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Capacity Enhancement of Ammonia Production By

optimizing the performance of Ammonia Convertor

GROUP MEMBERS
DANYAL KHAN
ZEESHAN ZAHID
FAWAD AHMED
ABDUL RAFAY
ZULFIQAR ALI SADIQ
SAQIB KHAN

CONTENTS

Introduction

Background

Problem statement

Scope of study

Literature review

Methodology

Results

Conclusion

INTRODUCTION

From the last few decades there is an exponential increase in the world population which
cause:
Continuous decrease in land and increase in food demand

Here ammonia comes into the matter because:


Ammonia synthetic fertilizer requires less land for more food production

With this ammonia can further be used in:

1.

Explosives

2.

Fermentation.

3.

Refrigeration.

4.

Cleaning agents.

BACKGROUND
How ammonia is produced?
METHANE

AIR

NITROGEN
AMMONIA
CONVERTER
AMMONIA
FERTILIZER

REFORMING

CARBON DIOXIDE

HYDROGEN

UREA

BACKGROUND

why ammonia production is


important?

Ammonia act as a refrigerant


replaced CFCs that cause ozone
depletion.

It is a source of nitrogen for


growing plants in the form of
fertilizer.

In nature NH3 is produced by


biological process thus naturally
decomposed and does not
contribute in green house effect.

HABER
BOSCH

PROBLEM STATEMENT

World apparent consumption of


ammonia increased by 22%
during 20042013.

Growth is forecast at 2.7%


annually during 20132018 .

In Pakistan apparent consumption


of ammonia increased by 6%
during 20032013.

Growth is forecast at 1 %
annually during 20132018

Ammonia Production
3 2.35
2

2.1

2.25

2.35

2.45

2.5

2005

2007

2009

2011

2013

Million ton 1
0

2003

Year
Production

SCOPE OF STUDY

This study aims to increase the production of ammonia by:


Revamping of 2 radial bed ammonia converter (currently installed at FFBL)
with 3 radial bed ammonia converter using same amount of feed stock.

OBJECTIVES

FOR REVAMPING FOLLOWING OBJECTIVES HAVE TO BE FULFILLED:

Literature survey

Mathematical modelling of ammonia converter.

Comparative study of results.

Mass balance.

Energy balance.

Hazard and operability study.

Economic analysis.

Types of ammonia converters


Axial flow

Radial flow

Axial radial

Conversion

Low conversion per pass

More conversion per pass

Maximum conversion per


pass

Pressure drop

Maximum pressure drop

Minimum pressure drop

Low than axial but more


than radial flow

Temperature

Exothermic heat release is


small

Exothermic heat release is


more

Exothermic heat release is


maximum

Types of ammonia converters


Name

Flow type

Heat exchange

Number of
converters

Numer of catalyst
beds

Uhde

Radial flow

Intercooled

Two

Three

Kellog(kbr)

Axial flow

Intercooled or
quench

One

Two or four

Topsoe

Radial flow

Intercooled or
quench

One or two

Two or three

Casale

Axial radial flow

intercooled

One

Three

ICI

Axial flow

Intercooled and
quench

One

Three beds

LITERATURE SURVEY (Contd.)


Arrangement of three catalyst bed ammonia converter
Cold shot
Interbed exchanger 1

Catalyst bed 1

Catalyst bed 2

Interbed exchanger 2

Catalyst bed 3

Gas outlet

Main gas inlet


Inlet gas interbed
heat exchanger

LITERATURE SURVEY (Contd.)

WHY
HALDOR
TOPSOE
AMMONIA
CONVERTOR
IS
BEING PREFERRED?

100% radial flow gives higher


conversion

Indirect cooling of the gas in


inter-bed
heat
exchanger
avoid dilution of converted
gas.

Inlet gas passes through all


beds fully utilizing the total
installed catalyst volume.

ADVANTAGES OF TWO CATALYST BED OVER THREE CATALYST BED


Higher conversion because contact area is increased in three catalyst bed
Since ammonia formation is an exothermic reaction installation of
second inter-bed heat exchanger exchange more heat and shift
equilibrium in forward direction.
More utilization of total installed catalyst volume.

METHODOLOGY
To date, most of the ammonia converters are operating as a black box and simulation
and modelling was performed by provider.
Therefore, a two dimensional mathematical model was developed for the simulation
of a radial flow Ammonia converter using MATLAB.
Simulation of two as well as three catalyst bed ammonia converter is carried out.

METHODOLOGY

MATHEMATICAL MODEL:

In this model mass and energy balance equations are solved simultaneously for a
cylindrical differential element to obtain:

I.

Final fractional conversion

II.

Temperature profile.

METHODOLOGY

ASSUMPTIONS:

Steady state operation.

External transport resistances between catalyst particles and gas are


negligible.

Interfacial gradients inside catalyst are negligible.

Tempertaure of the gas flowing through the catalyst bed is the same as the
catalyst particle at each position.

METHODOLOGY

MASS BALANCE EQUATION:

METHODOLOGY

ENERGY BALANCE EQUATION:

METHODOLOGY

OPERATING CONDITIONS AND DATA USED IN THE SIMULATION OF RADIAL


AMMONIA SYNTHESIS CONVERTER

RESULTS

Fractional conversion along the reactor beds.

RESULTS

Reactants/product concentration across each catalyst bed.

RESULTS

Temperature profile along each catalyst bed.

CONCLUSION

A three radial bed Ammonia Convertor like haldor topsoe


S300, is an attractive option for increasing the capacity of
the production of ammonia.