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Manufacturing of Hydroprocessing

Reactors

Pallav Chattopadhyay
Supervisory Development Program - II

Little Background
Domestic LPG Cylinder

Pressure : 15 Kg/ cm2 (g)


Temperature : 25C
Size : 0.6m L X 0.3m ID
Weight : 16 Kg
Blows up Multi-storied
Building

Hydrocracker Reactor

Pressure : 150 Kg/ cm2 (g)


Temperature : 450C
Size : 30m L X 4.5m ID
Weight : >600 MT
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Construction of Hydroprocessing Reactors


Centre Piece in a process plant
Most critical equipment in a refinery
Operating Temperature : Up to 482C
Operating Pressure of more than 150 bar
Weight up to 1500MT
Thickness as high as 350mm
Diameter up to 5m

Construction of Hydroprocessing Reactors


Base Material : Cr-Mo / Cr-Mo-V
1.25Cr-0.5Mo
2.25Cr - 1Mo
2.25Cr - 1Mo (Modified)
3Cr - 1Mo - 0.25V - Ti - B
3Cr - 1Mo - 0.25V - Cb - Ca
2.25Cr - 1Mo - 0.25V

Inside Cladding / Weld Overlay


SS 321
SS 347

Reactor Details
Type of Reactors

Weld overlay Type


Double / Single layer
SS 347/ 308L

Clad Type
Base material :
Cr-Mo / CrMo-V

Clad material - 3mm


SS 347/
321/ 304L

1991: Hydrocracker Reactor - IOCL, Gujarat

Weight: 450MT
Dia.: 3.8m
Thk.:
228+10mm
Material:
2.25Cr-1Mo +
SS 347 O/L

1998: DHDS Reactor - BPCL Mumbai

Weight: 300MT
Dia: 4.3m
Thk.: 123+7 mm
Material:
1.25Cr-0.5Mo +
SS 347 O/L

2000: HDT Reactor - IOCL Digboi

Weight: 140MT
Dia: 1.8m OD
Thk. : (67+3)mm
Material:
2.25Cr-Mo-V+
SS 347 Clad

2003: DHDS Reactor - HPCL Mumbai

Weight: 280 MT
Size: 3.7m ID X 42.4m Long X (73+3)mm
Material: SA387 Gr 11 Cl.2 + SS347 Clad

Delivery Time: 9.5 Months

2.25Cr-1Mo Steel
Chemical Analysis (%):
C : 0.04~0.15; Mn: 0.25~0.66; P : 0.035 max; S: 0.035 max;
Si: 0.50 max; Cr : 1.88~2.62; Mo: 0.85~1.15

J Factor

: (P+Sn) x (Mn+Si) x 104 100

X Factor : (10P+5Sb+4Sn+As) / 100 15 ppm

Cr-Mo / Cr-Mo-V Material


Typical Mechanical Properties:
UTS : 75~110ksi (515~760MPa) [Max. & Min. PWHT]
YS : 45~60 ksi (310~415MPa)
%El : 18% min
Impact: 55J/48J at (-)18/30/400C [Min & Max PWHT]
Typical PWHT Details:
Soaking Temp.
Soaking Time

: 69114C / 705 10C


: 8~10 / 26~32 hrs

Evolution of Hydro processing Reactors


Year

1st Generation 2nd Generation


1965 ~1972
1973~1980

3rd Generation
1981~1987

Technology
Improvement

Heavy Thick.
Forged Ring

# Forged-In Shell 3Cr-1Mo/ One piece Head 0.25V-Ti-B


(1982)

2.25Cr-1Mo0.25V (1991)

Size &
Thickness

325MT -
500MT -
814MT
(251mm)

850MT (260mm
thk)

1500MT
(282mm)

1500MT
(273mm)

J-Factor / XFactor

No limit

300max -
180 max /
20 ppm max

150 max -
130 max /
15ppm max

100 max /
12ppm max

CVN Impact
Energy
(Avg55J /
Min48J)

100C

00C -
(-)100C -
(-)180C

(-)180C / (-)300C (-)300C / (-)400C

Weld Overlay

SAW Process / SAW / ESW


Plasma Arc

SAW / ESW /
Single Layer

4th Generation
1988~ ..

Improved
Double / Single
layer

COMPARISON OF HYDROPROCESSING REACTOR MATERIALS


Alloy Types

Conventional
2.25CrMo

Enhanced
2.25CrMo

2.25CrMoV

482

454

482

454

454

Room Temp. UTS (Mpa)

517-689

586-758

586-758

586-758

586-758

Room Temp. YS (Mpa)

310 Min

379 Min

414 Min

414 Min

414 Min

159 @ 454C

164 @ 454C

169 @ 454C

164 @ 454C

164 @ 454C

117 @ 482C

NA @ 482C

163 @ 482C

NA @ 482C

NA @ 482C

338mm @ 454C

307mm @ 454C

298mm @ 454C

307mm @ 454C

307mm @ 454C

442mm @ 482C

NA @ 482C

310mm @ 482C

NA @ 482C

NA @ 482C

Typical Wt with Design Temp


at 454C

1035MT

944MT

916MT

944MT

944MT

Typical Wt with Design Temp


at 482C

1359 MT

NA

953 MT

NA

NA

3CrMoVTiB

3CrMoVCbCa

ASME Sec VIII Div.2 Max


Allowable Temp (Deg.C)

Design Stress Intensity as per


ASME Sec VIII Div.2 (Mpa)

Typical Vessel Thickness as


per ASME Sec VIII, Div-2

Welding Consumables
Base Material Welding:
To match base material mechanical properties
Minimum PWHT & Maximum PWHT

Stringent control over chemistry


Strict control on Welding Parameters / Heat Input
DHT / ISR
Higher Soaking Time than Code requirement
Step Cooling Test & Hot Tensile Test - Each batch
Creep Rupture Test at 538C - 900 hrs