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GENETIC INTREACTIONS

A dihybrid cross
involves a study of
DIHYBRID
inheritance patterns
INHERITANCE
for organisms
differing in two traits.
Mendel invented the
dihybrid cross to
determine if different
traits of pea plants,
such as flower color
and seed shape, were
inherited
independently

DIHYBRID CROSS

In contrast to a
monohybrid cross,
adihybrid crossis a cross
betweenF1offspring
(first-generation
offspring) of
twoindividualsthat differ
in two traitsof particular
interest.
B = Dark brown, b =
white, S= short whiskers,
s= long tail

When two dihybrids


are crossed, four
kinds of gametes are
produced in equal in
both male and female
A 4x4 checkerboard
can be used to show
all 16 possible
phenotypic
combinations of these
gametes in the ratio
of 9:3:3:1

This method is
laborious and time
consuming, and offers
more opportunities for
errors.

P: black short - BBLL


white long - bbll
FI : black short BbLl

This is another type of


EPISTASIS
genetic
interaction in
which one gene
modified or masks the
action of another
gene
It can give rise to
unusual ratios in
genetic crosses
Epitasis will change
the classical 9:3:3:1
ratio.

When epitasis is
operative between
two gene loci the
number of
phenotypes appearing
in the offspring fro
dihybrid parents will
be less than four
There are six types of
Epistatic ratio
commonly
recognized.

DOMINANT EPISTASIS

The dominant gene A


will mask the
phenotypic expression
at two loci A-B and Abb giving a
phenotypic ratio of
12:3:1

genotyp A-B
es
Classica 9
l ratio
Domina
nt
epitasis
Recessi 9
ve
epitasis
Duplicat
e
domina
nt
genes

A-bb

aaB

aabb

3
12

1
3

15

RECESSIVE EPISTASIS

If the recessive
genotype aa at one
locus suppresses the
expression of the
alleles at the B- locus
The A- locus is said to
exhibit recessive
epitasis over the Blocus
The 9:3:3:1 becomes
a 9:3:4 ratio

There are many


examples of epitasis;
one of the first to be
described in humans
is the Bombay
phenotype involving
the ABO blood group
system

An individual with this


phenotype lacks a
protein called the H
antigen (genotype hh)
which is used to form A
and B antigens.
Even though such
individuals may have A or
B genes they appear to
be blood group 0
because they lack the H
antigens.

The phenomenon is
an example of the
intricate interaction of
linked genes in which
one gene on a
chromosome controls
the expression or
suppression of
another gene that is
not its allele.

Another well known


example is provided by
the inheritance of certain
coat colours in mice.
Most mice have a colour
described as agouti, a
grayish pattern formed
by alternating bands of
pigment on each hair,
however, some mice are
black and others white.

The default colour in this


example is to have white
fur.
If the rat has the
dominant gene A, then a
pigment is produced to
make a brown rat.
Then if the rat has the
dominant allele B on top
of this the pigment is
modified again to make a
black rat

. If the rat has the B


allele but not A, then
it will remain white
because it is a
continuum

WIDOWS
PEAK/BALDNESS
In humans a widows
peak is controlled by
one gene and
baldness by another.
If you have the alleles
for baldness ,it does
not matter whether
you have the alleles
for widows peak or
not, as you have no
hair

The baldness genes


are epistatic to
widows peak, as the
baldness genes mask
the expressions of the
widows peak gene