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Magnetic field patterns

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More magnetic field patterns

The motor effect

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Flemings left-hand rule
The direction of the force acting on a wire carrying a
current can be predicted using Flemings left-hand rule.

thuMb = Motion

## seCond finger = Current

The current is in the direction of moving positive charge.

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Measuring the force on a conductor
What factors affect the force on a conductor in a magnetic
field? How could they be investigated?

conductor
ammeter

balance rheostat

non-conducting support
By varying the current with the rheostat and using different
length conductors, you could see how the downforce varies.

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Magnetic flux density
Magnetic flux density, B, is the force per unit current per
unit length, on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field.
It is the strength of a magnetic field.

## length of sine of angle

magnetic
force = current wire in between wire
flux density
field and field

F = BILsin

Rearranging: B = F / ILsin

## The unit of magnetic flux density is the tesla (T).

One tesla is equal to 1 N m-1 A-1.

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Force on a wire calculations

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Magnetic fields: true or false?

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Electron deflection

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The force on a moving charge
Consider a particle with positive
charge Q moving at velocity v at
right angles to a magnetic field of
magnetic flux density B:

## In time t the particle will have a current

I, given by I = Q/t. The particle will also
travel a distance L, given by L = vt.

## Using Flemings left-hand rule, if the charge in the diagram

is positive, the direction of the force will be into the screen.

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Moving charges calculations

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Charges not moving at 90 to the field
What happens if the charge does not move at right angles to
the field, but at an angle ?

## The horizontal component of the

velocity, vcos, is parallel to the
field and can be discounted.

## The perpendicular component of the

velocity is given by vsin.

## Therefore, for a charge Q moving at a velocity v at an angle

to magnetic field of magnetic flux density B:

F = BQvsin

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Charged particles in circular orbits

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Charged particle in a magnetic field

The cyclotron

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The mass spectrometer

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Charges in magnetic fields: summary

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Generating electricity
Whenever a wire cuts the lines of a
magnetic field, an electromotive
force (EMF) is induced in the wire.
This effect is called electromagnetic
induction.

## It does not matter whether it is the

wire or the field that is moving.
To increase the EMF:

## move the wire faster

use a stronger magnet
use a coil of wire, and increase the number of turns.

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Flemings right-hand rule
Flemings right-hand rule can be used to predict the direction
of the induced current if the direction of force (motion) or the
magnetic field are known.
thuMb = Motion
of conductor
First finger = magnetic Field

## seCond finger = Current

Flemings right-hand rule is sometimes known as the
dynamo rule.

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Explaining electromagnetic induction

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Currents in a coil: the clock rule
In a long coil of wire or solenoid, the magnetic field line
pattern is shown below.

Looking face-on at
each end of the coil:

## At the south pole, At the north pole, current

current flows clockwise flows anticlockwise

Lenzs law

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What is magnetic flux?
Magnetic flux ( ) is the
product of magnetic flux area, A
density and the area
perpendicular to field. The
area is the amount of field that flux density, B
has been cut or swept out.

= BA

## The unit of magnetic flux density is the weber (Wb).

One weber is equal to 1 T m2.

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Magnetic flux linkage (N ) is a measure of the magnetic flux
of a coil of wire.
coil: N turns; A area
If the field is perpendicular to

the coil, N is the product of normal
the magnetic flux and the
number of coils: N = BAN.
field lines
If the field is at angle of to
the normal of the coil:

## magnetic flux magnetic flux no.

= area cos

N = BANcos
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Michael Faraday was the first person to show that an induced
e.m.f. could be calculated from magnetic flux changes.

## The induced e.m.f. in a circuit is equal to the rate of

change of magnetic flux linkage through the circuit.

-N
induced e.m.f., (or E) =
t

such a direction as to oppose the change that causes it.

AC generator

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Rotating coils in magnetic fields
In a simple AC generator, a coil rotates within a uniform
magnetic field. The flux linkage changes continuously,
because the angle of the coil () changes continuously.

## For a coil rotating at frequency f: = 2ft

where t = 0 when = 0.
And therefore N = BANcos2ft. Plotting a graph of
this:

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E.m.f. induced in an AC generator
The gradient of the graph of the flux linkage of a rotating coil
represents the change in flux linkage per second: N / t.
The induced e.m.f. this produces can be calculated
mathematically:
where is the angular velocity of
= BANsint
the coil: = 2f, and t is time.
The maximum, or peak, induced e.m.f., o, can be
varied by altering:
the angular velocity () (i.e. frequency of rotation, f)
the area or number of turns of the coil (A or N)
the strength of the magnet (B).

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Induced e.m.f.: worked example
A coil with rectangular cross section (width 2 cm, length 3 cm)
has 20 turns. It is rotated at a frequency of 20 Hz in a magnetic
field of flux density 120 mT. What is the maximum induced
e.m.f.?

## Write down equation: = BANsint

Maximum possible value for sint = 1, therefore o = BAN
Substitute = 2f: o = BAN(2 f)
Convert units: 120 mT = 0.120 T; 2 cm = 0.02 m; 3 cm = 0.03 m
o = 0.120 (0.02 0.03) 20 (2 20)
o = 0.181 V

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Rotating coil in a magnetic field

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Simple AC generator: summary

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Transformers
A transformer changes the peak value of an alternating
voltage.
Transformers consist of two coils: the primary coil and a
secondary coil.

## When an alternating voltage passes through the primary coil,

an alternating magnetic field is created, which induces an
alternating e.m.f. in the secondary coil.

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The transformer rule

## primary coil secondary coil

no. coils Np Ns
-Np -Ns
induced e.m.f. Vp = Vs =
t t

## Dividing the equation for the e.m.f. of the Vs Ns

secondary coil by the one for the primary =
coil gives the transformer rule: Vp Np

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Transformer efficiency
The efficiency is very high for a typical transformer. A laminated
core reduces eddy currents, the wires have very low resistance
and a soft iron core allows easy magnetizing/demagnetizing.

## power supplied by secondary coil

transformer efficiency =
power supplied to primary coil

VsIs
transformer efficiency =
VpIp

## In a step-up transformer, voltage is stepped up and

current is stepped down.
In a step-down transformer, voltage is stepped down
and current is stepped up.

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Glossary

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Whats the keyword?

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Magnetic fields: equations summary

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Multiple-choice quiz