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Vacational training

on
Microcontroller and embeded
system

Presented by
Rahul gupta
ET/07/2890
Saturday, July 17, 2010 Mahdi Hassanpour
Contents:
Introduction
Block Diagram and Pin Description of the 8051
Registers
Memory mapping in 8051
Why do we need to learn
Microprocessors/controllers?
 The microprocessor is the core of
computer systems.
 Nowadays many communication, digital
entertainment, portable devices, are
controlled by them.
 A designer should know what types of
components he needs, ways to reduce
production costs and product reliable.
The necessary tools for a
microprocessor/controller
 CPU: Central Processing Unit
 I/O: Input /Output
 Bus: Address bus & Data bus
 Memory: RAM & ROM
 Timer
 Interrupt
 Serial Port
 Parallel Port
Microprocessors:
General-purpose microprocessor
 CPU for Computers
 No RAM, ROM, I/O on CPU chip itself
 Example : Intel’s x86, Motorola’s 680x0

Many chips on mother’s board


Data Bus
CPU
General-
Serial
Purpose RAM ROM I/O Timer COM
Micro- Port
Port
processor
Address Bus

General-Purpose Microprocessor System


Microcontroller :
 A smaller computer
 On-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports...
 Example : Motorola’s 6811, Intel’s 8051, Zilog’s Z8 and PIC 16X

CPU RAM ROM


A single chip
Serial
I/O Timer COM
Port
Port
Microcontroller
Microprocessor vs. Microcontroller
Microprocessor Microcontroller
 CPU is stand-alone, RAM, • CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O and
ROM, I/O, timer are separate timer are all on a single chip
 designer can decide on the • fix amount of on-chip ROM,
amount of ROM, RAM and RAM, I/O ports
I/O ports. • for applications in which cost,
 expansive power and space are critical
 versatility • single-purpose
 general-purpose
Embedded System

 Embedded system means the processor is embedded into that


application.
 An embedded product uses a microprocessor or microcontroller to do
one task only.
 In an embedded system, there is only one application software that is
typically burned into ROM.
 Example : printer, keyboard, video game player
Three criteria in Choosing a Microcontroller

1. meeting the computing needs of the task efficiently and cost


effectively
• speed, the amount of ROM and RAM, the number of I/O ports
and timers, size, packaging, power consumption
• easy to upgrade
• cost per unit
1. availability of software development tools
• assemblers, debuggers, C compilers, emulator, simulator,
technical support
1. wide availability and reliable sources of the microcontrollers.
Block Diagram
External interrupts
On-chip Timer/Counter

Interrupt ROM for


On-chip Timer 1 Counter
Control program
code RAM Timer 0 Inputs

CPU

Bus Serial
4 I/O Ports
OSC Control Port

P0 P1 P2 P3 TxD RxD
Address/Data
Pin Description of the 8051
P1.0 1 40 Vcc
P1.1 2 39 P0.0(AD0
P1.2 3 38 P
) 0.1(AD1)
P1.3 4 8051 37 P0.2(AD2
P
P1.4 5 36 ) 0.3(AD3)
P1.5 6 (8031) 35 P0.4(AD4)
P1.6 7 34 P0.5(AD5)
P1.7 8 33 P0.6(AD6)
RST 9 32 P0.7(AD7)
(RXD)P3.0 10 31 EA/VPP
(TXD)P3.1 11 30 ALE/PROG
(INT0)P3.2 12 29 PSEN
(INT1)P3.3 13 28 P2.7(A15)
(T0)P3.4 14 27 P2.6(A14
(T1)P3.5 15 26 )P2.5(A13
(WR)P3.6 16 25 P
) 2.4(A12
(RD)P3.7 17 24 )P2.3(A11
XTAL2 18 23 P ) 2.2(A10)
XTAL1 19 22 P2.1(A9)
GND 20 21 P2.0(A8) 
Pins of 8051 ( 1/4 )

 Vcc ( pin 40 ):
– Vcc provides supply voltage to the chip.
– The voltage source is +5V.
 GND ( pin 20 ): ground
 XTAL1 and XTAL2 ( pins 19,18 )
Figure (a). XTAL Connection to 8051

 Using a quartz crystal oscillator


 We can observe the frequency on the XTAL2 pin.

C2
XTAL2
30pF

C1
XTAL1
30pF

GND


Pins of 8051 ( 2/4 )

 RST ( pin 9 ): reset


– It is an input pin and is active high ( normally low ) .
 The high pulse must be high at least 2 machine
cycles.
– It is a power-on reset.
 Upon applying a high pulse to RST, the
microcontroller will reset and all values in registers
will be lost.
 Reset values of some 8051 registers 
Figure (b). Power-On RESET Circuit
Vcc

10 uF 31
EA/VPP
30 pF X1
19
11.0592 MHz
8.2 K
X2
18
30 pF
9 RST


Pins of 8051 ( 3/4 )

 /EA ( pin 31 ): external access


– There is no on-chip ROM in 8031 and 8032 .
– The /EA pin is connected to GND to indicate the code is
stored externally.
– /PSEN & ALE are used for external ROM.
– For 8051, /EA pin is connected to Vcc.
– “/” means active low.
 /PSEN ( pin 29 ): program store enable
– This is an output pin and is connected to the OE pin of the
ROM.
Pins of 8051 ( 4/4 )

 ALE ( pin 30 ): address latch enable


– It is an output pin and is active high.
– 8051 port 0 provides both address and data.
– The ALE pin is used for de-multiplexing the address
and data by connecting to the G pin of the 74LS373
latch.
 I/O port pins
– The four ports P0, P1, P2, and P3.
– Each port uses 8 pins.
– All I/O pins are bi-directional.
Pins of I/O Port

 The 8051 has four I/O ports


– Port 0 ( pins 32-39 ): P0 ( P0.0 ~ P0.7 )
– Port 1 ( pins 1-8 ) : P1 ( P1.0 ~ P1.7 )
– Port 2 ( pins 21-28 ): P2 ( P2.0 ~ P2.7 )
– Port 3 ( pins 10-17 ): P3 ( P3.0 ~ P3.7 )
– Each port has 8 pins.
 Named P0.X ( X=0,1,...,7 ) , P1.X, P2.X, P3.X
 Ex : P0.0 is the bit 0 ( LSB ) of P0
 Ex : P0.7 is the bit 7 ( MSB ) of P0
 These 8 bits form a byte.
 Each port can be used as input or output (bi-direction).

Registers
A

R0
DPTR DPH DPL
R1

R2 PC PC
R3

R4 Some 8051 16-bit Register

R5

R6

R7

Some 8-bitt Registers of


the 8051
 RAM memory space allocation in the 8051

7FH

Scratch pad RAM

30H

2FH
Bit-Addressable RAM

20H
1FH Register Bank 3
18H
17H
Register Bank 2
10H
0FH Stack) Register Bank 1)
08H
07H
Register Bank 0
00H
Alternate blinking of LEDs…
#include<reg51.h>
unsigned int i;
void delay(unsigned int x);
void main()
{
while(1)
{
P1=0x01;
for(i=0;i<=6;i++)
{
P1=P1<<1;
delay(100);
}
}
}
void delay(unsigned int x)
{unsigned int y,z;
for(y=0;y<=x;y++)
{for(z=0;z<=1275;z++);
}