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CHEMISTRY

PROJECT
TOPIC :STRUCTUREE OF
ATOM
MADE BY :NIKUNJ AGARWAL

ATOMS
1. ATOMS ARE SMALLEST
ELEMENT OF MATTER .
2. ATOMS ARE MADE UP OF
THREE SUBATOMIC
PARTICLES : ELECTRONS,
PROTONS AND NEUTRONS.
3. PROTON AND NEUTRON ARE
PRESENT IN A SMALL NUCLEUS AT
THE CENTER OF ATOM.
4.ELECTRON ARE PRESENT
OUTSIDE THE
NUCLEUS.
5. ATOMS HAVE FOUR SHELL K, L,
M, N.

DISCOVERY OF ELECTRON
THE EXISTENCE OF ELECTRON
IN AN ATOM WAS SHOWN BY J.J
THOMSAN IN 1897.THOMSON
PASSED ELECTRICITY AT HIGH
VOLTAGE THROUGH A GAS AT
VERY LOW PRESSURE TAKEN IN
A DISCHARGE TUBE.STREAMS
OF MINUTE PARTICLES WERE
GIVEN OUT BY CATHODE
(NEGATIVE ELECTRODE).THESE
STREAMS OF PARTICAL ARE
CALLED CATHODE RAYS
(BECAUSE THEY COME OUT OF
CATHODE). THE MASS AND
CHARGE OF THE CATHODE RAY

ELECTRON

PARTICLES DOES NOT DEPEND ON THE NATURE OF


GAS TAKEN IN THE DISCHARGE TUBE. CATHODE
RAYS CONSISTS OF SMALL, NEGATIVELY CHARGED
PARTICLES CALLED ELECTRONS. SINCE ALL THE
GASES FROM CATHODE RAYS, IT WAS CONCLUDE
THAT ALL THE ATOMS CONTAIN NEGATIVELY
CHARGED PARTICLES CALLED ELECTRONS.

THOMSON EXPLAINED THE FORMATION OF CATHODE


RAYS AS FOLLOWS. THE GAS TAKEN IN THE DISCHARGE
TUBE CONSISTS OF ATOM, AND ALL THE ATOMS
CONTAIN ELECTRONS. WHEN HIGH ELECTRICAL
VOLTAGE IS APPLIED, THE ELECTRIAL ENERGY PUSHES
OUT SOME OF THE ELECTRON FROM THE ATOMS OF
THE GAS. THESE FAST MOVING ELECTRON FROM
CATHODE RAYS. THUS, THE FORMATION OF CATHODE
RAYS SHOWN THAT ONE OF THE SUBATOMIC PARTICLE
PRESENT IN ALL THE ATOMS IS THE

NEGATIVELY CHARGED ELECTRON. WE CAN NOW


DEFINE AN ELECTRON AS FOLLOWS. BASICALLY THE
ELECTRON IS A NEGATIVELY CHARGED OPARTICLE
FOUND IN THE ATOMS OF ALL THE ELEMENTS. THE
ELECTRON ARE LOCATED OUTSIDE THE NUCLEUS IN
AN ATOM. ONLY HYDROGEN ATOM CONTAINS ONE
ELECTRON, ALL OTHER ATOMS CONTAIN MORE
THAN ONE ELECTRON. AN ELECTRON IS USUALLY
REPRESENTED BY THE SYMBOL E- (E FOR ELECTRON
AND MINUS SIGN FOR NEGATIVE CHARGE).

SOMEWHERE BETWEEN
THOMSON AND
CHADWICK, PHYSICISTS
REALIZED THAT THERE
ARE POSITIVELY CHARGED
CONSTITUENTS OF THE
NUCLEUS, WHICH WE
CALL 'PROTONS'. THE
WAY THIS HAPPENED WAS
A GRADUAL PROCESS,
AND THAT IS WHY IT IS
HARD TO SAY EXACTLY
WHO DISCOVERED THE
PROTON, ALTHOUGH IF
YOU HAD PUT A NAME
AGAINST IT, IT WOULD BE
RUTHFORD, SORT OF.

DISCOVERY OF PROTON

PROTON

DEMONSTRATED THAT THESE POSITIVE CHARGES


WERE CONCENTRATED IN A VERY SMALL
FRACTION OF THE ATOMS' VOLUME. IN 1919
RUTHERFORD DISCOVERED THAT HE COULD
CHANGE ONE ELEMENT INTO ANOTHER BY
STRIKING IT WITH ENERGETIC ALPHA PARTICLES
(WHICH WE NOW KNOW ARE JUST HELIUM
NUCLEI). IN THE EARLY 1920'S RUTHERFORD AND
OTHER PHYSICISTS MADE A NUMBER
EXPERIMENTS, TRANSMUTING ONE ATOM INTO
ANOTHER. IN EVERY CASE, HYDROGEN NUCLEI
WERE EMITTED IN THE PROCESS. IT WAS
APPARENT THAT THE HYDROGEN NUCLEUS
PLAYED A FUNDAMENTAL ROLE IN ATOMIC
STRUCTURE, AND BY COMPARING NUCLEAR
MASSES TO CHARGES, IT WAS REALIZED THAT

DISCOVERY OF NEUTRONS
AFTER THE DISCOVERY OF
PROTON AND ELECTRONS,
IT WA NOTICED THAT ALL
THE MASS OF AN
ATOMCANNOT BE
ACCOUNTED FOR ON THE
BASIS OF ONLY PROTONS
AND ELECRTONS PRESENT
IN IT. FOR EXAMPLE, A
CARBON ATOM CONTAINS 6
P[ROTONS AND 6
ELECTRONS. NOW, THE
MASS OF ELECTRONS IS SO
SMALL IT CAN BE IGNORED.
SO, THE ATOMIC MASS OF
CARBON SHOULD BE ONLY

THIS PROBLEM WAS SOLVED BY THE DISCOVERY OF


ANOTHER SUBATOMIC PARTICLE BY JAMES CHADWICK
IN 1932. THIS PARTICLE IS CALLED NEUTRON. THE
NEUTRON IS NATURAL PARTICLE FOUND IN THE
NUCLUES OF ANY ATOM. ATOMS OF ALL THE ELEMENT
CONTAIN NEUTRON EXCEPT ORDINARY HYDROGEN
ATOM WHICH DOES NOT CONTAIN ANY NEUTRON.
THUS, THE SUBATOMIC PARTICLES NOT PRESENT IN A
HYDROGEN ATOM IS NEUTRON. A HYDROGEN ATOM
CONTAINS ONLY ONE PROTON AND ONE ELECTRON. A
NEUTRON IS REPRESENTED BY THE SYMBOL N.

THOMSONS MODAL OF THE ATOM


WHEN J. J THOMSAN PROPESED HIS
MODEL OF THE ATOM IN 1903, THEN
ONLY ELECTRON AND PROTON WERE
KNOWN TO BE PREENT IN THE ATOM.
ACCORDING TO THOMSONS MODEL OF
THE ATOM :
1. ANY ATOM COSISTS OF A SPHERE
(OR BALL) OF POSITIVE CHARGE
WITH NEGATIVELY CHARGE
ELECTRON EMBEDDED IN IT.
2. THE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE
CHARGE IN ANY ATOM ARE EQUAL IN
MAGNITUDE, DUE TO WHICH ANY
ATOM IS ELECTRICALLY NATURAL. IT
HAS NO OVERALL POSITIVE OR
NEGATIVE CHARGE.

THE NEGATIVELY CHARGED ELECTRON ARE SPREAD


THROUGHOUT THE POSITIVE CHARGED. THE TOTAL
NEGATIVE CHARGED OF ELECTRONS IS EQUAL TO
THE TOTAL POSITIVE CHARGED OF THE SPHERE.
THESE EQUAL AND OPPOSITE CHARGES BALACE
EACH OTHER DUE TO WHICH ANY ATOM BECOME
ELECTRICALLY NEUTRAL ON THE HOLE. THOMSONS
MODAL OF THE ATOM IS SIMILAR TO THAT OF A
CHRISMAS PDDING. THE ELECTRONS EMBEDDED IN A
SPHERE OF POSITIVE CHARGE ARE LIKE THE
CURRENTS (DRY FRUITS) IN A SPHERICAL CHRISMAS
PUDDING. WE CAN ALSO COMPARE THOMSONS
MODAL OF ATOM TO A WATERMALEN. THE RED,
EDIBLE PART OF WATERMALEN REPRESENT THE
SPHERE OF POSITIVE CHARGE WHEREAS THE BLACK
SEEDS EMBEDDED IN WATERMALEN ARE LIKE THE
ELECTRONS. ALTHROUGH THOMSONS MODAL OF
ATOM EXPLAIN THE ELECTRICALLY NEUTRAL NATURE

RATHERFORDS MODAL OF AN ATOM


BY 1911 THE COMPONENTS
OF THE ATOM HAD BEEN
DISCOVERED. THE ATOM
CONSISTED OF SUBATOMIC
PARTICLES CALLED PROTONS
AND ELECTRONS. HOWEVER,
IT WAS NOT CLEAR HOW
THESE PROTONS AND
ELECTRONS WERE ARRANGED
WITHIN THE ATOM. J.J.
THOMSON SUGGESTED
THE"PLUM PUDDING" MODEL.
IN THIS MODEL THE
ELECTRONS AND PROTONS
ARE UNIFORMLY MIXED
THROUGHOUT THE ATOM:

RUTHERFORD TESTED THOMSON'S HYPOTHESIS BY DEVISING


HIS "GOLD FOIL" EXPERIMENT. RUTHERFORD REASONED THAT
IF THOMSON'S MODEL WAS CORRECT THEN THE MASS OF THE
ATOM WAS SPREAD OUT THROUGHOUT THE ATOM. THEN, IF HE
SHOT HIGH VELOCITY ALPHA PARTICLES (HELIUM NUCLEI) AT
AN ATOM THEN THERE WOULD BE VERY LITTLE TO DEFLECT
THE ALPHA PARTICLES. HE DECIDED TO TEST THIS WITH A THIN
FILM OF GOLD ATOMS. AS EXPECTED, MOST ALPHA PARTICLES
WENT RIGHT THROUGH THE GOLD FOIL BUT TO HIS
AMAZEMENT A FEW ALPHA PARTICLES REBOUNDED ALMOST
DIRECTLY BACKWARDS. THESE DEFLECTIONS WERE NOT
CONSISTENT WITH THOMSON'S MODEL. RUTHERFORD WAS
FORCED TO DISCARD THE PLUM PUDDING MODEL AND
REASONED THAT THE ONLY WAY THE ALPHA PARTICLES COULD
BE DEFLECTED BACKWARDS WAS IF MOST OF THE MASS IN AN
ATOM WAS CONCENTRATED IN A NUCLEUS. HE THUS
DEVELOPED THE PLANETARY MODEL OF THE ATOM WHICH PUT
ALL THE PROTONS IN THE NUCLEUS AND THE ELECTRONS
ORBITED AROUND THE NUCLEUS LIKE PLANETS AROUND THE
SUN.

BOHRS MODAL OF AN ATOM


IN 1913 NIELS BOHR
CAME TO WORK IN THE
LABORATORY OF
ERNEST RUTHERFORD.
RUTHERFORD, WHO
HAD A FEW YEARS
EARLIER, DISCOVERED
THE PLANETARY MODEL
OF THE ATOM ASKED
BOHR TO WORK ON IT
BECAUSE THERE WERE
SOME PROBLEMS WITH
THE MODEL:

WITH THE BOHR MODEL OF THE ATOM. BOHR'S MODEL


OF THE ATOM REVOLUTIONIZED ATOMIC PHYSICS.THE
BOHR MODEL CONSISTS OF FOUR
PRINCIPLES:1)ELECTRONS ASSUME ONLY CERTAIN
ORBITS AROUND THE NUCLEUS. THESE ORBITS ARE
STABLE AND CALLED "STATIONARY" ORBITS.2)EACH
ORBIT HAS AN ENERGY ASSOCIATED WITH IT. FOR
EXAMPLE THE ORBIT CLOSEST TO THE NUCLEUS HAS
AN ENERGY E1, THE NEXT CLOSEST E2 AND SO
ON.3)LIGHT ISEMITTEDWHEN AN ELECTRON JUMPS
FROM A HIGHER ORBIT TO A LOWER ORBIT
ANDABSORBEDWHEN IT JUMPS FROM A LOWER TO
HIGHER ORBIT.4)THE ENERGY AND FREQUENCY OF
LIGHT EMITTED OR ABSORBED IS GIVEN BY THE
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE TWO ORBIT ENERGIES.
WITH THESE CONDITIONS BOHR WAS ABLE TO EXPLAIN
THE STABILITY OF ATOMS AS WELL AS THE EMISSION
SPECTRUM OF HYDROGEN. ACCORDING TO BOHR'S

THANK YOU