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Family

Why is family important


in acquiring culture?
Basic Ideas About The Family
Sociologists
Sociologistsstudy
studythethe family
family
because
because ititisisthe
the primary
primary
socialization
socializationagency
agencyof ofsociety.
society.

ItItforms
formsone
one of
of the
thecentral
central
experiences
experiences of ofan
anindividuals
individualslife
life--
as
asaachild
childand
andmost
most adults
adults through
through
parenthood.
parenthood.

The
Thefamily
family isis the
theplace
placewhere
wherewewe
are
aremost
most likely
likely to tobe
beourselves.
ourselves.
Our Task in Studying the Family

To
Torecognize
recognizepositive
positiveand
andnegative
negative
features
features of
of family
familylife
life

To
Tothe
theways
waysin
inwhich
whichthe
thefamily
family isis
changing.
changing.

To
Toexplore
explore the
the To
Tounderstand
understandthethe
meanings
meanings of of family
family role
roleof
ofthe
thefamily
familyinin
life
lifeto
toits
itsmembers.
members. acquiring
acquiringculture.
culture.
Defining the Family

Anthony
AnthonyGiddens
Giddens defines
definesthe
the family
familyas:
as:

A
Agroup
group ofof persons
persons directly
directly linked
linked by
bykin
kin
connections,
connections, the
theadult
adultmembers
membersof of which
which
assume
assume responsibility
responsibility for
for caring
caring for
for
children.
children.

Kinship
Kinshiprefers
refersto
to relationships
relationships Household
Household refers
refers to
to
based
basedon
onbiological
biologicaloror marital
marital the
theplace
placeof
of
ties.
ties. domesticity.
domesticity.
Defining the Family

Nuclear Family

Composed of one or two parents and


their dependent children, all whom
live apart from other relatives.

Also called Conjugal Family


meaning based on marriage.
Defining the Family

Extended Family

Unit composed of relatives in addition


to parents and children who live in the
same household.

This type of family often composed of


grandparents, uncles, aunts or other
relatives who live close to the parents
and children.

This makes the sharing or resources


possible for family members.
Defining the Family

Marriage

A legally sanctioned relationship usually involving economic


cooperation as well as sexual activity and child bearing that
people expect to be enduring.
Defining the Family

Families of Affinity

People with or without legal blood ties who feel that they
belong together and want to define themselves as a family.
Defining the Family
Endogamy

Specifies the groups within which a


spouse must be found and prohibits
marriage with others.

Example:

Here in Philippines many people are


expected to marry within their own racial
or religious groups and are strongly
discouraged from marrying outside the
group.
Defining the Family

Exogamy

Dictates marriage between people


of different social categories.

Requires mate selection outside


certain groups, usually ones own
family or certain kinfolk.
Defining the Family

Incest Taboo

Social norm common to virtually all societies, prohibits sexual


relationships between certain culturally specified relatives.

Example:

Filipinos cannot marry their siblings and their first cousins.

In rural Pakistan and India people are expected to marry


someone of the same caste (endogamy) but from a different village
(exogamy).
Defining the Family

Homogamy

Selection of spouses with


similar social characteristics.

People similar to oneself are


easy to be with also people
who agree with us are very
rewarding to be with because
they reinforce us.
Defining the Family

Heterogamous

This provides expanded opportunities for people to meet others


from different social backgrounds and geographic areas at
school, in the work place, singles bars, personal advertisements
and video dating services.

This exposes the partners to other ways of doing and thinking,


adding element of variety and challenge to the relationship.
Defining the Family

Monogamy

A marriage between two partners


usually a woman and a man.

For some people marriage is a lifelong


commitment that ends only with the
death of a spouse, others through a
pattern of marriage, divorces and
remarriage practice serial
monogamy.
Defining the Family

Polygamy

Marriage that unites three or


more people.

Having multiple wives wherein


polygamy is allowed is viewed
as a mark of status.
Defining the Family
Polyandry

A marriage that unites one female and two more males.

This is very rare and only occurs in societies where men greatly
outnumber women because of high rates of female infanticide or
marriages are arranged between two brothers and one woman.
Defining the Family

Patrilocal residence

Custom in which married couples settle in or near the


household of the husbands father.

Example:
In Jordanian City of Irbid wherein the high cost of renting an
apartment or building new home made many sons build their
living quarters into their parents home.
Defining the Family

Matrilocal residence

Custom wherein married partners settle in or near the


household of the wifes father.

Neological residence

Custom wherein married couples establish new residence


separate from the kin of either spouse.
The Nayar Tribe

Kathleen
KathleenGough
Gough (1972)
(1972) describes
describes how
how
women
women bore
borechildren
childrentotoup
upto
to12
12
Sandbanham
Sandbanhamhusbands.
husbands.

Instead
Insteadthe
themothers
mothersbrothers
brotherswere
were
economically
economicallyresponsible
responsible for
for her
her children.
children.

Biological
Biological fathers
fatherstook
took no
no This
This can
can reflect
reflectsome
some
responsibility
responsibilityfor
for their
their families
familiesin
in contemporary
contemporary
upbringing.
upbringing. society.
society.
Oneida Community (Boston USA) 1848
The
TheOneida
OneidaCommunity
Community
was
wasfounded
founded by
byaa
Christian
Christian preacher,
preacher,John
John
Humphrey
HumphreyNoyes.
Noyes.

Sexual
Sexual activity
activitywas
was
allowed
allowedamong
amonganyany
agreeable
agreeablemembers.
members.

There
Therewas
wasgroup
groupmarriage
marriage Only
Onlythose
thoseconsidered
considered
with
withchildren
childrenraised
raised suitable
suitablewere
wereallowed
allowedto
to
communally.
communally. reproduce.
reproduce.
Russian Experiment
Following
Followingthethe Russian
Russian Revolution
Revolution of
of
1917,
1917,aa deliberate
deliberate attempt
attempt was
was made
madetoto
destroy
destroythe
thetraditional
traditionalfamily.
family.

Marriage
Marriageand
anddivorce
divorce were
wereabolished.
abolished.
Nurseries,
Nurseries, launderettes
launderettesand
andeating
eating
canteens
canteenswere
wereintroduced,
introduced, thus
thusfreeing
freeing
women
womenfrom
fromdomestic
domesticwork.
work.
However,
However,children
children became
became
psychologically
psychologicallydisturbed
disturbed by
bythe
the
instability
instabilityas
asparents
parentswent
went through
throughmany
many
partners.
partners.
Kibbutz System (Israel)
Today
Todayabout
about 4-5%
4-5%of of Israels
Israels
population
populationlive
livein
in aakibbutz.
kibbutz.

Children
Children were
were generally
generallyraised
raised
apart
apart from
from their
their parents
parentsin
in age-
age-
groups,
groups,
Children
Childrenspent
spent family
familytime
time each
each
evening
eveningand
andweekend
weekend with
with their
their
biological
biological parents.
parents.

Today
Todaymost
most kibbutz
kibbutz children
childreneat
eat
and
and sleep
sleepwith
withtheir
their parents
parents
Black Matrifocal Families

Within
WithinAfrican-Caribbean
African-Caribbeancommunities
communities
families
familieswith
with absent
absent fathers
fathersis
iscommon.
common.

However,
However,these
theseare
arejust
justas
asmuch
muchaafamily
family
as
asany
anyother
otherlone-parent
lone-parentfamily.
family.

As
Assuch
suchthey
theyare
aredifferent
different from
fromthe
the
traditional
traditionalfamily,
family,but
but are
arethey
theyjust
just aa
variation
variationof
ofthe
the family?
family?
Perspectives on Families
Functionalist Perspective

This theory emphasizes the function that families perform at the


macro level of society

Reproduction, protection, socialization, regularization of sexual


behavior, affection and companionship and provision of social status
are the six dominant functions performed by the family in society.
Functionalist Perspective

Reproduction

For a society to continue, it must


replace dying members.

The family contributes to human


survival through its function of
reproduction.
Functionalist Perspective

Protection

Human infants need constant care


and economic security.

It is the family that assumes


responsibility for the protection and
upbringing of children.
Functionalist Perspective

Socialization

Parents and other relatives transmit the norms, values, and


language of a culture to the child.
Functionalist Perspective
Regulation of Sexual Behavior

Standards of sexual behavior are most


clearly defined within the family and the
structure of society influences these
standards.

Example:

In male dominated societies norms


generally permit men to express and
enjoy their physical attraction more freely
than women may.
Functionalist Perspective

Affection and Companionship

Family provides members with warm and intimate relationships


and helps them feel satisfied and secure.

We expect our relatives to understand us, to care for us, and to be


there for us when we need them.
Functionalist Perspective

Provision of Social Status

The family presents the newborn child with an ascribed status of


race and ethnicity that helps to determine her or his place in the
societys stratification system.
Conflict Perspective

Conflict perspective

Looks the family not as a contributor to social stability but as a


refection of the inequality in wealth and power found within the
larger society.
Alternative Family Forms
Singlehood

A major reason for this increase is a growing


tendency for young adults to postpone
marriage.

For those who do not want children and do not


see marriage as a prerequisite for sexual
experience and married life may seem to offer
few advantage.

Most young people who live alone realize that


remaining single is not necessarily a matter of
never having found the right partner, for them
its a deliberate decision about personal
lifestyle.
Alternative Family Forms
Cohabitation

Sharing of a household by unmarried couples.

Most cohabitation does not lead to marriage but this living arrangement
is gaining popularity as a way to test a serious relationship while saving
the expense of a second residence.

In others it is more like a trial marriage.


Alternative Family Forms

One Parent Families

The single parent family is now


emerging as the most common
alternative to the nuclear family in
modern industrialized societies.

Most one parent families are poor and


headed by women they are either
divorced or unwed mothers.
Alternative Family Forms

Families Without Children

Some couples chose not to have


children because they see their
marriage unstable.

They believe that their relationship


cannot withstand the strains a child
would bring and that it may break
up before the child is grown.
Alternative Family Forms

Blended Families

One whose members once were part of other families.

Two divorced people who marry and bring heir children into a
new family unit become a blended family.
Alternative Family Forms

Gay Male and Lesbian Couples

Denmark is the first country to recognize


homosexual marriages thereby extending
to fay and lesbian couples legal
advantages in inheritance, taxation, and
joint property ownership.

Some homosexual couples also raise


children usually from previous
heterosexual relationships.