Você está na página 1de 43

Material Balance Equation

For Oil Reservoirs

Oil Material Balance Equation

Bo Boi Rsi Rs Bg
N p Bo R p Rs Bg W p Bw N i Boi
Boi

Bg

Cw S wc C f

m
1 1 m
B

gi
1 S wc

We Bw

Nomenclature
Np=cumulativeoilproducedatreservoirpressurep,STB
Ni=initialoilinplace,STB
Gi Bgi
m=

N i Boi
Rs = ratio of gas in place to oil in place under standard conditions,
SCF/STB
Gi=initialgasinplace,SCF
We=cumulativewaterinflux,STB
Wp=cumulativewaterproduced,STB
Rp=cumulativeproducinggasoilratio,SCF/STB=Gp/Np
Gp=cumulativegasproduced,SCF

Nomenclature
p =(pip),psia,wherep iistheinitialpressure

Rs=solutiongasratio,SCF/STB
Bo=oilformationvolumefactor,bbl/STB
Bg=gasformationvolumefactor,bbl/SCF= .005

zT

B w=waterformationvolumefactor,bbl/STB
Cw=compressibilityofwater,psi1
Cf=compressibilityofformation,psi1

Swc=connatewatersaturation,fraction
subscripti=initialconditions
(Forexample,Boi=initialformationvolumefactor,bbl/STB)

Oil Material Balance Equation


In

words, the oil material balance


equation says that any production we
obtain is due to change in volume of
reservoir rock and fluids and/or
displacement by encroaching water from
an adjoining aquifer.

Left Hand Side


Production

from the reservoir at reservoir

conditions

We measure these terms

N p Bo R p Rs Bg W p Bw
Oil produced at reservoir conditions,
(res. bbl)

NpBo

Note that Bo includes changes in oil volume due to


gas going into solution.

Left hand Side


Np(Rp

Rs)Bg Amount of free gas


produced at reservoir conditions.
Note

Rp is total produced gas (free +


dissolved) per barrel; Rp is gas dissolved at
reservoir conditions that is produced.
The effect of oil volume changes due to
solution gas, Rs is included in Bo

Amount of water produced (or


injected)

WpBw

Right Hand Side


Accounts

for expansion of oil and free


gas in the reservoir, as well as influx of
water and change in reservoir pore
volume.
Expansion of oil + dissolved gas
N i Bo Boi Rsi Rs Bg

Right Hand Side


Expansion

of gas in the gas-cap

Bg

N i Boi m
1 Gi Bg Gi Bgi
B

gi
Expansion

of rock and connate water

Cw S wc C f
N i Boi 1 m
1 S wc
Natural

Cw S wc C f
p N i Boi Gi Bgi

1 S wc

Water influx
We Bw

Initial Reservoir Conditions


S u rf a c e C o n d itio n s

G i scf

R e s e r v o ir C o n d itio n s
G as
O il

N iR

si

scf

N iSTB

Original Reservoir Oil = NiBoi res bbl.


Original Reservoir Gas = GiBgi res bbl. = m NiBoi res bbl

Initial Reservoir Conditions

Reservoir Pore Volume = Vp bbl


Pore Volume occupied by water = VpSwc bbl
Hydrocarbon Pore Volume (HCPV) = Vp (1 Swc) bbl
But HCPV = NiBoi + m NiBoi = (1+m) NiBoi bbl
So Vp = (1+m) NiBoi / (1 Swc) bbl
Free gas volume = mNiBoi bbl
So initial gas saturation = mNiBoi/ Vp
= mNiBoi (1 Swc) /((1+m) NiBoi )
Initial oil saturation = NiBoi/ Vp
= NiBoi (1 Swc) /((1+m) NiBoi )

After Production of Oil and Gas


R e s e r v o ir C o n d itio n s
( G i+ N iR s i - N p R p
-(N i - N p)R s)B g
bblgas
G as
O il

S u r f a c e C o n d itio n s

G i scf

N iR

si

N pR

scf

scf

N iSTB

(N i - N p)B o b b l
c o n ta in in g
(N i - N p)R s s c f g a s

Free Gas in Reservoir = (mNiBoi/Bgi+NiRsi - NpRp


- (Ni Np)Rs)Bg bbl.

STB

After Production of Oil and Gas


Saturation = Free Gas Volume
Pore Volume

Gas

(mNiBoi/Bgi+NiRsi - NpRp - (Ni Np)Rs)Bg [(1+m)


NiBoi / (1 Swc) ]

Saturation = Oil Volume Pore


Volume

Oil

(Ni Np)Bo (1+m) NiBoi / (1 Swc)

Example
For a solution gas drive reservoir, calculate the
original oil in place if the following information is
given. Assume water and rock compressibility
are negligible.
p=2,000psia
Bo=1.22bbl/STB
Rs=350SCF/STB
z=0.80
Rsi=600SCF/STB
Boi=1.3bbl/STB
Np=20.0MMSTB
T=150oF
Rp = 900 SCF/STB

Solution
Solution

Gas drive reservoir implies:

Negligible

water influx.
No initial gas cap.

N B

N p Bo R p Rs Bg W p Bw
i

Boi Rsi Rs Bg

Solution
Calculate

Bg

zT
Bg .005
p

.8150 460
.005
2,000
7.625 10 4 bbl/SCF

Solution
Calculate

reservoir production

N p Bo R p Rs Bg W p Bw 20 106 1.22 900 350 7.625 10 4 0


3.279 107 res. bbl

Calculate

PVT dependent terms on RHS

Bo Boi Rsi Rs Bg 1.22 1.3 600 350 7.625 104


.1106 res. bbl/STB

Solution
Solve

for initial oil in place

Ni

N p Bo R p Rs Bg W p Bw

Bo Boi Rsi Rs Bg

3.279 10
Ni
296MMSTB
.1106
7

Condensed Notation
The

material balance equation is lengthy;


cumbersome to work with.
Introduce shorthand notation to facilitate
manipulation.
Total Production of oil, water and gas:

F N p Bo R p Rs Bg W p Bw

Condensed Notation
Reservoir

fluid expansion terms (on a


per STB basis)
Expansion

of oil and dissolved gas


Eo Bo Boi Rsi Rs Bg

Expansion

of gas-cap gas

Expansion

of rock and connate water


cw S wc c f
p
1 m Boi
1 S wc

mE g mBoi
1
Bgi

1 m E f , w

Bg

Note
The

fluid expansion terms Eo, Eg, and Ef,w


are composed only of fluid PVT
properties and connate water saturation.
At

reservoir conditions (Temperature


constant), they are functions of reservoir
pressure only.

Material Balance Equation


In

terms of our shorthand notation


F Ni Eo mEg 1 mE f , w We Bw

Simplifications:
Solution

Gas Drive Reservoir: We = 0, m = 0

F N i Eo E f , w

Solution Gas Drive


Production

(F) is measured.
Eo and Ef,w are determined from PVT and
rock properties.
Material balance is a straight line
equation
Plot

of F versus Eo + Ef,w is a straight line


with intercept 0 and slope Ni

Solution Gas Drive

Slope = Ni

(0 ,0 )

Gas Cap Drive No Water Influx


In

this case, the material balance equation can


be simplified to

F N i Eo mE g 1 m E f , w
Straight

line form:

F N i Eo E f , w m E g E f , w

Eg E f ,w
F
N i mN i
Eo E f , w
Eo E f , w

Gas Cap drive Plot

S lo p e = m N

F
Eo E f ,w

}
(0 ,0 )

Ni

E
E

g
o

E f ,w

E f ,w

Material Balance Equations


For Gas Reservoirs

Problem
Suppose

we had a
tank of gas buried
underground
Fixed

known
temperature
Pressure known
Tank Volume
unknown

G as
pi
T
Gi

Problem (Contd)
G

Suppose

we remove
Gp scf gas
Pressure

falls to a
new measured
value
Temperature
constant
Can

we determine
the original scf of gas
in the tank?

G as
p
T
G i- G

Solution

From real gas law:

pV znRT

Original number of moles of gas in the tank, ni

piV 14.7Gi
Gi
ni

0.0283
zi RT
520 R
R

Solving for original volume of the tank

Gi ziT
V 0.0283
Gi Bgi
pi

Solution (Contd)
Number

of moles removed from tank

nr 0.0283
Number

Gp
R

of moles left in the tank

nleft

G G
0.0283
i

Solution (Contd)

Gas left occupies the entire tank volume, so

pV znleft RT

pV z

G G
RT
0.0283
p

Tank volume

zT
V 0.0283 Gi G p Bg Gi G p
p

Gas Material Balance


Volumetric Reservoir
We

have two expressions for tank


volume
Must

be equal
V Bg Gi G p Bgi Gi

Bgi

Gi 1 z
G p Gi 1

pi
B

zi

Straight line plot


For

a volumetric gas reservoir, a plot of


Gp versus p/z will be a straight line of
slope (Gi/(pi/zi)) and intercept Gi

In

practice, people plot p/z versus G p


and extrapolate to p/z = 0

p/z versus Gp
pi

zi

Gi
0

Gp

Problem

Suppose when we
remove Gp scf gas,
WeBw res. bbl of water
encroached
Pressure falls to a new
measured value
Temperature constant

Can we determine the


original scf of gas in the
tank?

G as
p
T
G i- G

Solution
Original

volume of gas in tank

V Gi Bgi
Final

Volume of gas in tank


zT
V We Bw 0.0283 Gi G p Bg Gi G p
p

Material

Balance with water influx

Gi Bgi We Bw Bg Gi G p

p/z versus Gp with water influx


pi

zi

E f f e c t o f w a te r in f lu x

Gi
0

Gp

Production of Gas
Processes

that determine gas production:

Expansion of gas
Water Influx
Expansion of rock and connate water

In

most cases expansion of rock and connate


water is small compared to gas expansion.
In abnormally pressured gas reservoirs, this
term may be significant.

Gas Material Balance


General

form

cw S wc c f
G p Bg W p Bw Gi Bg Bgi Bgi
1 S wc

Gas

formation volume factor


zT 3
Bg 0.0283
ft /scf
p

p We Bw

Gas Material Balance - p/z


It

is customary to express the gas


material balance in terms of p/z
If there is no water influx and formation
and rock compressibility are negligible
pi
p
Gi G p

z Gi zi
Plot

of p/z vs. Gp is a straight line

Intercepts

the x-axis at Gi

Abnormally Pressured
Reservoirs
Normal

pressure gradients for gas


reservoirs are in the range of 0.4-0.5
psia/ft of depth
Abnormally pressured reservoirs have
gradients of 0.7-1.0 psia/ft of depth

> 300 abnormally pressured gas reservoirs


offshore Gulf Coast; gradients > 0.65 with
depths over 10000 ft.

P/z for Abnormally Pressured


Reservoirs