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Other applications of high

temperature alloys
The use of high temperature alloys is not limited
to PF coal-fired plant.
They are used in gas, nuclear, other coal fired
power plant as well as other applications..
Here is a summary of several technology
overlaps and the potential for knowledge transfer.

Single cycle gas turbines


Gas turbines in the power and aviation industries
already use nickel alloys. However, technology
transfer from gas turbines to steam turbines is not
direct as the working environments are different.
Gas turbines operate under extremely high
temperatures of c.1400C and low pressures whereas steam turbines operate under lower
temperatures but higher pressures.
Gas turbines are exposed to minimal fireside
corrosion as natural gas combustion produces only
water and carbon dioxide as by-products. Steam
turbines are exposed to oxidation.
Steam turbines are much larger than gas turbines
due to the different thermodynamic cycles this has
significant implications with material expansion.
Additionally, steam turbines have operating lifetimes
of 22 years (200,000 hours) whereas gas turbines
have a three year life expectancy (25,000 hours).
However, steam turbine developers have acquired
some knowledge from gas turbines mainly to do
with maximum temperatures and control of
temperature differences.

Development of Alloys in Gas Turbine


applications

Plot showing the improvement since 1940 in the


temperature capacity of metallic alloys, specifically
nickel-based superalloys, for gas-turbine engine
applications and demonstrating the need for new
materials, such as molybdenum based superalloys,
in order to achieve further technological gains.
http://www.lbl.gov/ritchie/Programs/Moly/Moly.html

Combined cycle gas turbine


In combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT), waste heat
from the gas turbine is passed to a heat recover
steam generator (HRSG).
The HRSG is exposed to a clean flue gas from the
gas turbine, comprised of nitrogen, carbon dioxide
and water vapour, and generates steam for use in
a steam turbine.
Fireside corrosion is negligible, however oxidation
is probable. Alloys used in a HRSG have been
derived from PF coal-fired plant boilers.
Nuclear power
The nuclear power industry uses steam turbines.
The alloys used in the steam turbine from the
nuclear power plant and main steam pipes can be
directly used in a PF coal-fired plant and vice
versa as the conditions and capacities are similar.
The alloys used in nuclear reactors are different as
they are exposed to radiation induced corrosion
and most operate in a subcritical steam
environment,
Supercritical reactors are currently not expected
before 2030.

Circulating fluidised bed combustion


Circulating fluidised bed combustion (CFBC) boilers
operate at lower combustion temperatures than PF
coal-fired boilers, <800C as opposed to 1600C.
Fireside corrosion has less of an impact.
Nickel alloys or advanced steels developed in AUSC research programmes can potentially be used
directly in CFBC boilers.