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Brunswikian Lens Model

A framework for the study of

emotional communication
The Lens Model
is used in several fields to study how observers correctly
and incorrectly use objective cues to perceive physical or
social reality

physical or social observer

environment (organism)

cues have a probabilistic (uncertain) relation to the actual objects

a (same) cue can signal several objects in the environment
cues are (often) redundant
Lens model research
Developed for the study of visual perception
Brunswik (1956)
Immediately applied to judgment analysis (decision making,
medical diagnosis, weather forecast) Hammond (1955)
Rapidly oriented towards interpersonal perception
Interpersonal dispositions
(dominant, extraverted, agreeable ) Gifford (1994)
Intelligence Reynolds & Gifford
Rapport Bernieri & Gillis
Emotions (but only in music) Juslin (1998)
Some authors introduced modified versions of the lens
Scherer, K. R. (1978). Personality inference from voice quality: The loud
voice of extroversion. European Journal of Social Psychology, 8, 467-487.

Functional validity

Perceptual Inferential
representation utilization
level Distal
Trait/state indicator Attribution

D1 P1
D2 P2

Di Pj

Indicator Perceptual Attributional

Criterion value
values judgments judgments
Association Representation Utilization
coefficients coefficients coefficents

Accuracy coefficient
Emotional communication
Example: Important issues:
Loud voice - To be measured, cues must be
Vocal cues cues
High pitched identified a priori
Facial cues Frown - Inconsistencies on both sides
Gestures Clenched fists (indiv. diff., broad categories)
Other cues Shaking - Cue utilization could be
on the left and the right side
Expressed (e.g. important cues not used)
emotion attribution

expressed anger ? perception of

encoder decoder
Implications for HMI
If matching is low cues

Expressed Emotional
emotion attribution
relation of the cues to relation of the cues to
the expressed emotion the perceived emotion
Important for Automatic Recog.. matching Important for ECAs

ECA developers should focus on the relation of the cues to the

perceived emotion
Automatic recognition system developers should focus on the
relation of the cues to expressed emotion
( Mind individual differences)
( Mind broad/abstract categories)
Illustration of results
A brunswikian Lens analysis of emotional
will be shown on Tanjas poster
for vocal expressions (acted emotions)