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# Chapter 02

Direct Current
Meters

Warm - ups

Objectives
At the end of this chapter, the
students should be able to:
Describe about the types of suspension
used in the dArsonval meter movement.
Explain in detail the principles of
operation of the pmmc or dArsonval
meter movement.

Objectives
Explain the purpose of shunts
across a meter and multipliers in
series with a meter.
Analyze a circuit in terms of
Ammeter Insertion Errors.

Objectives
Describe the construction and
operation of a basic Ohmmeter.
Perform calculations to obtain
specific meter range.
Apply the concepts related to error
to the circuits calculation.

Outlines
Introduction
pmmc = dArsonval meter
movement
Ayrton Shunt
dArsonval used in DC Voltmeter
dArsonval used in DC Ammeter

Outlines
Ammeter Insertion Effects
Ohmmeter
Multiple-range Ohmmeter

Outlines
Multi-meter
Example of applications
Assignment 1

What is a meter?
A meter is any device built to accurately
detect and display an electrical quantity in
a form readable by a human being.
Usually this "readable form" is visual:
motion of a pointer on a scale, a series of
lights arranged to form a "bargraph," or
some sort of display composed of
numerical figures.

What is a meter?
Most modern meters are "digital" in
design, meaning that their readable
display is in the form of numerical digits.
Older designs of meters are mechanical
in nature, using some kind of pointer
device to show quantity of measurement.

What is a meter?
The display mechanism of a meter is
often referred to as a movement,
borrowing from its mechanical nature to
move a pointer along a scale so that a
measured value may be read.
Mechanical meter movement designs are
very understandable.

What is a meter?
Most mechanical movements are based
on the principle of electromagnetism:
that electric current through a conductor
produces a magnetic field perpendicular
to the axis of electron flow.
The greater the electric current, the
stronger the magnetic field produced.

What is a meter?
If the magnetic field formed by the conductor is
allowed to interact with another magnetic field,
a physical force will be generated between the
two sources of fields.
If one of these sources is free to move with
respect to the other, it will do so as current is
conducted through the wire, the motion
(usually against the resistance of a spring)
being proportional to strength of current.

What is a meter?
Practical electromagnetic meter movements
can be made now where a pivoting wire coil
is suspended in a strong magnetic field,
shielded from the majority of outside
influences.
Such an instrument design is generally
known as a permanent-magnet, moving coil,
or PMMC movement .

What is a meter?

pmmc=dArsonval
In the picture above, the meter movement
"needle" is shown pointing somewhere
around 35 percent of full-scale, zero being
full to the left of the arc and full-scale being
completely to the right of the arc.
An increase in measured current will drive
the needle to point further to the right and a
decrease will cause the needle to drop back
down toward its resting point on the left.

pmmc=dArsonval
The arc on the meter display is labeled with numbers
to indicate the value of the quantity being measured,
whatever that quantity is.
In other words, if it takes 50 microamps of current to
drive the needle fully to the right (making this a "50
A full-scale movement"), the scale would have 0 A
written at the very left end and 50 A at the very
right, 25 A being marked in the middle of the scale.
In all likelihood, the scale would be divided into much
smaller graduating marks, probably every 5 or 1 A,
to allow whoever is viewing the movement to infer a
more precise reading from the needle's position.

pmmc=dArsonval
The basic principle of this device is the
interaction of magnetic fields from a
permanent magnet and the field around a
conductor (a simple electromagnet).
A permanent-magnet moving-coil (PMMC)
movement is based upon a fixed permanent
magnet and a coil of wire which is able to
move,
as in next figures.

pmmc=dArsonval
The basic principle of this device is the
interaction of magnetic fields from a
permanent magnet and the field around a
conductor (a simple electromagnet).
A permanent-magnet moving-coil (PMMC)
movement is based upon a fixed permanent
magnet and a coil of wire which is able to
move,
as in next figures.

pmmc=dArsonval
When the switch is
closed, the coil will
have a magnetic
field which will react
to the magnetic
field of the
permanent magnet.
The bottom portion
of the coil in Figure
2(a) will be the
north pole of this
electromagnet.
Since opposite
poles attract, the
coil will move to the
position shown in
Figure 2(b).

pmmc=dArsonval
To use pmmc as a meter,
2 problems must be
solved.
First, a way must be
found to return the coil to
its original position when
there is no current
through the coil.
Second, a method is
needed to indicate the
amount of coil
movement.

pmmc=dArsonval
The first problem is solved by
the:
use of hairsprings attached to
each end of the coil.
These hairsprings can also be
used to make the electrical
connections to the coil.
With the hairsprings, the coil
when there is no current.
The springs will also tend to
resist the movement of the coil
when there is current through
the coil.

pmmc=dArsonval
As the current through the coil
increases, the magnetic field generated
around the coil increases.
The stronger the magnetic field
around the coil, the farther the coil will
move. This is a good basis for a meter.
But, how will you know how far the coil
moves?
If a pointer is attached to the coil and
extended out to a scale, the pointer will
move as the coil moves, and the scale
can be marked to indicate the amount of
current through the coil.

pmmc=dArsonval

## 2 other features are used

to increase the accuracy&
efficiency of this meter.
First, an iron core is
placed inside the coil to
concentrate the magnetic
fields.
Second, curved pole
pieces are attached to the
magnet to ensure that the
turning force on the coil
increases steadily as the
current increases.
The meter movement as
it appears when fully
assembled is shown in this
figure.

pmmc=dArsonval
The dArsonval meter movement is very widely
used.
Current from a measured circuit passes tru the
windings of the moving coils causes it to
behave as an electromagnetic.
The poles of EMT interact with the poles of PM,
causing the coils to rotate.
The pointer deflects up scale whenever current
flows in proper direction in the coil.

pmmc=dArsonval
For this reason, all DC meter movements
show polarity markings.
dArsonval meter movement is a current
responding device.
Regardless of the units (volt,ohm,etc) for
which the scale is calibrated, the moving
coil responds to the amount of current
thru its windings.

summary
The basic principle and operation of pmmc or dArsonval
meter movement.
The two (2) features used to increase the accuracy&
efficiency of this PMMC meters are:
First, an iron core is placed inside the coil to
concentrate the magnetic fields.
Second, curved pole pieces are attached to the magnet
to ensure that the turning force on the coil increases
steadily as the current increases.
Regardless of the units (volt,ohm,etc) for which the scale
is calibrated, the moving coil responds to the amount of
current thru its windings.

conclusion
The students should be able to describe
in detail about the basic principles of
operation of the pmmc or dArsonval
meter movement.

evaluation
Label the
figure
appropriately