Você está na página 1de 32

Radioactive

Element

Atomic Atomic
Number Mass
Number

Decay Type

Hydrogen (H)
Beryllium (be)
Carbon (C)
Calcium (Ca)
Iron (Fe)
Cobalt (Co)
Nickel (Ni)
Zinc (Zn)
Selenium (Se)
Krypton (Kr)
Krypton (Kr)
Rubidium (Rb)
Strontium (Sr)

1
4
6
20
26
27
28
30
34
36
36
37
38

Beta Decay (Beta-)


Beta Decay (Beta-)
Beta Decay (Beta-)
Beta Decay (Beta+)
Beta Decay (Beta-)
Beta Decay (Beta-)
Gamma
Beta Decay (Beta+)
Beta Decay (Beta-)
Gamma
Beta Decay (Beta-)
Beta Decay (Beta-)
Gamma
Beta Decay (Beta-)
Gamma
Beta Decay (Beta-)
Beta Decay (Beta-)

3
10
14
41
59
60
59
65
79
85
90
87
89

Zirconium (Zr)
Zirconium (Zr)
Niobium (Nb)
Niobium (Nb)

40
40
41
41

93
95
93
95

Beta Decay (Beta-)


Beta Decay (Beta-)
Gamma
Beta Decay (Beta-) Gamma

Molybdenum (Mo)

42

93

Beta Decay (Beta+)

Technetium (Tc)
Ruthenium (Ru)
Ruthenium (Ru)
Palladium
Silver (Ag)
Tin (Sn)
Antimony (Sb)
Tellurium (Te)
Tellurium (Te)
Iodine (I)
Iodine (I)
Iodine (I)
Xenon (Xe)
Xenon (Xe)
Xenon (Xe)

43
44
44
46
47
50
51
52
52
53
53
53
54
54
54

99
103
106
107
110
126
125
127
129
129
131
134
133
137
138

Beta Decay (Beta-) Gamma


Beta Decay (Beta-)
Beta Decay (Beta-)
Beta Decay (Beta-) Gamma
Beta Decay (Beta-) Gamma
Beta Decay (Beta-)
Beta Decay (Beta-)
Beta Decay (Beta-) Gamma
Beta Decay (Beta-)
Beta Decay (Beta-) Gamma
Beta Decay (Beta-) Gamma
Beta Decay (Beta-) Gamma
Beta Decay (Beta-) Gamma
Beta Decay Beta-) Gamma
Beta Decay (Beta-) Gamma

Uranium (U)

92

233

Alpha

Uranium (U)

92

234

Alpha

Uranium (U)

92

235

Alpha

Uranium (U)

92

236

Alpha

Uranium (U)
92
Neptunium
93
(Np)
Plutonium (Pu) 94

238

Alpha

237

Alpha

236

Alpha

Plutonium (Pu) 94

238

Alpha

Plutonium (Pu) 94

239

Alpha

Plutonium (Pu) 94

240

Alpha

Plutonium (Pu) 94

241

Beta Decay (Beta-), Alpha

Plutonium (Pu) 94

242

Alpha

Plutonium (Pu) 94

243

Alpha

In 1896, a French physicist named Henri Becquerel


discovered that uranium-containing crystals
emitted rays that could expose and fog photographic
plates.
He found that these rays originated from changes
within the atomic nuclei of the U atoms.

One of the first women in France to in


her graduate work, She discovered two
elements, which she later named
polonium (after her native Poland) and
radium, which emitted high levels of
radioactivity.

Maric Curie changed the name of


uranic rays to
radioactivity (or radioactive decay).
She shared the Nobel prize in
physics with Becquerel
and her husband, Pierre Curie, for
discovering radioactivity.

Nomenclature for Elements


"X" = Element Symbol
"Z" = # Protons
Each element has a unique "Z
"N = # Neutrons

Atomic Mass # = "A"


"A" = Z + N = # Protons + # Neutrons

Phosphorous-32 Atom
15 Protons
17 Neutrons
A = 32
Z = 15

32
15

Radioactivity ("Activity")
Definition:

A collection of unstable atoms


that undergo spontaneous transformation
that result in new elements.
An atom with an unstable nucleus will
decay until it becomes a stable atom,
emitting radiation as it decays
Sometimes a substance undergoes several
radioactive decays before it reaches a stable
state
The amount of radioactivity (called
activity) is given by the number of nuclear
decays that occur per unit time (decays per
minute).

Radiation
Definition:

Energy in the form of particles or

waves
Types of Radiation
Ionizing: removes electrons from atoms
Particulate (alphas and betas)
Waves (gamma and X-rays)
Non-ionizing (electromagnetic): can't remove
electrons from atoms
infrared, visible, microwaves, radar, radio
waves, lasers

Alpha Particles
Alpha

particles

High mass (4 amu) = 2 protons + 2 neutrons


High charge (+2)
High linear energy transfer (cause great
biological damage)
Travel a few centimeters in air
Stopped by a sheet of paper or protective
layer of skin
Not an external hazard
Concern would be for ingestion or inhalation

Beta Particles
Low

mass (0.0005 amu)


Low charge - can be positively or negatively
charged (+/- 1)
Travel 10 - 20 feet in air
low density materials

Gamma Radiation
Wave

type of radiation - non-particulate


Photons that originate from the nucleus of
unstable atoms
No mass and no charge
Travel many feet in air
Lead or steel used as shielding

Examples of Nuclear Decay


32

Beta Minus Decay:

15

(neutron-excess nuclides)

Beta Plus Decay:


(neutron-deficient nuclides)

Alpha Decay:
(Heavy nuclides above
atomic number 82)

22
11

210
84

Na
Po

+
-

+
+

206
82

32
16

22
10

Ne

Pb + 2

X-Rays
Wave

type of radiation - non-particulate


Photons originating from the electron cloud
Same properties as gamma rays relative to mass,
charge, distance traveled.
Characteristic X-rays are generated when electrons fall
from higher to lower energy electron shells
Discrete energy depending on the shell energy level
of the atom
X-rays are created when electrons or beta particles slow
down in the vicinity of a nucleus
Produced in a broad spectrum of energies

Uses of Radioactive Material

Consumer Products
Building materials
Tobacco (Po-210)
Smoke detectors (Am-241)
Welding rods (Th-222)
Television (low levels of X-rays)
watches & other products (tritium or
radium)
Jewelry

Smoke Detectors

Alpha particles from americium-241 (red lines) ionize the air


molecules (pink and blue spheres). The ions carry a small
current between two electrodes. Smoke particles (brown
spheres) attach to ions reducing current and initiate alarm.

Medical
Diagnostic

X-rays
Nuclear Medicine (Tc-99m, Tl-201, I-123)
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Therapeutic
X-rays (Linear Accelerators)
Radioisotopes
Brachytherapy (Cs-137, Ir-192, Ra-226)
Teletherapy (Co-60)
Radiopharmaceuticals (I-131, Sr-89, Sm-153)

Industrial Radiography

Use of high activity sealed sources to examine


structural components such as beams or pipes

Radiological Hazards

Radiation Protection Basics


Time:

minimize the time that you are in contact


with radioactive material to reduce exposure

Distance:

keep your distance.

Protective

clothing: protects against


contamination only - keeps radioactive material
off skin and clothes

Radiation Detection

Radiation Detector Types


Solid State Detectors
Filled Detectors
Germanium Lithium
Geiger Mueller (GM)
High Purity
Gas Flow Proportional
Silicone Lithium
Counters
Silicone Diode
Ionization
Cadmium Telluride

Gas

Scintillation

Detectors
Sodium Iodide (NaI)
Zinc Sulfide (ZnS)
Anthracene
Plastic Scintillators

Gas Filled Detectors


Ionization

detectors
High Cost
Survey meters
Reference class calibration chambers
Proportional counters
High cost
Gross laboratory measurements
Contamination monitors
Geiger Mueller (GM) detectors
Low cost
Survey meters
Contamination monitors

Scintillation Detectors
One

of the Oldest Detection Methods, Still


Widely Used Today
Transducer Converts Radiation Energy to
Visible Light
Visible Light Signals Amplified With
Photomultiplier Tube
Output PM Tube Signal Processed
High Efficiency For Photon Detection
Compared To Gas-Filled Detectors

Radioactive Material
Train individuals that use sources of radiation
Train non-radiation workers that work in the
vicinity of radiation sources
Monitor and control radiation exposures
Maintain signs, labels, postings
Manage and properly dispose of radioactive
waste