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DBT 209 :


Introduction &
Materials Imperfection
CO1: Able to describe metal testing and

CO2: Able to identify and operate the

destructive metal testing machine.

CO3: Able to learn and conduct several

types of non-destructive testing.
The importance of metal testing:-
Verifying the quality of raw materials andend
Researching material and product failures
Uncovering production issues
Meeting regulatory requirements
Determining the root cause of failures
Types of metal testing
1. Destructive testing (DT)
methods where your material is broken down in order to
determine mechanical properties, such as strength,
toughness and hardness.

2. Nondestructive testing (NDT)

a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and
industry to evaluate the properties of a material,
component or system without causing damage
Materials Imperfection:

Why study imperfection in solids?

The properties of some materials are profoundly
influenced by the presence of imperfections.
Consequently, it is important to have a knowledge
about the types of imperfections that exist and the
roles they play in affecting the behavior of materials.
In reality crystals are never perfect.
Imperfections and defects may affect many of their
physical and mechanical properties such as cold
formability of metal, rate of migration of atoms in
alloys and the corrosion in metals.
Imperfection can be classified according to their
geometry and shape. The 4 main classifications are
point defects (zero-dimension)
line defects (one-dimension)
planar defects (two-dimension)
bulk defects (three-dimension)
Types of imperfection in solid metals

Imperfection Dimension Mechanisme /example

Point defects 0 -Self interstitial atoms

-Substitutional atoms
Line defects 1 -Dislocation

Planar defects 2 -Grain boundaries

Bulk defects 3 -Pores, cracks, foreign


Vacancy occupied from which an atom is missing.

May be produced during solidification as a result
of local disturbances during the growth of crystals
Created by atomic rearrangements in an existing
crystal due to atomic mobility
Sometimes an atom in a crystal can occupy an
interstitial site surrounding atoms in normal sites.
This type of defect is called a self-interstitial
These defects do not generally occur naturally
because of the structural distortion
They can be introduced into a structure by
-vacant atomic sites in a structure.

of planes

-"extra" atoms positioned between atomic sites.

distortion interstitial
of planes
Two outcomes if impurity (B) added to host (A):
Solid solution of B in A (i.e., random dist. of point defects)


Substitutional alloy Interstitial alloy

(e.g., Cu in Ni) (e.g., C in Fe)
Solid solution of B in A plus particles of a new
phase (usually for a larger amount of B)
Second phase particle
--different composition
--often different structure.

Equilibrium concentration varies with

No. of defects
temperature! Activation energy

exp D
N kT
No. of potential Temperature
defect sites. Boltzmann's constant
(1.38 x 10-23 J/atom K)
(8.62 x 10-5 eV/atom K)
Each lattice site
is a potential
vacancy site
We can get Q from exp D
an experiment. N kT
Measure this... Replot it...

ND ND slope
N ln

defect concentration 1/T
Point Defects in Ceramic

Also may exist in ceramic compounds, both vacancies and

Since ceramic contain ions of at least two kinds, defects for
each ion type may be occur
For example, in NaCl, Na and Cl interstitials and
vacancies may exist
The anion is relatively large, and to fit into a small
interstitial position, substantial strains on the surrounding
ions must be introduced
2 oppositely charged ions are missing from an ionic crystal,
a cation anion divacancy is created (Schottky Imperfection)
If a positive cation moves into an interstitial site in an ionic
crystal , a cation vacancy is created (Frenkel Imperfection)
When a divalent cation replaces a monovalent cation, a second
monovalent cation must also be removed, creating a vacancy.
Impurities in Solid
A pure metal consisting of only one type of atom just isnt possible;
impurity or foreign atoms will always be present.
Most familiar metals are not highly pure; rather, they are alloys, in
which impurity atoms have been added intentionally to impart
specific characteristics to the material.
Alloying is used in metals to improve mechanical strength and
corrosion resistance.
For example, sterling silver is a 92.5% silver -7.5% copper alloy. In
normal environments, pure silver is highly corrosion resistance, but
also very soft.
Alloying with copper enhances the mechanical strength
significantly, without depreciating the corrosion resistance
Solid Solution
A solid solution forms when, as the solute atoms
are added to the host material, the crystal
structure is maintained, and no new structures
are formed.
It is useful to draw an analogy with a liquid
If two liquids, soluble in each other (such as
water and alcohol) are combined, a liquid solution
is produced as the molecules intermix, and its
composition is homogeneous throughout.
A solid solution is also compositionally
homogeneous, the impurity atoms are randomly
and uniformly dispersed within the solid
Impurity point defects are found in solid
solutions, which there are two types:
substitutional and interstitial
There are several features of the solute and
solvent atoms that determine the degree to
which the former dissolves in the latter; these
1. Atomic size factor
2. Crystal structure
3. Electronegativity
4. Valences
An example of a substitutional solid solution is found for
copper and nickel. These two elements are completely
soluble in one another at all proportions.
For interstitial solid solutions, impurity atoms fill the
voids or interstices among the host atoms.
For metallic materials that have relatively high atomic
packing factors, these interstitial positions are relatively
Consequently, the atomic diameter of an interstitial
impurity must be substantially smaller than that of the
host atoms.
Normally, the maximum allowable concentration of
interstitial impurity atoms is low ( less than 10% )
Point Defects in Polymer

The defect concept is different in polymers (than in

metals and ceramics) as a consequence of the chainlike
macromolecules and the nature of the crystalline state
for polymers
Point defects is similar to those found in metals, these
include vacancies and interstitial atoms and ions.
Chain ends are considered to be defects in as much as
they are chemically dissimilar to normal chain units;
vacancies are also associated with the chain ends.
Impurity atoms/ions or groups of atoms/ions may be
incorporated in the molecular structure as interstitials;
they may also be associated with main chains or as
short side branches

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