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Mechanical Properties:

fundamentals and Tensile, Hardness and Impact Testing

Outcomes and Expectations

Learn the concept of stress and strain

– Different testing methods (tensile, compression, shear) – Hooke’s law – Poisson’s ratio – Stress-strain diagram – Effect of temperature on properties

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

Stiffness, Strength and Ductility

Data required for:

- load bearing applications.

Must

withstand

fracturing

- formability

load

without

deforming

or

ease of deformation into desired shape

-materials science

property = structure

Standard (ASTM) lab tests

Used to compare properties of materials Not a simulation of in-use conditions

Standard (ASTM) lab tests Used to compare properties of materials Not a simulation of in-use conditions
Standard (ASTM) lab tests Used to compare properties of materials Not a simulation of in-use conditions
Standard (ASTM) lab tests Used to compare properties of materials Not a simulation of in-use conditions
Standard (ASTM) lab tests Used to compare properties of materials Not a simulation of in-use conditions

Tensile test

force applied uniaxially in tension to fracture

specimen

Flat or cylindrical Gauge Gauge region length
Flat or
cylindrical
Gauge
Gauge
region
length

Width (diam) / gauge region controls geometry*

Load cell

Load frame
Load
frame

actuator

Constant speed

Raw data

Raw data

How to compare different materials

Use exactly the same specimen dimensions

(not practical)

normalise results with respect to specimen size

Engineering stress

= F/A

How to compare different materials Use exactly the same specimen dimensions (not practical) normalise results with
How to compare different materials Use exactly the same specimen dimensions (not practical) normalise results with

Initial x-sect area (1ksi~7MPa) (1MPa=145psi)

Instantaneous load pounds force per sq in (psi), (or ksi)

megapascals (1 MPa =10 6 N/m 2 =1 N/mm 2 )

Engineering strain

= (l 1 -l 0 ) / l 0

How to compare different materials Use exactly the same specimen dimensions (not practical) normalise results with

Instantaneous elongation

How to compare different materials Use exactly the same specimen dimensions (not practical) normalise results with

initial length

Dimensionless

Or strain

Or %

Compression

used for formability

force applied uniaxially in compression no fracture

specimen

Compression used for formability force applied uniaxially in compression no fracture specimen Gauge length cylindrical (or

Gauge

length

Compression used for formability force applied uniaxially in compression no fracture specimen Gauge length cylindrical (or
Compression used for formability force applied uniaxially in compression no fracture specimen Gauge length cylindrical (or

cylindrical (or Flat)

diam / gauge length controls geometry

Load cell

Load frame Constant speed actuator
Load
frame
Constant speed
actuator

stress is -ve by convention

strain is -ve by maths Beware barelling
strain is -ve by maths
Beware barelling

= (l 1 -l 0 ) / l 0

Friction problem

General description of stress/strain (flow)curve

Stress

General description of stress/strain (flow)curve Stress fracture plastic elastic Strain
General description of stress/strain (flow)curve Stress fracture plastic elastic Strain
fracture plastic elastic
fracture
plastic
elastic

Strain

Elastic region

Characterised by

Non-permanent deformation

E
E

Strain

Quantified by:

1 modulus of elasticity:

Stress

First, relate to

for most metals and ceramics

linear elasticity

Hooke’s law

E

or

Units: stress

 E  Youngs modulus 
E 
Youngs modulus
Poisson's Ratio z y Tensile test Compressive strain x  x    y 
Poisson's Ratio z y Tensile test Compressive strain x  x    y 

Poisson's Ratio

z

y
y

Tensile test

Compressive

strain

x

x

 

y

z


Poisson's Ratio z y Tensile test Compressive strain x  x    y 

Theoretically, in elastic region, u=0.25

 

z

Poisson's Ratio z y Tensile test Compressive strain x  x    y 

always +ve

In practice, 0.25 - 0.35

In plastic region = 0.5

(no volume change).

Non linear elasticity

e.g. cast iron; concrete Modulus is defined as

Non linear elasticity e.g. cast iron; concrete Modulus is defined as ? slope of tangent slope
? slope of tangent slope of secant
?
slope of
tangent
slope of secant

Strain

Stress

Non linear elasticity e.g. cast iron; concrete Modulus is defined as ? slope of tangent slope

specify a stress level

HOW?

tangent vs secant?

elastic region also defined by

Stress Strain 50GPa
Stress
Strain
50GPa

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE

Elastic limit (strain)

E

  • 0.3 Temp/T(M.Pt.)

0.3Tm 0.45Tm E Al =69GPa 48GPa
0.3Tm
0.45Tm
E Al =69GPa
48GPa

Relation between elastic properties and melting temperature of selected materials

Relation between elastic properties and melting temperature of selected materials

Limit of elastic region

elastic limit for metals 0.005 strain

(e.g. for a 2m metal rod plasticity begins at 10mm elongation)

YIELD STRENGTH

STRESS YS YS 0.002 offset YS STRAIN 0.002
STRESS
YS
YS
0.002 offset YS
STRAIN
0.002

STRAIN

DISCONTINUOUS YIELDING

STRESS

Upper yield point

DISCONTINUOUS YIELDING STRESS Upper yield point Lower yield point STRAIN What materials exhibit this type of
DISCONTINUOUS YIELDING STRESS Upper yield point Lower yield point STRAIN What materials exhibit this type of

Lower yield point

STRAIN

What materials exhibit this type of curve?

NON-LINEAR ELASTICITY

STRESS

NON-LINEAR ELASTICITY STRESS YS STRAIN 0.005 STRAIN
NON-LINEAR ELASTICITY STRESS YS STRAIN 0.005 STRAIN

YS

STRAIN

0.005

STRAIN

Shear Testing

F F shear stress  = F/A Instantaneous load Initial area Parallel to loading direction
F
F
shear stress  = F/A
Instantaneous load
Initial area
Parallel to loading
direction

tanshear strain

Shear modulus

G

G < E

G

E

2(1v )

(different way of measuring strain)

Micromechanism of elastic deformation

-stretching of atomic bonds

Torsion Testing

T (Torque)

Torsion Testing T (Torque) T t = fnc (T) shear strain = fnc (f) angle of
T
T

t = fnc (T)

shear strain = fnc (f)

angle of twist

V. high strain possible

Suggested lectures

• Callister (7 th edidion)

– Sections 6.2, 6.3, 6.5

Problems

1)

A force of 100 000N is applied to a 10mmX20mm iron bar having a yield strength of 400MPa and a tensile strength of 480MPa. Determine:

- Whether the bar will plastically deform? - Whether the bar will experience necking?

2)

An aluminum plate 0.5cm thick is to withstand a force of 50 000N with no permanent deformation. If the aluminum has a yield strength of 125 MPa, what is the minimum width of the plate?

3)

A steel cable 1.25 in in diameter and 50ft long is to lift a 20-ton load. What is the length of the cable during lifting? The modulus of elasticity of the steel is 30x10 6 psi.