the Muslims was
depicted with a linambay (moro-moro in
Tagalog) in 1637.

Sampaguita, composed by Dolores

Paterno, became popular in the field of
At the end of 17th century, the first
theater was established in Intramuros,
Manila, known as Teatrico Comico.
At the turn of 19th century, the zarzuela,
a Spanish one-act opera with satirical
theme became popular.

Geronimo Aguilar (Franciscan

missionary) first music teacher to win
distinction in Philippine history.
Del Superior Govierno (1811) the
first newspaper in the country appeared
in Manila
Gov. Gen. Manuel Gonzalez de Aguilar

The first scientists of the Philippines were

the Spanish friars
Fr. Manuel Blanco Prince of
Wrote Flora de Filipinas (1837)
This book identified 1,200 kinds of
plants in the country.
The first sundials were built in 1871 at
Tagudin, Ilocos Sur by Fr. Juan

Fr. Marcial Funcia Ramos introduced

the first iron printing press in the Phils. in
He also initiated the use of better paper
such a papel de hilo (linen paper),
instead of rice paper anf Chinese paper.
George Oppel (German) introduced
lithography in 1858.

Galleon ships were used to ferry the

cargoes via Pacific Ocean to Acapulco,
Mexico were brought into the Philippines by
Asian traders from China, Japan, India, Siam,
Moluccas, and other nearby places.
Manila became an important port for the

The galleon trade was a government

monopoly, however, Chinese traders
outnumbered Spanish and Filipino
When galleon trade was ended in
1815, the Philippine trade was opened to
the world, but links to Latin America

The financing of galleon trade was made

possible mainly through the Obras Pias, the
earliest banking institution in the country.
Friars borrowed money from the
government but were not able to pay back
resulting to the bankruptcy of the treasury.
In 1717, Gov. Gen Fernando Manuel de
Bustamante compelled the friars to return
the money and this, however, resulted to his
death in 1719.

Gov. Gen. Jose Basco y Vargas

implemented series of reforms not only to
promote economic development but also to
make the country independent of subsidy
from Mexico.
He founded the Sociedad Economica de
los Amigos del Pais in Manila on April 26,
Candido Lopez Diaz (Filipino) invented a

Tobacco monopoly raised much money for

the colonial government but resulted to the
abuses of some crooked Spanish officials.
Gov. Gen. Fernando Primo de Rivera
abolish the monopoly.
Private firms took control of the tobacco

Gov. Gen. Felix Berenguer de Marquina

succeeded Gov. Gen. Basco.
His first official act was the demolition of
nipa houses in Manila, which to him was an
ugly sight and can even cause fire.
He also ordere the abolition of indulto de
comercio (license to trade), which gave the
alcalde mayor the privilege to control the
prices of goods in his province.

In 1842, Don Sinibaldo de Mas was

sent by Spain to make an economic
He made the following recommendations
in his report:
Opening of more Philippine ports to the
world trade
Encouragement of Chinese immigration
to stimulate agricultural development
Abolition of tobacco monopoly

Eulogio de Otaduy first steam

machine for hulling rice
Nicholas Loney (British merchant) first
steam machine for hulling sugar in
Sinamay or pinukpok, made from
beaten abaca fibers, were extensively
woven in Camarines, Albay, Panay, Bohol,

The Christianization of the Filipinos

was the most lasting legacy of the
Spanish missionaries.
The Spaniards converted much of the
Philippines except Mindanao and Sulu.

During the Spanish era, no building

structure was allowed to rise higher
than the church bells tower.
The highest part of the church was the
At the center and above the altar table
was the tabernacle for storing the
sacred hosts

Jesus Christ has been denoted in various

Santo Nio Child either placed in a manger

or standing
Sovereign King with a globe and a scepter
Nazareno on His way to Calvary
Santo Entierro while the image is placed
inside a sepulcher
Cristo Resucitado resurrected Christ
Santo Cristo Christ on the cross; most

Juan Clemente founded the first hospital in

Manula in 1578.
Out of this hospital originated the present San
Juan de Dios Hospital and the San Lazaro
In 1594, the Santa Hermandad y Cofradia de
la Misericordia (Holy Brotherhood and
Confratertinity of Mercy) was organized for
charitable works and services for the needy.
Real Hospicio de San Jose (1810) first
regular orphanage

Religious calendar stemmed from

celebrations in reverence of Jesus Christ and
Mother Mary and in the feasts of saints.
December 8 Feast of the Immaculate
December 25 Birth of our Lord Jesus Christ
December 16 start of Misa de Aguinaldo
(Mass of the gift)
Christmas Eve (December 24) Misa de
Gallo (Mass of the Rooster)

Panunuluyan a play that reenacts the

search of Joseph and Mary for an inn
Noche Buena a traditional feast celebrated
on Christmas Eve.
People chant the pasion or attend the
cenaculo during Lent.
In Easter Sunday, the traditional salubong
commemorates the Risen Christs first
meeting with His mother.

Moriones Festival (Marinduque)

held during the Holy Week; recalls the
story of Longinus, the Roman centurion
who was converted to Christianity
Self-flagellation was introduce in the
Philippines from Mexico.

Peafrancia Festival grandest celebration

of Bicol where a fluvial procession is made in

honor of Our Lady of Peafrancia every Sept.
17 in Naga, Camarines Sur.
Flores de Mayo devotees offer flowers at
the altar to honor the Blessed Mother.
Before the month ends, Santa Cruz de
Mayo or Santacruzan is held commemorate
the finding of the Holy Cross by Empress
Helena and Emperor Constantine