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Material Balance Equation

Oil Material Balance Equation

Bo Boi Rsi Rs Bg
N p Bo R p Rs Bg W p Bw N i Boi
Boi

Bg

Cw S wc C f

m
1 1 m
B

gi
1 S wc

We Bw

Nomenclature
Np=cumulativeoilproducedatreservoirpressurep,STB
Ni=initialoilinplace,STB
Gi Bgi
m=

N i Boi
Rs = ratio of gas in place to oil in place under standard conditions,
SCF/STB
Gi=initialgasinplace,SCF
We=cumulativewaterinflux,STB
Wp=cumulativewaterproduced,STB
Rp=cumulativeproducinggasoilratio,SCF/STB=Gp/Np
Gp=cumulativegasproduced,SCF

Nomenclature
p =(pip),psia,wherep iistheinitialpressure

Rs=solutiongasratio,SCF/STB
Bo=oilformationvolumefactor,bbl/STB
Bg=gasformationvolumefactor,bbl/SCF= .005

zT

B w=waterformationvolumefactor,bbl/STB
Cw=compressibilityofwater,psi1
Cf=compressibilityofformation,psi1

Swc=connatewatersaturation,fraction
subscripti=initialconditions
(Forexample,Boi=initialformationvolumefactor,bbl/STB)

In

words, the oil material balance

equation says that any production we
obtain is due to change in volume of
reservoir rock and fluids and/or
displacement by encroaching water from

Production

conditions

We measure these terms

N p Bo R p Rs Bg W p Bw
Oil produced at reservoir conditions,
(res. bbl)

NpBo

Note that Bo includes changes in oil volume due to

gas going into solution.

Np(Rp

Rs)Bg Amount of free gas

produced at reservoir conditions.
Note

Rp is total produced gas (free +

dissolved) per barrel; Rp is gas dissolved at
reservoir conditions that is produced.
The effect of oil volume changes due to
solution gas, Rs is included in Bo

injected)

WpBw

Accounts

for expansion of oil and free

gas in the reservoir, as well as influx of
water and change in reservoir pore
volume.
Expansion of oil + dissolved gas
N i Bo Boi Rsi Rs Bg

Expansion

Bg

N i Boi m
1 Gi Bg Gi Bgi
B

gi
Expansion

Cw S wc C f
N i Boi 1 m
1 S wc
Natural

Cw S wc C f
p N i Boi Gi Bgi

1 S wc

Water influx
We Bw

Initial Reservoir Conditions

S u rf a c e C o n d itio n s

G i scf

R e s e r v o ir C o n d itio n s
G as
O il

N iR

si

scf

N iSTB

Original Reservoir Oil = NiBoi res bbl.

Original Reservoir Gas = GiBgi res bbl. = m NiBoi res bbl

Reservoir Pore Volume = Vp bbl

Pore Volume occupied by water = VpSwc bbl
Hydrocarbon Pore Volume (HCPV) = Vp (1 Swc) bbl
But HCPV = NiBoi + m NiBoi = (1+m) NiBoi bbl
So Vp = (1+m) NiBoi / (1 Swc) bbl
Free gas volume = mNiBoi bbl
So initial gas saturation = mNiBoi/ Vp
= mNiBoi (1 Swc) /((1+m) NiBoi )
Initial oil saturation = NiBoi/ Vp
= NiBoi (1 Swc) /((1+m) NiBoi )

After Production of Oil and Gas

R e s e r v o ir C o n d itio n s
( G i+ N iR s i - N p R p
-(N i - N p)R s)B g
bblgas
G as
O il

S u r f a c e C o n d itio n s

G i scf

N iR

si

N pR

scf

scf

N iSTB

(N i - N p)B o b b l
c o n ta in in g
(N i - N p)R s s c f g a s

Free Gas in Reservoir = (mNiBoi/Bgi+NiRsi - NpRp

- (Ni Np)Rs)Bg bbl.

STB

After Production of Oil and Gas

Saturation = Free Gas Volume
Pore Volume

Gas

(mNiBoi/Bgi+NiRsi - NpRp - (Ni Np)Rs)Bg [(1+m)

NiBoi / (1 Swc) ]

Volume

Oil

(Ni Np)Bo (1+m) NiBoi / (1 Swc)

Example
For a solution gas drive reservoir, calculate the
original oil in place if the following information is
given. Assume water and rock compressibility
are negligible.
p=2,000psia
Bo=1.22bbl/STB
Rs=350SCF/STB
z=0.80
Rsi=600SCF/STB
Boi=1.3bbl/STB
Np=20.0MMSTB
T=150oF
Rp = 900 SCF/STB

Solution
Solution

Gas drive reservoir implies:

Negligible

water influx.
No initial gas cap.

N B

N p Bo R p Rs Bg W p Bw
i

Boi Rsi Rs Bg

Solution
Calculate

Bg

zT
Bg .005
p

.8150 460
.005
2,000
7.625 10 4 bbl/SCF

Solution
Calculate

reservoir production

N p Bo R p Rs Bg W p Bw 20 106 1.22 900 350 7.625 10 4 0

3.279 107 res. bbl

Calculate

Bo Boi Rsi Rs Bg 1.22 1.3 600 350 7.625 104

.1106 res. bbl/STB

Solution
Solve

for initial oil in place

Ni

N p Bo R p Rs Bg W p Bw

Bo Boi Rsi Rs Bg

3.279 10
Ni
296MMSTB
.1106
7

Condensed Notation
The

material balance equation is lengthy;

cumbersome to work with.
Introduce shorthand notation to facilitate
manipulation.
Total Production of oil, water and gas:

F N p Bo R p Rs Bg W p Bw

Condensed Notation
Reservoir

per STB basis)
Expansion

of oil and dissolved gas

Eo Bo Boi Rsi Rs Bg

Expansion

of gas-cap gas

Expansion

cw S wc c f
p
1 m Boi
1 S wc

mE g mBoi
1
Bgi

1 m E f , w

Bg

Note
The

fluid expansion terms Eo, Eg, and Ef,w

are composed only of fluid PVT
properties and connate water saturation.
At

reservoir conditions (Temperature

constant), they are functions of reservoir
pressure only.

In

terms of our shorthand notation

F Ni Eo mEg 1 mE f , w We Bw

Simplifications:
Solution

F N i Eo E f , w

Solution Gas Drive

Production

(F) is measured.
Eo and Ef,w are determined from PVT and
rock properties.
Material balance is a straight line
equation
Plot

of F versus Eo + Ef,w is a straight line

with intercept 0 and slope Ni

Slope = Ni

(0 ,0 )

In

this case, the material balance equation can

be simplified to

F N i Eo mE g 1 m E f , w
Straight

line form:

F N i Eo E f , w m E g E f , w

Eg E f ,w
F
N i mN i
Eo E f , w
Eo E f , w

S lo p e = m N

F
Eo E f ,w

}
(0 ,0 )

Ni

E
E

g
o

E f ,w

E f ,w

Material Balance Equations

For Gas Reservoirs

Problem
Suppose

tank of gas buried
underground
Fixed

known
temperature
Pressure known
Tank Volume
unknown

G as
pi
T
Gi

Problem (Contd)
G

Suppose

we remove
Gp scf gas
Pressure

falls to a
new measured
value
Temperature
constant
Can

we determine
the original scf of gas
in the tank?

G as
p
T
G i- G

Solution

pV znRT

piV 14.7Gi
Gi
ni

0.0283
zi RT
520 R
R

Gi ziT
V 0.0283
Gi Bgi
pi

Solution (Contd)
Number

nr 0.0283
Number

Gp
R

nleft

G G
0.0283
i

Solution (Contd)

Gas left occupies the entire tank volume, so

pV znleft RT

pV z

G G
RT
0.0283
p

Tank volume

zT
V 0.0283 Gi G p Bg Gi G p
p

Gas Material Balance

Volumetric Reservoir
We

have two expressions for tank

volume
Must

be equal
V Bg Gi G p Bgi Gi

Bgi

Gi 1 z
G p Gi 1

pi
B

zi

For

a volumetric gas reservoir, a plot of

Gp versus p/z will be a straight line of
slope (Gi/(pi/zi)) and intercept Gi

In

practice, people plot p/z versus G p

and extrapolate to p/z = 0

p/z versus Gp
pi

zi

Gi
0

Gp

Problem

Suppose when we
remove Gp scf gas,
WeBw res. bbl of water
encroached
Pressure falls to a new
measured value
Temperature constant

Can we determine the

original scf of gas in the
tank?

G as
p
T
G i- G

Solution
Original

V Gi Bgi
Final

Volume of gas in tank

zT
V We Bw 0.0283 Gi G p Bg Gi G p
p

Material

Balance with water influx

Gi Bgi We Bw Bg Gi G p

p/z versus Gp with water influx

pi

zi

E f f e c t o f w a te r in f lu x

Gi
0

Gp

Production of Gas
Processes

that determine gas production:

Expansion of gas
Water Influx
Expansion of rock and connate water

In

most cases expansion of rock and connate

water is small compared to gas expansion.
In abnormally pressured gas reservoirs, this
term may be significant.

Gas Material Balance

General

form

cw S wc c f
G p Bg W p Bw Gi Bg Bgi Bgi
1 S wc

Gas

zT 3
Bg 0.0283
ft /scf
p

p We Bw

It

is customary to express the gas

material balance in terms of p/z
If there is no water influx and formation
and rock compressibility are negligible
pi
p
Gi G p

z Gi zi
Plot

of p/z vs. Gp is a straight line

Intercepts

the x-axis at Gi

Abnormally Pressured
Reservoirs
Normal

pressure gradients for gas

reservoirs are in the range of 0.4-0.5
psia/ft of depth
Abnormally pressured reservoirs have
gradients of 0.7-1.0 psia/ft of depth

> 300 abnormally pressured gas reservoirs

offshore Gulf Coast; gradients > 0.65 with
depths over 10000 ft.

Reservoirs