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Project Title

POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT BY


AUTOMATICALLY ENGAGING APPROPRIATE
NUMBER OF SHUNT CAPACITOR FOR
INDUCTIVE LOADS

Under the Guidance of

Submitted by
ABSTARCT
Power factor is defined as the ratio of real power to apparent power.
Where real power is the time integral of the instantaneous power
measured over a full period and the apparent power is simply the product
of the RMS voltage and RMS current measured over the entire period.
The time lag between the zero voltage pulse and zero current pulse duly
generated by suitable operational amplifier circuits are fed to two
interrupt pins of the microcontroller where the program takes over to
actuate appropriate number of relays at its output for bringing shunt
capacitors into the load circuit to get the power factor till it reaches 0.95.
PROJECT BLOCK DIAGRAM
HARDWARE COMPONENTS
MICROCONTROLLER (AT89S52/AT89C51)
RELAY
RELAY DRIVER
LCD
CURRENT TRANSFORMER
INDUCTIVE LOAD
SHUNT CAPACITOR
PUSH BUTTONS
LED
1N4007 / 1N4148
RESISTOR
CAPACITOR
POWER SUPPLY
230 V Bridge rectifier 5v Regulator
AC
50
Hz 5V
DC

Filter(470f)
12V step down
transformer
MICROCONTROLLER

It is a smaller computer
Has on-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports...

CPU RAM ROM


A single chip
Serial
I/O Timer COM Microcontroller
Port
Port
INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF A MICRO CONTROLLER-
AT89S52/51

External interrupts
On-chip Timer/Counter
ROM for
Interrup program On-chip Timer 1 Counter
t code RAM Inputs
Control Timer 0

CPU

Bus Serial
4 I/O Ports Port
OSC Control

P0 P1 P2 P3 TxD RxD

Address/Data
Features of AT89S51/52
Compatible with MCS-51 Products

8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory

Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles

4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range


Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
256 x 8-bit Internal RAM

32 Programmable I/O Lines


Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
Eight Interrupt Sources
Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode
Watchdog Timer
Dual Data Pointer
Pin Description
RELAY

IT IS A ELECTRO MAGNETIC SWITCH

USED TO CONTROL THE ELECTRICAL DEVICES

COPPER CORE MAGNETIC FLUX PLAYS MAIN ROLE HERE


The relay's switch connections are usually labeled COM, NC and
NO:
COM = Common, always connect to this; it is the moving part of
the itch.
NC = Normally Closed, COM is connected to this when the relay
coil is off.
NO = Normally Open, COM is connected to this when the relay
coil is on
RELAY DRIVER (ULN 2003)

ULN2003 is a high voltage and high current Darlington


transistor array
It consists of seven NPN Darlington pairs that feature high-
voltage outputs with common-cathode Clamp diode for
switching inductive loads.
The ULN2003 has a 2.7kW series base resistor for each
Darlington pair for operation directly with TTL or 5V
CMOS devices.
Current, Output Max:500mA
Voltage, Input Max:5V
Voltage, Output Max:50V
Fig: ULN 2003
QUAD VOLTAGE COMPARATOR
LM339
FEATURES
Wide single supply voltage range 2.0VDC TO 36VDC or dual
supplies 1.0VDC to 18VDC
Very low supply current drain (0.8 ) independent
of supply voltage (1.0 /comparator at 5.0VDC)
Low input biasing current 25
Low input offset current 5 and offset voltage
Input common-mode voltage range includes ground
Differential input voltage range equal to the power
supply voltage
Low output 250 at 4 saturation voltage
Output voltage compatible with TTL, DTL, ECL, MOS
and CMOS logic system
Moisture Sensitivity Level 3
LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD)
Most common LCDs connected to the microcontrollers are
16x2 and 20x2 displays.
This means 16 characters per line by 2 lines and 20
characters per line by 2 lines, respectively.
The standard is referred to as HD44780U, which refers to
the controller chip which receives data from an external
source (and communicates directly with the LCD.
LCD BACKGROUND
If an 8-bit data bus is used the LCD will require 11 data lines
(3 control lines plus the 8 lines for the data bus)
The three control lines are referred to as EN, RS, and RW
EN=Enable (used to tell the LCD that you are sending it data)
RS=Register Select (When RS is low (0), data is treated as a command)
(When RS is High(1), data being sent is text data )
R/W=Read/Write (When RW is low (0), the data written to the LCD)
(When RW is low (0), the data reading to the LCD)
Soft ware Requirements

Keil an ARM Company makes C compilers, macro assemblers, real-


time kernels, debuggers, simulators, integrated environments,
evaluation boards, and emulators for ARM7/ARM9/Cortex-M3,
XC16x/C16x/ST10, 251, and 8051 MCU families.

Compilers are programs used to convert a High Level Language to


object code. Desktop compilers produce an output object code for the
underlying microprocessor, but not for other microprocessors.
i.e the programs written in one of the HLL like C will compile the
code to run on the system for a particular processor like x86
(underlying microprocessor in the computer).

For example compilers for Dos platform is different from the


Compilers for Unix platform So if one wants to define a compiler
then compiler is a program that translates source code into object
code.
K YO U
TH A N