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Supply of fresh air

Convective cooling
Psychological cooling
Natural Ventilation

Single -Sided Ventilation

Cross -Ventilation: Two or more openings on opposite walls. covers a larger zone
than the single -sided openings

Stack Ventilation: Buoyancy -driven and gives larger flows

Windcatchers -Wind and buoyancy driven -effective in warm and temperate


Solar -Induced Ventilation: using the sun to heat building elements to increase
Natural ventilation
Windward and Leeward
Stack effect
Wind Catchers
A windcatcher is a traditional architectural
element to create natural ventilation in
Prevalent in arid climates of large diurnal
temperature variation
The construction of a windcatcher depends on
the direction of airflow at that specific location
The windcatcher can function in three ways

directing airflow downward using direct wind

directing airflow upwards using a wind-
assisted temperature gradient
directing airflow upwards using a solar-
assisted temperature gradient
Downward airflow due to direct wind
Wind catcher is essentially a
tall, capped tower with one
face open at the top . This
open side faces the prevailing
wind, thus "catching" it, and
brings it down the tower into
the heart of the building to
maintain air flow, thus
cooling the building interior.
It does not necessarily cool
the air itself, but rather relies
on the rate of airflow to
provide a cooling effect.
Upward airflow due to temperature
Windcatchers are also used in combination with
a qanat, or underground canal. In this method,
the open side of the tower faces away from the
direction of the prevailing wind .
The pressure differential on one side of the
building causes air to be drawn down into the
passage on the other side. The hot air is brought
down into the qanat tunnel and is cooled by
coming into contact with the cool earth and cold
water running through the qanat. The cooled air
is drawn up through the windcatcher. On the
whole, the cool air flows through the building,
decreasing the structure's overall temperature.
The effect is magnified by the water vapour
from the qanat.
Solar-produced temperature gradient

In a windless environment or
waterless house, a windcatcher
functions as a solar chimney. It
creates a pressure gradient which
allows hot air, which is less dense, to
travel upwards and escape out the

Factors affecting wind flow
Wind flow with landscaping
Mixed Mode ventilation

Air flow in the interior of buildings may be created by allowing

natural ventilation or by the use of artificial mechanical
ventilation or air conditioning.
The production of buildings using more than one of these options
is becoming more frequent. Such buildings are said to be
The overriding principle should be to minimize the need for
artificial climate systems and one way to achieve this is to
make maximum use of natural ventilation in conjunction with
climate sensitive design techniques for the building fabric.
Guidelines to improve air flow
Plan form should be shallow to allow for the possibility of cross ventilation.
The most straightforward system of cross flow ventilation is where fresh air is
provided with routes through a building from the windward to leeward side.
Openings on opposite walls to allow cross-ventilation are better than on one or
more adjacent walls.
Building depth should not be more than about five times the floor to ceiling height
if cross-ventilation is to be successful.
For single sided ventilation, depth should be limited to about two and a half times
the floor to ceiling height.
Minimum opening areas should be about 5 per cent of floor area to provide
sufficient flow.
Atria and vertical towers can be incorporated into the design to allow the stack
effect to draw air through the building
Orientation- Larger openings should face the windward side