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Gateway College of Architecture and Design, Sonipat Haryana

Lecture -02

History of Housing in Different In Periods

Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design
HISTORY OF HOUSING

Introduction
The history of house/ housing is divided into three Parts
Part -1 Pre-Urban Houses
Describes the dwelling prototype ranging from the Simplest transient huts of Nomadic food
gathering / hunting societies to the permanent home Steads of sedentary societies with a
Surplus agricultural economy.
Part-2 The oriental Urban Houses
The ancient inward looking houses forms of the four urban Civilization of Antiquity
( Mesopotamia, Egypt, The Indus Valley and China ). Includes are description of dwellings
with one or more private courtyards, both classical Greek and urban dwellings etc.
Part-3 The Occidental Urban Houses
The outlines of development of the Occidental Urban Houses from the dark ages to the
twentieth century.

Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design
HISTORY OF HOUSING

A. Ephemeral or Transient Dwellings-


. The Dwellings of nomadic band type Societies whose existence depends on a simple
hunting/ food gathering economy.
. Dwellings are Native in Nature , Construction of the dwelling on the Bases of Climate.
. The building material used are Characterized by low heat Capacity offering maximum shade
and good ventilation.
. An open fire out-side the Shelter provides the necessary comfort on Cool night.
. The dwelling is in the form of Cave Dwellings.
. The wall of the dwelling are not changed or in any decorated form.
. The natural niches and ledges in the Caves are used for Storage purpose.

Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design
HISTORY OF HOUSING

Example of Ephemeral or Transient


Dwellings :-
African bushmen skerm:-
The various grass Shelters of band are
usually arranged under the branches of
single trees . This encampment is called a
Werf.
The huts are usually clustered together
without a fixed pattern, and entrances in
an any direction.
During initiation rites the Werf layout is
circular and more formal, with an entrance
facing east leading to the dance path.

Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design
HISTORY OF HOUSING

Episodic or irregular Temporary Dwellings.


Simple episodic or irregular temporary dwellings are Shelters inhabited by
food Gatherers and hunters live in a band type of organization.
They are more skilled hunters or fishermen living in richer environment.
The generic plan of an episodic dwelling is similar to the ephemeral
dwelling in that it also has a circular plan, but this simple form has either a
dome or Conical enclosure above.
The supporting be a wooden frame or a vaulted dome of snow blocks .

Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design
HISTORY OF HOUSING

Example of Episodic or irregular Temporary Dwellings


Plains Indian Tungus, And Lapp Tents.
The Skeletal Structure of the plain Indian tepee was made by typing the top
ends of the poles ( either three or four poles) together and standing them up then
the additional poles up to about twenty were placed against the tripod.
A tailored buffalo hide cover was placed on the pole Skelton and was staked or weighted
down with stones all around the bottom edge.
A small holes were left to allow smoke from interior fire to escape.
The poles of the tepee were carefully prepared by the means of tribes.
The poles were chosen for straightness and stripped of bark and branches before being
seasoned.
The cutting , tanning, and sewing of the buffalo-hide covers of the tepees was the work of
women.
Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design
HISTORY OF HOUSING

Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design
HISTORY OF HOUSING

3. Periodic or Regular Temporary Dwellings


The portable tents of the pastoral nomads represents the third evolutionary Stages of
dwellings that are inhabited on a periodic or regular basis.
Nomads spends most of the time outdoors., hence proper clothing is often of greater
importance for survival than the effectiveness of their shelter.
The material are lightweight so that they are easily transported from one Periodic
settlement to another.
Naturally a Dome Shaped Structure consisting of a Skeleton and a membrane Cover
lends additional strength to the shelter.
Light weight building material possess a low heat Storage capacity , which is
Advantageous in winter when a quick heat response to the fire is required. In Summer
when shade and ventilation are easily afforded during the long warm days.

Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design
HISTORY OF HOUSING

Example -The Mongolian and Kirgizian Yurt


The yurts is an ingenious and weatherproof dwelling that affords its occupants a remarkable
degree of protection against inclement weather and in particular, the strong steppe winds.
The walls were consists of lightweight willow lattice work section called as khana .
In their expended form, four to eight khanas and a door frames are lashed together To serve
as a circular supporting wall of the roof.
The top of the wall are fastened the curved or straight roof poles radiating towards t he
center and fitted into the wooden ring .
The eastern part of the yurts is the women part, the western half parts the men and visitors
side .
Storages boxes and bags as well as rolled up bedding and carpets are placed along the
walls.

Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design
HISTORY OF HOUSING

Permanent dwelling
The members of theses rural Societies are
depend on the land that they till and are
usually an ultra sedentary people.
The basic unit of Social organization is the
family.
Depending upon the state of agricultural
technology and the number of people
required to produce the food, the type of
family unit varies
With less advanced technology the extended
or composite family is the basic social unit

Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design
HISTORY OF HOUSING

Example
Italian Trullo
The trullo is the permanent building form of the
inhabitants of the Murgia .
Adaptations of this form of dwellings are found in
both villages and Towns of the region.
The fields are usually small and enclosed with a
thick, drystone wall.
The houses are constructed with a stones from
fields.
The rectangular rooms are enclosed by thick stone
wall that are hollowed in a place to make the
niches and alcoves

Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design
Part -2 The oriental Urban Houses
The earliest civilization evolved from agrarian
society in habiting the fertile alluvial valleys of
great rivers.
Fertile river banks enabled indigenous
agriculturalists to go beyond subsistence Farming,
and rivers themselves becomes arteries of
communication and transportation with a unifying
influence upon the users.
Also required for the development of civilizations
along theses river valleys was a physical protection
from the incursions by neighboring nomadic tribes.

Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design
The ancient Civilization, Egypt
Housing in Kahun, Deir el Medina and Tell El Amarna
Kahun for the people engaged in its construction
The town was divided into two parts
The eastern part was nearly square and western part was a narrow oblong, consisting primarily
of small workmen's houses.
in the north western corner of eastern sector there was a acropolis's with a public square and a
guard house to south.
East west main street radiated from this square and form spine of community.
on the western sector there were palatial hoes on eastern block. The balance of western sector
had a geometric street pattern with work men s houses lining the street but north South main
Street and intersecting east-west narrow blind alleys lined on both sides with a workers houses.

Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design
Although most houses had a similar plan, their entrances were invariably staggered so that
they never faced or cross the street.
All the Street had a stone gutter down the center to drain off waste water and occasional
rain watershed houses are not in uniform.
In some case the two or three modules were joined together to form a single Residence.
Dwelling sizes varied considerably. The houses along the north wall For example, were
deeper than theses opposites them. Several city blocks varied in depth with one being, in
facts , twice as deep as the narrowest.
The rooms are arranged in a single row, Starting with an entrance hall or courtyard,
followed by the main hall ,a bedroom paralleled by a corridor, and ending into a rear open
courtyard.

Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design
Typical Houses of Deir-el Medina
Plots are deep rectangular

Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design
INDUS CIVILIZATION-
THE URBAN HOUSES OF MOHENJO-DARO
A certain regularity in the Street layouts Suggests that the early Indus Civilization
inclined towards geometric order in its cities.
The first street or the main Street had a orientation in north south direction.
While other parallel street were much narrower.
HOUSING OF MOHANJODARO-
The residential area were built at higher level.
Hierarchy of houses-
Two- room dwelling unit to large multiroom houses that could be ranked as places., invariably
However the typical dwelling unit of mohenjo daro is an inward looking courtyard houses.
Naturally, the smaller homes had only one court yard, where as the larger one has serval
courts.

Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design
A typical small but comfortable dwelling is house No-54 it formed part of a cluster of similar
sized dwelling along ninth lane.
A relatively wide door way with a brick front step and threshold gave access to vestibule.
The western section of entrance chamber was used as a bathroom and was equipped
With a out let for waste water that led to large jar placed in a brick lined pit against the exterior
wall and buried below the surface of the lane
Aa second adjacent pit received rubbished from upper floor of the houses through a vertical
chute contained within the thickness of exterior wall. The open courtyard along the north wall
was linked to vestibule by a passage and a spirit wall ensured its privacy.
The two principal rooms opened towards courtyard and between them a steep staircase led
from court to the private family quarters on the upper floor.

Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design
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Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design
HISTORY OF HOUSING

Characteristics of occidental housing


Inner Courtyards,
Tower buildings ,Multi storied detached structure with fenestration on all its four side
Tower of prototype
There was separated from the owners workplace and two were no longer synonymous.
The separation of domestic and housing activities had far reaching consequences not only
within the home. But also in the immediate neighbourhood.
The city eventually become compartmentalized into residential, commercial, recreational
and industrial area.
Single use zones are replaced efficient and balanced mixed used.

Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design
HISTORY OF HOUSING

Example Housing in nineteenth century with one of example London Model lodging house.
A corner flat at Streatham and George street, in Bloomsbury was acquired by lord Ashely
society and architect henry Robert was entrusted with the design of model for families
Series of flat with open gallery in the rear.
Five story high building was u shaped and enclosed a large court yard , or drying ground.
Open galleries overlooked the courtyard and linked to each other and street entrance by a
wide staircase
A typical dwelling was entered through a narrow hall, which led to living room, a scullery, a
toilet and a small bedroom were lit and ventilated from the street side.
Complementing the traditional London street appearance, the faade of the building were
well designed, with brick work and a large double hung window, the building become a
model for subsequent tenement building.

Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design
HISTORY OF HOUSING

Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design
HISTORY OF HOUSING

Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design
HISTORY OF HOUSING
Housing between the two world wars
With the great increase of private car ownership, suburbs become more accessible
and opulent detached residences built in communities like oyster bay
Andrew j Thomas a self educated architect, who introduced the term garden
apartment for residential building constructed in new York outlying boroughs.

Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design
HISTORY OF HOUSING

Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design
HISTORY OF HOUSING

Reference
All the data taken from
6,000 Years of Housing, Norbert Schoenauer

Lecture -02 Housing-VIII (B.Arch) Ar. Himmat Bhatia Gateway College of Architecture And Design