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Magnetic field patterns

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More magnetic field patterns

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The motor effect

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Flemings left-hand rule
The direction of the force acting on a wire carrying a
current can be predicted using Flemings left-hand rule.

thuMb = Motion

First finger = magnetic Field (N to S)

seCond finger = Current


The current is in the direction of moving positive charge.

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Measuring the force on a conductor
What factors affect the force on a conductor in a magnetic
field? How could they be investigated?

conductor
ammeter

balance rheostat

non-conducting support
By varying the current with the rheostat and using different
length conductors, you could see how the downforce varies.

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Magnetic flux density
Magnetic flux density, B, is the force per unit current per
unit length, on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field.
It is the strength of a magnetic field.

length of sine of angle


magnetic
force = current wire in between wire
flux density
field and field

F = BILsin

Rearranging: B = F / ILsin

The unit of magnetic flux density is the tesla (T).


One tesla is equal to 1 N m-1 A-1.

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Force on a wire calculations

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Magnetic fields: true or false?

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Electron deflection

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The force on a moving charge
Consider a particle with positive
charge Q moving at velocity v at
right angles to a magnetic field of
magnetic flux density B:

In time t the particle will have a current


I, given by I = Q/t. The particle will also
travel a distance L, given by L = vt.

Substituting into F = BIL gives:

F = B Q/t vt which simplifies to: F = BQv

Using Flemings left-hand rule, if the charge in the diagram


is positive, the direction of the force will be into the screen.

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Moving charges calculations

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Charges not moving at 90 to the field
What happens if the charge does not move at right angles to
the field, but at an angle ?

The horizontal component of the


velocity, vcos, is parallel to the
field and can be discounted.

The perpendicular component of the


velocity is given by vsin.

Therefore, for a charge Q moving at a velocity v at an angle


to magnetic field of magnetic flux density B:

F = BQvsin

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Charged particles in circular orbits

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Charged particle in a magnetic field

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The cyclotron

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The mass spectrometer

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Charges in magnetic fields: summary

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Generating electricity
Whenever a wire cuts the lines of a
magnetic field, an electromotive
force (EMF) is induced in the wire.
This effect is called electromagnetic
induction.

It does not matter whether it is the


wire or the field that is moving.
To increase the EMF:

move the wire faster


use a stronger magnet
use a coil of wire, and increase the number of turns.

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Flemings right-hand rule
Flemings right-hand rule can be used to predict the direction
of the induced current if the direction of force (motion) or the
magnetic field are known.
thuMb = Motion
of conductor
First finger = magnetic Field

seCond finger = Current


Flemings right-hand rule is sometimes known as the
dynamo rule.

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Explaining electromagnetic induction

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Currents in a coil: the clock rule
In a long coil of wire or solenoid, the magnetic field line
pattern is shown below.

Looking face-on at
each end of the coil:

At the south pole, At the north pole, current


current flows clockwise flows anticlockwise

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Lenzs law

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What is magnetic flux?
Magnetic flux ( ) is the
product of magnetic flux area, A
density and the area
perpendicular to field. The
area is the amount of field that flux density, B
has been cut or swept out.

magnetic flux = magnetic flux density area

= BA

The unit of magnetic flux density is the weber (Wb).


One weber is equal to 1 T m2.

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Magnetic flux linkage
Magnetic flux linkage (N ) is a measure of the magnetic flux
of a coil of wire.
coil: N turns; A area
If the field is perpendicular to

the coil, N is the product of normal
the magnetic flux and the
number of coils: N = BAN.
field lines
If the field is at angle of to
the normal of the coil:

magnetic flux magnetic flux no.


= area cos
linkage density coils

N = BANcos
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Faradays law of EM induction
Michael Faraday was the first person to show that an induced
e.m.f. could be calculated from magnetic flux changes.

Faradays law of electromagnetic induction states that:

The induced e.m.f. in a circuit is equal to the rate of


change of magnetic flux linkage through the circuit.

-N
induced e.m.f., (or E) =
t

The negative sign indicates that the induced e.m.f. acts in


such a direction as to oppose the change that causes it.

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AC generator

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Rotating coils in magnetic fields
In a simple AC generator, a coil rotates within a uniform
magnetic field. The flux linkage changes continuously,
because the angle of the coil () changes continuously.

For a coil rotating at frequency f: = 2ft


where t = 0 when = 0.
And therefore N = BANcos2ft. Plotting a graph of
this:

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E.m.f. induced in an AC generator
The gradient of the graph of the flux linkage of a rotating coil
represents the change in flux linkage per second: N / t.
The induced e.m.f. this produces can be calculated
mathematically:
where is the angular velocity of
= BANsint
the coil: = 2f, and t is time.
The maximum, or peak, induced e.m.f., o, can be
varied by altering:
the angular velocity () (i.e. frequency of rotation, f)
the area or number of turns of the coil (A or N)
the strength of the magnet (B).

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Induced e.m.f.: worked example
A coil with rectangular cross section (width 2 cm, length 3 cm)
has 20 turns. It is rotated at a frequency of 20 Hz in a magnetic
field of flux density 120 mT. What is the maximum induced
e.m.f.?

Write down equation: = BANsint


Maximum possible value for sint = 1, therefore o = BAN
Substitute = 2f: o = BAN(2 f)
Convert units: 120 mT = 0.120 T; 2 cm = 0.02 m; 3 cm = 0.03 m
o = 0.120 (0.02 0.03) 20 (2 20)
o = 0.181 V

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Rotating coil in a magnetic field

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Simple AC generator: summary

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Transformers
A transformer changes the peak value of an alternating
voltage.
Transformers consist of two coils: the primary coil and a
secondary coil.

primary coil secondary coil

When an alternating voltage passes through the primary coil,


an alternating magnetic field is created, which induces an
alternating e.m.f. in the secondary coil.

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The transformer rule

primary coil secondary coil


no. coils Np Ns
flux linkage Np Ns
-Np -Ns
induced e.m.f. Vp = Vs =
t t

Dividing the equation for the e.m.f. of the Vs Ns


secondary coil by the one for the primary =
coil gives the transformer rule: Vp Np

In a step-up transformer: Ns > Np so Vs > Vp.

In a step-down transformer: Ns < Np so Vs < Vp.

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Transformer efficiency
The efficiency is very high for a typical transformer. A laminated
core reduces eddy currents, the wires have very low resistance
and a soft iron core allows easy magnetizing/demagnetizing.

power supplied by secondary coil


transformer efficiency =
power supplied to primary coil

VsIs
transformer efficiency =
VpIp

In a step-up transformer, voltage is stepped up and


current is stepped down.
In a step-down transformer, voltage is stepped down
and current is stepped up.

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Glossary

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Whats the keyword?

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Magnetic fields: equations summary

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Multiple-choice quiz

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