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SIMPLE SEISMIC

DETAILING FOR
REINFORCED CONCRETE
BUILDING

Allan E. Botuyan, MSCE, f. sead, m. asep


Metro Manila
Ortigas Complex, Pasig City
Observations:

For any city, municipality or


province, regardless of the land area
size and population, much of the
building structures are small to
medium rise buildings, that is, two to
five storey buildings.
Cebu City
Davao City
Davao City
Cagayan de Oro City
Observations:

Except for highly urbanized areas


such as Legaspi Village in the heart
of Makati complex, Ortigas complex
of Pasig, about 90 percent are small
to medium rise buildings.
Observations:
For every Building Official/ City Engineer in every
LGU office, evaluation of the plans are not so
much focused on the structural plans and details
and the corresponding structural calculations.
This may be due to the fact that there are other
equally important components in the building
documents that needs to be evaluated.
Line and grade
Architectural
Sanitary and Plumbing
Electrical
Mechanical
Observations:
Every after an earthquake incident, it is always
the high rise structures that perform well with
minimal or no damage at all, while the small to
medium rise buildings suffers the most
structural damage. This is usually due to much
diligence on the design was exerted by the
designers of high rise structures compared to
low rise ones.
This is due to the wrong notion that smaller
and shorter buildings require less calculations
and checking compared to taller and bigger
buildings
What shall we do?

Since the Philippines is married to high


seismic activities, it is expected that in
the lifetime of all structure, they would
surely experience different magnitudes
of earthquakes and test its
performance.
We have to acknowledge that
earthquake resistant structures should
be required for every building , whether
big or small. No exception!!!
Why seismic
detailing?
PEAK GROUND
ACCELARATIO
N MAP
Structural members that should resist earthquake forces

Columns
Beams
Column beam joint connection
Foundation
Soft story at ground floor
Column-beam joint failure
Flexure failure on column
Shear failure on columns
Shear failure in columns
Weak column-beam joint
Beam shear failure before flexural failure
Insufficient confinement
Insufficient joint confinement
Common Types of
RC Building Systems

Moment Frame Structures


Ordinary Moment Resisting Frames
Intermediate Moment Resisting Frames
Special Moment Resisting Frames
Bearing Wall Systems
Ordinary concrete shear walls
Special concrete shear walls
Dual Systems
Shear walls and moment frames
Observation:

Almost all of the small to medium rise


buildings are made of moment resisting
frames.
Majority of these moment resisting
frame buildings are generally reinforced
concrete structures.
RC design subjects are generally
focused on moment resisting frames as
compared to other building systems, yet
with little emphasis on seismic detailing.
How should buildings perform during
earthquakes?

Buildings are intended to bend with


moderate moment and return to
their former state. This is called
elasticity. Just like a rubber band, the
building should have no permanent
change from being stretched or bent
lightly and temporarily.
How should buildings perform during
earthquakes?

In order to survive a strong


earthquake, the opposite principle is
true. A building constructed properly
should have permanent damage
following a major earthquake. The
frame should bend and absorb
energy without falling.
How should buildings perform during
earthquakes?

A frame built improperly will become


brittle and break during difficult
conditions. Such was the case in
Northridge, California in 1994, when
an earthquake decimated buildings
and spurred the implementation of
new moment frame construction
practices.
How should buildings perform during
earthquakes?

The Federal Emergency Management


Agency (FEMA) has regulations in
place to protect structures from
significant damage. They provide the
standards that buildings in high
seismic regions are intended to keep,
including the construction of moment
frames. The frame systems can be
classified into three major types.
3 Types of Moment Frames

1. An ordinary moment resisting frame


(OMRF) is used in low-seismic areas
and is expected to remain elastic
through regular conditions. They do
not have the rigid standards in place
that a moment frame used in a high
seismic region must. They are not
intended to handle any interstory drift,
which means that the floors should not
shift relative to one another.
3 Types of Moment Frames

2. An intermediate moment resisting


frame (IMRF) is used in low to mid-
seismic areas. They are intended to
withstand some permanent damage
following limited force. They are
required to sustain a moderate
interstory drift.
3 Types of Moment Frames

3. A special moment resisting frame


(SMRF) is used in mid- to high-
seismic areas. They are intended to
withstand significant permanent
damage following high level forces.
They must sustain a high level of
interstory drift.
What type of moment frame shall we use in
the Philippines?

The Philippines is divided in to two


seismic zones: Zone 2 (Palawan and
Sulu) and Zone 4 (the rest of the
country)
Philippines
seismic zone map

Zone 4

Zone 2
The NSCP code states that for
moment frame buildings in Zone 4,
only Special Moment Resisting
Frames (SMRF) are permitted.
Ordinary and Intermediate Moment
Frame (OMRF & IMRF) (Table 208-
11A) are NOT PERMITTED in Zone 4
Why use SMRF, instead of
OMRF or IMRF?
They are intended to withstand
significant permanent damage
following high level forces. They
must sustain a high level of
interstory drift.
The building must not be brittle that
the member snaps and breaks
suddenly during high ground motion,
but instead must be ductile.
Comparison of Brittle and Ductile Building
materials
The correct building components need
to be made ductile. The failure of
columns can affect the stability of
building, but failure of a beam causes
localized effect.
Therefore, it is better to make beams to
be ductile weak links then columns. This
method of designing RC buildings is
called the strong-column weak-beam
design method.
Ductile behavior
Goals to ensure ductility of RC buildings

1. Achieve strong column-weak beam


design
2. Avoid shear failure
3. Provide details that enable ductile
flexural response in yielding regions.
1. Design a Strong-Column/Weak beam
frame

Story mechanism Intermediate mechanism Beam mechanism


1. Design a Strong-Column/Weak beam
frameIt is important to recognize that the columns in a
given story support the weight of the entire
building above those columns, whereas the
beams only support the gravity loads of the floor
of which they form a part; therefore, failure of a
column is of greater consequence than failure of
a beam.

Recognizing this behavior, building codes specify


that columns be stronger than the beams that
frame into them. This strong-column/weak-beam
principle is fundamental to achieving safe
behavior of frames during strong earthquake
ground shaking.
2. Avoid Shear Failure
Shear failure, especially in columns,
is relatively brittle and can lead to
rapid loss of lateral strength and
axial load-carrying capacity.
Column shear failure is the most
frequently cited cause of concrete
building failure and collapse in
earthquakes.
2. Avoid Shear Failure
2. Avoid Shear Failure
3. Detail for Ductile Behavior
Ductile behavior of RC members is
based on the following principles.
1. Confinement for heavily loaded
sections
Strain capacity of concrete can be
increased 10-fold by confining concrete
with hoops.
135 deg hoops around the longitudinal
reinforcement.
Cross ties with 90 and 135 hooks holding
the longitudinal reinforcements
Column section Column
elevation
2. Detail for Ductile Behavior
Ductile behavior of RC members is
based on the following principles.
2. Ample shear reinforcements
Shear strength degrades in members
subjected to multiple inelastic
deformation reversals, especially if axial
loads are low. In such members ACI 318
requires that the contribution of
concrete to shear resistance be ignored,
that is, Vc = 0. Therefore, shear
reinforcement is required to resist the
entire shear force.
3. Detail for Ductile Behavior
Ductile behavior of RC members is based
on the following principles.
3. Avoidance of anchorage or splice
failure
Severe seismic loading can result in loss of
concrete cover, which will reduce development
and lap-splice strength of longitudinal
reinforcement.

Lap splices, if used, must be located away from


sections of maximum moment (that is, away
from ends of beams and columns) and must
have closed hoops to confine the splice in the
event of cover spalling.
SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS FOR BEAMS
Flexural Members shall satisfy the following:
(ACI 318-08 Section 21.3.1 or NSCP 421.5.1)
1. Clear span shall not be less than four (4)
times the effective depth.
2. The width-to-depth ratio , b/d, shall not be
less 0.3.
3. The width shall not be less than 250mm
4. The width, bs, of the supporting member plus
distances on each side of the supporting
member not exceeding of the depth of the
flexural member.
Longitudinal reinforcement
requirements
(ACI code Section 21.3.2 / NSCP
The positive moment strength at
421.5.1)
joint face should be greater or equal
the negative moment strength at
the face of the joint

MnL- MnR-

MnL+ 1/2 (MnL- ) MnR+ 1/2 (MnR- )


Longitudinal reinforcement
requirements
(ACI code Section 21.3.2 / NSCP
Neither the negative nor the positive
421.5.1)
moment strength in any section along
the member should be less than the
maximum strength provided at the face
of either joint.
MnL- max

Many section 1/4 (MnL- max )


Longitudinal reinforcement
requirements
(ACI code Section 21.3.2 / NSCP
Lap splices of flexural reinforcement
421.5.1)
are permitted only if hoop
reinforcement is provided over the lap
length.

Maximum spacing of transverse


reinforcement enclosing the lapped
bars shall not exceed 100mm.
Longitudinal reinforcement
requirements
(ACI code Section 21.3.2 / NSCP
Lap splices shall not be used:
421.5.1)
a. Within the joint.
b. With a distance of twice the member
depth from the face of the joint; and
c. At locations where analysis indicates
flexural yielding (ie. Location of plastic
hinges)
Transverse reinforcement requirements
(ACI code Section 21.3.3 / NSCP
421.5.3)
1. For SMRF, plastic hinges will form at the
ends of flexural members. Those
locations should be specially detailed to
ensure sufficient ductility.

Yield may occur

2h 2h 2h 2h
Transverse reinforcement requirements
(ACI code Section 21.3.3 / NSCP
421.5.3)
2. Spacing of hoops should not exceed the
following:
a. d/4
b. 8 x diameter of the smallest
longitudinal bars.
c. 24 x diameter of hoop bars.
d. 300 mm
First hoop shall be located not more than
50mm from face of support.
Transverse reinforcement requirements
(ACI code Section 21.3.3 / NSCP
421.5.3)
3. Where hoops are not required,
stirrups with seismic hooks shall be
spaced at a distance not more than d/2
throughout the length of the member.
pecial Detailing on Transverse Reinforcement

Hoop spacing is
smallest of:
d/4 ; 8db ; 24
hoop db ; 300mm

hoops hoops hoops

50mm max 50mm max


50mm max
Spacing of stirrups d/2
2h 2h 2h
ecial detailing requirement for transverse reinforceme
Beam Detail With Seismic Provision
From STAAD

50mm max 50mm max

800mm 2900 800mm


S=90mm S=178mm S=90mm

4-20mm 2-20 mm 4-20mm


400
2-12mm 5-12mm 2-12mm

10mm hoops / stirrups

b b
5000

Hoop spacing is smallest of : d/4 ; 8db ; 24 hoop db ;


300mm and STAAD Pro
Beam Detail With Seismic Provision
From STAAD

50mm max 50mm max

800mm 2900 800mm


S=90mm S=178mm S=90mm

4-20mm 2-20 mm 4-20mm


400
2-12mm
2-20mm 5-12mm
2-20mm 2-12mm
2-20mm

10mm hoops / stirrups

b b
5000

Bottom bars of 5-12mm < 2-20mm

Hoop spacing is smallest of : d/4 ; 8db ; 24 hoop db ;


300mm and STAAD Pro
SEISMIC DETAILING
FOR COLUMNS
SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS FOR
COLUMNS
1. Longitudinal Reinforcements
(NSCP2010 421.6.3.1)
The reinforcement ratio g shall not
be less than 0.01 and shall not exceed
0.06.

pg= As/Ag
Flexural Strength (NSCP2010 421.6.1)

Mnctop

Mnbleft Mnbright

Mncbot

(Mnctop + Mncbot) (6/5) (Mnbtop + Mnbbot)

sum of column moment capacity must be


20% higher than the sum of the beam
moment capacity
SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS FOR
COLUMNS
2. Limiting size of columns
(NSCP2010 421.6.1)
The shortest cross-sectional
dimension, measured on a straight
line passing through the geometric
centroid, shall not be less than
300mm. (Sec 421.6.1.1)
The ratio of the shortest cross-
sectional dimension to the
perpendicular dimension shall not
be less than 0.4.
(Sec 421.5.1.2)
SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS FOR
COLUMNS
3. Transverse reinforcement spacing
(NSCP2010, 421.6.4.3)
1. of the minimum member dimension.
2. Six times the diameter of the
longitudinal bar, and
3. as defined by the given equation.
So = 100 + (350-hx)
3
where 100mm < So < 150mm
hx = spacing of additional cross
ties or overlapping hoops,
which need not exceed 350mm
on centers.
SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS FOR
COLUMNS
3. Transverse reinforcement spacing
(NSCP2010, 421.6.4.3)
h

b/4
hx s
100+ (350- hx)
b
hx
3

where
hx hx hx
100mm<s<150mm
SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS FOR
COLUMNS
3. Transverse reinforcement spacing
(NSCP2010, 421.6.4.1)

The transverse reinforcements shall be


provided over a length, lo, from each joint face
. The length, lo, shall not be less than the
largest of:
1. The depth of the member at the joint face
or where the flexural yielding is likely to
occur.
2. One-sixth of the clear span of the member
3. 450 mm.
SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS FOR
COLUMNS
3. Transverse reinforcement spacing
(NSCP2010, 421.6.4.1)

Where transverse reinforcements are not


required throughout the full length of the
column, the hoops of the remainder of the
column length shall be spaced at the smaller of :
a) 6 times the diameter of the longitudinal bars.
b) 150mm
COLUMNS WITH SEISMIC DETAILING
h

hx
b
hx
Larger of b or S
h
1/6 lu hx hx hx
450mm
b/4
s
Clear height, lu 6 Ldb
100+ (350- hx) where
150
100<S<150
mm.
3

Note: without seismic


Larger of b or S
h
provisions,
1/6 lu the hoops spacing are:
450mm
a) 16Ldb
b) 48 hdb
c) minimum column
thickness
Not applicable to
Column Transverse reinforcement spacing
requirements
Example:

400mmx400mm x 3m column
with 12-20mm main bars:

S1= h1/4 =400/4 =100mm


S1 = 6db =6(20) =120mm
S1 =100mm

S2= 6db =6(20) =120mm


S1 =150mm

Lo = h1 =400mm
Lo = lc/6 = 3000mm/6 = 500mm
Lo= 18In = 450mm
Column Transverse reinforcement spacing
requirements
Hoop Configuration
Column hoops should be configured with at least
three hoop or crosstie legs restraining longitudinal
bars along each face. A single perimeter hoop
without crossties, legally permitted by ACI 318 for
small column cross
sections, is discouraged because confinement
effectiveness is low.

Poorly improved Well


confined confinement confined
50mm max

800mm
S=90mm
Lo = 450 300

4-20mm
400
2-20mm

Lo = 450 sr= 94mm of 10mm hoops

smax= 120mm of 10mm hoops

375 12-20mm

3 sets of 10mm hoops


375
Beam- column joint
sample
Beam- column joint
sample
Beam- column joint
sample
Allan Botuyanthis is a simple question but may have
so many answers. For RC structures, if your proposed
structure is ensured to have rigid base such as deeply
embedded foundation, then your support should be
fixed. if the foundation is relatively shallow, even ifthe
column is monolithically poured with the footing but the
soil is soft, then it can even be modeled as pin. If you
are in doubt, the best way now is to run two staad
models with pin and fix supports.Then look at the V and
M stresses in the columns and beams especially at the
lower levels, but also consider lateral displacements
especially at the roof level. You may see the difference
and gain insight what is safer and more conservative to
choose. Fix support tends to bring the high stresses on
the lower levels but reduces the deflection at the top.
On the other hand, pin supports tends to bring high
stresses on higher levels but increases deflection at the
top.
Thank you
for your kind
attention