Você está na página 1de 20


Coordination versus subordination

Syntactic level: main vs embedded

[ You can go to cinema ]s or [ you can visit

some friends ]s

[ I think [ that she'll do it again ]s ]s

Types of coordination

Susan prepared the meal and John did the washing.

She went to the beach, she read books, she listened to music, ...

She went to the beach, she read books and she listened to music.

She went to the beach and she read books and she listened to
Coordinating clauses and other constituents

What is coordinated in these sentences?

1. John plays the piano and sings.

2. He plays the piano and the guitar.
3. Susan is pretty and intelligent.
4. She drove slowly and carefully.
5. They must be in the park or at home.
6. John plays the piano and his mother plays the guitar.
7. I think you should talk to Peter and apologize for everything.
The coordinate construction constraint


* XP + YP if XP and YP have a different form and function

Q: What is the form and the function of the

coordinated constituents?

1. My sister is intelligent and tall

2. * My sister is intelligent and a teacher
3. She called him a fool and a stupid person
4. * She called him a fool and a taxi.
Order of coordinated constituents

Syntactically reversible?

1. Fascinating films and interesting plays

2. Interesting plays and fascinating films

3. Mary went to London and Peter

stayed at home
4. Peter stayed at home and Mary went to
Are these reversible? Pragmatics!

1.She saw the accident and called an ambulance.

2. She called an ambulance and saw the accident.

3. She saw the thief and got frightened.

4. She got frightened and saw the thief.
Irreversible binomials:

ladies and gentlemen

safe an sound
fish and chips
and and or
And and or can coordinate more than
two constituents:

My brother and my sister and my

cousins came to the funeral
She doesn't like apples or pears or
Coordinating conjunctions and their uses

= Addition, chronological sequence, consequence or result,
contrast,concession, condition, comment or explanation:

1. She writes plays and novels.

2. She washed the dishes and went to rest.
3. She fell down and they called her family.
4. John is tall and Mary is short.
5. She took the exam twice and she didn't pass.
6. Send it again and they'll read it.
7. You should know something and it is that he has resigned.
Elements that AND can coordinate

1. They visited some friends and some relatives.

2. Boys and girls will go together.
3. She considered everything carefully and
4. A fast and expensive car.
5. Susan is attractive and talkative.
6. He attended the meeting and asked some questions.
7. John wrote the abstract and Mary presented the paper.
8. I wonder who will be elected and when we'll know the
9. He tried to open the door and to fix it.
You can write a paper or present a poster (but not both).

You can send a message or call her, or you can do both.

Use of intonation to indicate intended meaning:

Would prefer salad or chips?

It'll rain, or (rather) it seems it'll rain.

Negative condition:
Turn the TV on, or we'll miss the show.
Elements that OR can coordinate

1. They can visit the British Museum or the National Gallery.

2. First year students or second year students will participate.
3. She watched the program or read a book about it.
4. I wonder whether he is tall or short.
5. She can keep it in her office or at home.
6. She will do it, at home or in the library.
7. You may stay here or you may go outside.
8. I don't know whether she has done it alone or whether
someone has helped her.
9. Staying here or waiting outside is all we can do.


They are poor but they are happy.

How many units can BUT coordinate?

* The parents are going abroad but their children are

staying but they will come back.
Elements that BUT can coordinate

1. He is poor but happy.

2. He wrote it slowly but perfectly.
3. They kept it in a safe place but out of reach.
4. She isnt a teacher but a doctor.
5. I love him but I won't marry him.
6. They suspect that he is not guilty but that he will run away.
7. I like writing novels but including a happy end.
The correlatives
Two possibilities , exclusive meaning of or
Elements it can coordinate:

1. You can choose either a chocolate ice-cream or a

2. They can either print the exercises or send them bymail.
3. Either Mary or her mother will prepare lunch.
4. You can keep the food either in the freezer or in the
5. Either Mary missed the train or she is really ill.

Incorporation of negation to either...or

a) They wont visit either Mary or her sister.

b) They will visit neither Mary nor her sister.

Elements it can coordinate:

1. She neither talked to Peter nor called him.
2. Neither Peter nor his friend went to the party.
3. She is neither tall nor short.
4. She likes neither reading nor writing.

But notice the impossibility:

* Neither he studied for he exam nor he attended classes.

- Emphasizes addition of and

- Can coordinate different elements:

Their house is both big and comfortable.

She both plays the piano and sings romantic songs.
Both teachers and students went on strike.

But notice the impossibility:

*Both Mary wrote the paper and Susan presented it.

Not (only)...but (also)
Meaning of addition, not contrast.

1.They wanted not (only) to pass but (also) to have a

very good mark.
2. Not only children but (also) adults may like the film.
3. They'll see not only Mary, but (also) Peter.

Not only in sentence initial position triggers subject-

auxiliary inversion:

Not only was he injured, but some friends also were.

Cordination and ellipsis
What is coordinated in the following
Is there ellipsis?

1.[ She [ wrote and sent the message ]


2.[ Young girls and boys ] NP

Elliptical elements in coordinated structures

What is omitted in the second


1. John [ likes literature] and Mary

[ linguistics ]

2. John [ studies his notes in the library on

his own ] and Mary [ in a bar with her