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BIOENERGETICS

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What is Bioenergetics?
The study of
energy in living
systems
(environments)
and the
organisms
(plants and
animals) that
utilize them
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Energy

Required by
all organisms
May be
Kinetic or
Potential
energy
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Kinetic Energy

Energy of
Motion
Heat and
light energy
are
examples
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Potential Energy

Energy of
position
Includes
energy
stored in
chemical
bonds
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Two Types of
Energy Reactions

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Endergonic Reactions

Chemical reaction that


requires a net input of energy.
energy
Photosynthesis

SUN

Light
Energy

6CO2 + 6H2Ophotons
C6H12O6 + 6O2
(glucose)
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Exergonic Reactions

Chemical reactions that


releases energy
Cellular Respiration

Energy

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O+ ATP


(glucose)

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Metabolic Reactions
of Cells

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What is Metabolism?

The sum total


of the
chemical
activities of
all cells.
cells

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10

Two Types of Metabolism

Anabolic
Pathways
Catabolic
Pathways

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Anabolic Pathway

Metabolic reactions, which


consume energy (endergonic), to
build complicated molecules from
simpler compounds.
light
SUN
energy
Photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2
(glucose)

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Catabolic Pathway

Metabolic reactions which release


energy (exergonic) by breaking
down complex molecules in simpler
compounds
energy
Cellular Respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O +

ATP

(glucose)
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Cellular Energy ATP

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ATP

Components:
1. adenine: nitrogenous base
2. ribose: five carbon sugar
3.phosphate group: chain of 3

adenine

phosphate group
P

ribose
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Adenosine Triphosphate

Three
phosphate
groups-(two
with high
energy bonds
Last phosphate
group (PO4)
contains the
MOST energy
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Breaking the Bonds of ATP

Process is called
phosphorylation
Occurs continually
in cells
Enzyme ATP-ase
can weaken & break
last PO4 bond
releasing energy &
free PO4
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How does ATP work ?

Organisms use enzymes to


break down energy-rich
glucose to release its
potential energy
This energy is trapped and
stored in the form of
adenosine triphosphate(ATP)
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How Much ATP Do Cells Use?

It is estimated
that each cell
will generate
and consume
approximately
10,000,000
molecules of
ATP per second
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19

Coupled Reaction - ATP

The exergonic
hydrolysis of ATP
is coupled with the
endergonic
dehydration
H2O
process by
transferring a
phosphate group to
another molecule.
H2O
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Hydrolysis of ATP
ATP + H2O

ADP + P

(exergonic)

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)


P

P
Hydrolysis
(add water)

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)


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Hyrolysis is Exergonic

Energy
Used
by
Cells

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Dehydration of ATP
ADP +

ATP + H2O (endergonic)

Dehydration
(Remove H2O
P

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)


Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
P
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P
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Dehydration is Endergonic
Energy
is
restored
in
Chemical
Bonds

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Review

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How many high energy


phosphate bonds does ATP
have?

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Which is true of photosyntheis?


Anabolic

or

Catabolic

Exergonic

Or

Endergonic

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The breakdown of ATP is


due to:
Dehydration

or

Hydrolysis

H2O added

or

H2O removed

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Which Reactions are often


Coupled in Organisms
Hydrolysis
Anabolism
Endergonic

or
BOTH

Dehydration

or

Catabolism

or

Exergonic

BOTH

BOTH
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Ready for the test?


If not, review and
try again!!!
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