Você está na página 1de 43

# Material Balance Equation

## Oil Material Balance Equation

Bo Boi Rsi Rs Bg
N p Bo R p Rs Bg W p Bw N i Boi
Boi

Bg

Cw S wc C f

m
1 1 m
B

gi
1 S wc

We Bw

Nomenclature
Np=cumulativeoilproducedatreservoirpressurep,STB
Ni=initialoilinplace,STB
Gi Bgi
m=

N i Boi
Rs = ratio of gas in place to oil in place under standard conditions,
SCF/STB
Gi=initialgasinplace,SCF
We=cumulativewaterinflux,STB
Wp=cumulativewaterproduced,STB
Rp=cumulativeproducinggasoilratio,SCF/STB=Gp/Np
Gp=cumulativegasproduced,SCF

Nomenclature
p =(pip),psia,wherep iistheinitialpressure

Rs=solutiongasratio,SCF/STB
Bo=oilformationvolumefactor,bbl/STB
Bg=gasformationvolumefactor,bbl/SCF= .005

zT

B w=waterformationvolumefactor,bbl/STB
Cw=compressibilityofwater,psi1
Cf=compressibilityofformation,psi1

Swc=connatewatersaturation,fraction
subscripti=initialconditions
(Forexample,Boi=initialformationvolumefactor,bbl/STB)

In

## words, the oil material balance

equation says that any production we
obtain is due to change in volume of
reservoir rock and fluids and/or
displacement by encroaching water from

Production

conditions

## We measure these terms

N p Bo R p Rs Bg W p Bw
Oil produced at reservoir conditions,
(res. bbl)

NpBo

## Note that Bo includes changes in oil volume due to

gas going into solution.

Np(Rp

## Rs)Bg Amount of free gas

produced at reservoir conditions.
Note

## Rp is total produced gas (free +

dissolved) per barrel; Rp is gas dissolved at
reservoir conditions that is produced.
The effect of oil volume changes due to
solution gas, Rs is included in Bo

injected)

WpBw

Accounts

## for expansion of oil and free

gas in the reservoir, as well as influx of
water and change in reservoir pore
volume.
Expansion of oil + dissolved gas
N i Bo Boi Rsi Rs Bg

Expansion

Bg

N i Boi m
1 Gi Bg Gi Bgi
B

gi
Expansion

Cw S wc C f
N i Boi 1 m
1 S wc
Natural

Cw S wc C f
p N i Boi Gi Bgi

1 S wc

Water influx
We Bw

## Initial Reservoir Conditions

S u rf a c e C o n d itio n s

G i scf

R e s e r v o ir C o n d itio n s
G as
O il

N iR

si

scf

N iSTB

## Original Reservoir Oil = NiBoi res bbl.

Original Reservoir Gas = GiBgi res bbl. = m NiBoi res bbl

## Reservoir Pore Volume = Vp bbl

Pore Volume occupied by water = VpSwc bbl
Hydrocarbon Pore Volume (HCPV) = Vp (1 Swc) bbl
But HCPV = NiBoi + m NiBoi = (1+m) NiBoi bbl
So Vp = (1+m) NiBoi / (1 Swc) bbl
Free gas volume = mNiBoi bbl
So initial gas saturation = mNiBoi/ Vp
= mNiBoi (1 Swc) /((1+m) NiBoi )
Initial oil saturation = NiBoi/ Vp
= NiBoi (1 Swc) /((1+m) NiBoi )

## After Production of Oil and Gas

R e s e r v o ir C o n d itio n s
( G i+ N iR s i - N p R p
-(N i - N p)R s)B g
bblgas
G as
O il

S u r f a c e C o n d itio n s

G i scf

N iR

si

N pR

scf

scf

N iSTB

(N i - N p)B o b b l
c o n ta in in g
(N i - N p)R s s c f g a s

## Free Gas in Reservoir = (mNiBoi/Bgi+NiRsi - NpRp

- (Ni Np)Rs)Bg bbl.

STB

## After Production of Oil and Gas

Saturation = Free Gas Volume
Pore Volume

Gas

## (mNiBoi/Bgi+NiRsi - NpRp - (Ni Np)Rs)Bg [(1+m)

NiBoi / (1 Swc) ]

Volume

Oil

## (Ni Np)Bo (1+m) NiBoi / (1 Swc)

Example
For a solution gas drive reservoir, calculate the
original oil in place if the following information is
given. Assume water and rock compressibility
are negligible.
p=2,000psia
Bo=1.22bbl/STB
Rs=350SCF/STB
z=0.80
Rsi=600SCF/STB
Boi=1.3bbl/STB
Np=20.0MMSTB
T=150oF
Rp = 900 SCF/STB

Solution
Solution

## Gas drive reservoir implies:

Negligible

water influx.
No initial gas cap.

N B

N p Bo R p Rs Bg W p Bw
i

Boi Rsi Rs Bg

Solution
Calculate

Bg

zT
Bg .005
p

.8150 460
.005
2,000
7.625 10 4 bbl/SCF

Solution
Calculate

reservoir production

## N p Bo R p Rs Bg W p Bw 20 106 1.22 900 350 7.625 10 4 0

3.279 107 res. bbl

Calculate

## Bo Boi Rsi Rs Bg 1.22 1.3 600 350 7.625 104

.1106 res. bbl/STB

Solution
Solve

## for initial oil in place

Ni

N p Bo R p Rs Bg W p Bw

Bo Boi Rsi Rs Bg

3.279 10
Ni
296MMSTB
.1106
7

Condensed Notation
The

## material balance equation is lengthy;

cumbersome to work with.
Introduce shorthand notation to facilitate
manipulation.
Total Production of oil, water and gas:

F N p Bo R p Rs Bg W p Bw

Condensed Notation
Reservoir

per STB basis)
Expansion

## of oil and dissolved gas

Eo Bo Boi Rsi Rs Bg

Expansion

of gas-cap gas

Expansion

cw S wc c f
p
1 m Boi
1 S wc

mE g mBoi
1
Bgi

1 m E f , w

Bg

Note
The

## fluid expansion terms Eo, Eg, and Ef,w

are composed only of fluid PVT
properties and connate water saturation.
At

## reservoir conditions (Temperature

constant), they are functions of reservoir
pressure only.

In

## terms of our shorthand notation

F Ni Eo mEg 1 mE f , w We Bw

Simplifications:
Solution

F N i Eo E f , w

## Solution Gas Drive

Production

(F) is measured.
Eo and Ef,w are determined from PVT and
rock properties.
Material balance is a straight line
equation
Plot

## of F versus Eo + Ef,w is a straight line

with intercept 0 and slope Ni

Slope = Ni

(0 ,0 )

In

## this case, the material balance equation can

be simplified to

F N i Eo mE g 1 m E f , w
Straight

line form:

F N i Eo E f , w m E g E f , w

Eg E f ,w
F
N i mN i
Eo E f , w
Eo E f , w

S lo p e = m N

F
Eo E f ,w

}
(0 ,0 )

Ni

E
E

g
o

E f ,w

E f ,w

## Material Balance Equations

For Gas Reservoirs

Problem
Suppose

tank of gas buried
underground
Fixed

known
temperature
Pressure known
Tank Volume
unknown

G as
pi
T
Gi

Problem (Contd)
G

Suppose

we remove
Gp scf gas
Pressure

falls to a
new measured
value
Temperature
constant
Can

we determine
the original scf of gas
in the tank?

G as
p
T
G i- G

Solution

pV znRT

piV 14.7Gi
Gi
ni

0.0283
zi RT
520 R
R

Gi ziT
V 0.0283
Gi Bgi
pi

Solution (Contd)
Number

nr 0.0283
Number

Gp
R

nleft

G G
0.0283
i

Solution (Contd)

## Gas left occupies the entire tank volume, so

pV znleft RT

pV z

G G
RT
0.0283
p

Tank volume

zT
V 0.0283 Gi G p Bg Gi G p
p

## Gas Material Balance

Volumetric Reservoir
We

## have two expressions for tank

volume
Must

be equal
V Bg Gi G p Bgi Gi

Bgi

Gi 1 z
G p Gi 1

pi
B

zi

For

## a volumetric gas reservoir, a plot of

Gp versus p/z will be a straight line of
slope (Gi/(pi/zi)) and intercept Gi

In

## practice, people plot p/z versus G p

and extrapolate to p/z = 0

p/z versus Gp
pi

zi

Gi
0

Gp

Problem

Suppose when we
remove Gp scf gas,
WeBw res. bbl of water
encroached
Pressure falls to a new
measured value
Temperature constant

## Can we determine the

original scf of gas in the
tank?

G as
p
T
G i- G

Solution
Original

V Gi Bgi
Final

## Volume of gas in tank

zT
V We Bw 0.0283 Gi G p Bg Gi G p
p

Material

## Balance with water influx

Gi Bgi We Bw Bg Gi G p

## p/z versus Gp with water influx

pi

zi

E f f e c t o f w a te r in f lu x

Gi
0

Gp

Production of Gas
Processes

## that determine gas production:

Expansion of gas
Water Influx
Expansion of rock and connate water

In

## most cases expansion of rock and connate

water is small compared to gas expansion.
In abnormally pressured gas reservoirs, this
term may be significant.

## Gas Material Balance

General

form

cw S wc c f
G p Bg W p Bw Gi Bg Bgi Bgi
1 S wc

Gas

zT 3
Bg 0.0283
ft /scf
p

p We Bw

It

## is customary to express the gas

material balance in terms of p/z
If there is no water influx and formation
and rock compressibility are negligible
pi
p
Gi G p

z Gi zi
Plot

## of p/z vs. Gp is a straight line

Intercepts

the x-axis at Gi

Abnormally Pressured
Reservoirs
Normal

reservoirs are in the range of 0.4-0.5
psia/ft of depth
Abnormally pressured reservoirs have
gradients of 0.7-1.0 psia/ft of depth

## > 300 abnormally pressured gas reservoirs

offshore Gulf Coast; gradients > 0.65 with
depths over 10000 ft.

Reservoirs