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DR.

AZIL BAHARI ALIAS


SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
W a s te
G e n e ra tio n

W a s te h a n d lin g , s e p a ra tio n ,
s to rag e an d p ro c e s s in g
at th e s o u rc e

C o lle c tio n

T ransfe r and S e p a ra tio n an d p ro c e s s in g


T ranspo rt an d tran s fo rm atio n o f
s o lid w as te

D is p o s al
SOLID WASTE
MANAGEMENT

PROCESSING & NON-TECHNICAL


PRINCIPLES FINAL DISPOSAL
TREATMENT CONSIDERATION

Introduction Regulatory
Framework MRF
Financial
Waste quantities Composting Sanitary
and characteristics
Policies
Waste-to-Energy landfill
Storage & Collection Management/
RDF
System
Learning outcomes
To explain different the different types of wastes

To define domestic/household/industrial solid


wastes

To explain and describe waste generation theory


( able to calculate waste generation per capita)

To describe and analyze waste management


hierarchy
Definitions
Solid wastes (non hazardous) - wastes arising from human activities
and are normally solid as opposed to liquid or gaseous and are
discarded as useless or unwanted.

Focused on urban waste (MSW) generated in residential and


commercial environments.

Construction wastes from work on individual residences and


commercial buildings

Demolition waste dirt, stones, bricks, plastics, lumber, pipes

Agricultural wastes from agricultural residues, manures

Yard waste from grass, leaves

Food waste from household, restaurants, etc.


Add on data on municipal solid waste
composition/generation in malaysia pie
chart

(SOURCES: WORLD BANK, 2000)


20??.........City of
Garbage!!!!!
Why bother???
FLASH FLOOD VECTOR & VERMINS
DISEASES

1960s
Waste generation
theory Raw Materials

Manufacturing

Processing and Secondary


recovery manufacturing

consumer

Raw materials, products and


recovered materials

Final
disposal Waste materials
Residential
Treatment plant sites
Commercial
(incinerators)

Municipal
Institutional
Solid Waste Types &
sources

Construction &
Industrial
demolitions

Municipal
Agricultural
services

Details: table 3-1 p.41 (textbook)


WASTE
CHARACTERIZATION

Physical Chemical Biological

A. Volatiles solids
A. Specific weight B. Lignin contents
A. Proximate analysis
B. Moisture content
C. Particle size distribution
B. Ultimate analysis C. Biodegradable
C. Energy content
D. Field capacity fraction
E. Permeability A. Odors
Physical properties
A. Specific weight lb/yd3, a volume measure and, therefore, subject to interpretation and variable.
Beware of reporting: loose, as found in containers, un-compacted, compacted.
Refer Table 4-1 for typical specific weight range

B. Moisture content Wet-weight relationship:


M , eq.4-1, p.72
Varies from 15-40%, use 21%, food and yard wastes very high-70%; paper,
plastics and inorganics very low-3%.
Important consideration for transformation processes: energy recovery
(incineration) and composting. Rain soaked trash will way more than its dry
counterpart, a consideration at the weighing scales

C. Particle size Imprint consideration in the recovery of materials, pre-processing antecedent


distribution to a classification or sorting process Screens
D. Field Capacity The amount of moisture that can be retained in a waste sample subject to the
(FC) downward pull of gravity. Water in excess of FC will flow out of the waste as
leachate.
50-60% for uncompacted, commingled waste from residential and commercial
sources.

E. Permeability Measures the movement of gasses and liquids in landfills.


K, eq. 4-7, p.76
k= 10-11 to 10-12 m2 in the vertical and 10-10 in the horizontal.
Chemical properties
A. Proximate Includes the following tests:
analysis Moisture
Volatilecombustible matter
Fixed carbon (combustible residue after volatile matter is removed)
Ash (weight of residue after combustion in an open crucible

B. Ultimate Determination of the percent C, H, O, N, S, and ash.


analyses Opportunity to calculate chemical formula, which then can be used in
various chemical and biological reactions.
Elemental analyser

C. Energy Potentially critical element in incineration. Can be measured or


content calculated.
DuLong Formula:
Btu/lb = 145C +610(H2 - O2/8) + 40S +10N eq.4-10, p.86
Constituents are % by weight

D. Fusing point Define as T at which the ah resulting from the burning of waste will
of ash form of solid (clinker) by fusion and agglomeration
Typical fusing T for the formation of clinker from solid waste range
from2000-2200F (1100-1200C)
Biological properties
o VS, volatile solids, ignition at 550C is often used as a measure of the
biodegradability of the organic fraction.

o Lignin a polymeric material containing aromatic rings with methoxyl group


(-OCH3),-present in some paper products such as newsprint and fiberboard)

o Biodegradable Fraction (BF) biodegradability of organic compounds (see


table 4.7, pg 88) based on lignin content.

BF = 0.83 - 0.028 LC eq.4-11, p.88

o Odors typically result from the anaerobic decomposition of the organic


fraction.
- Sulfate is reduced to sulfides and the to H2S.
- Organic compounds containing a sulfur radical can lead to the formation of
methyl mercaptan and aminobutyric acid.
-detail pg. 89
Waste management
Hierarchy
100% MSW

90-97% Treated
Via MRF, RDF,
Incineration, Combustion

3-10% Disposed
In SLF
Products

Recycled
Material
(e.g Plastics)
Recovered
Material
(e.g Gold, Silver,
Platinum)
Wealth:
New Products Economy
Waste Energy Environment
Social
(Sustainability)
Methane Gas
Electricity
(Combustion)
FOUR Rs:
REDUCTION
Reduce the amount material used
Increasing the lifetime of the product
Eliminating the need for product

REUSE
Paper bags, newspapers, etc

RECYCLING
HDPE, PVC, PP, PS

RECOVERY
Process the refuse without prior separation.
The desired material are separated at a central facilities (i.e
MRF)
Case Study
Discuss in a group a case study of solid waste
management for the following continents :
Malaysia, Japan, USA, UK, Australia, UAE. Highlight
the following elements in your discussion:
Waste generation
Waste collection, treatment & disposal system
Problems and challenges occurs

Presentation in a group consist of SWM for each


country (2 hours)
CALCULATION OF SOLID WASTE
GENERATION
Objectives:

Expression for unit waste generation rates


Methods to estimate waste quantities
1)Load-count analysis
2)Weight-volume analysis
3)Material-balance analysis

Calculation of waste generation per capita


IMPORTANCE OF WASTE
QUANTITIES
Compliance with federal and state waste
diversion programs
In selecting specific equipment
In designing of waste collection routes
Materials recovery facilities (MRFs)
Disposal facilities
Expression for Unit Waste
Generation Rates
Residential Relative stability of residential wastes in
a given location, lb/capita.day

Commercial Relate the quantities with the number of


customers, lb/capita.dy

Industrial Basis of some repeatable measure of


production.
lb/automobile or lb/plant
Agricultural Basis of some repeatable measure of
production.
lb of manure/ ton of material
Lb of waste/ ton of raw material
Estimation of Solid Waste
Quantities
a) Load-count / weight-volume analysis the
number of individual loads and waste
characteristics (types, estimated volume)

b) Material mass balance analysis determine the


generation and movement of solid wastes at each
generation source. (ex. 6-2, pg132)

c) statistical analysis to determine the statistical


characteristics and the distribution of the waste.
Load count analysis-
Example 6.1
Material Balance analysis

Simplified statement

Min Mou

Accumulation = inflow - outflow + generation


dM / dt = Min - Mout + rw

dM = rate of change of the weight of material stored (accumulated)


within the study unit, lb/day
Min = sum of all the material flowing into the study unit, lb/day
Mout = sum of all the material flowing out of study unit, lb/day
rw = rate of waste generation, lb/day
t = time, day

Note: Always write rw as positive in the parent equation and make a


negative substitution as required in the final analysis.
Ex- 6-2, pg 132
A cannery receives on a given day 12 tons of raw produce, 5 tons of Cans, 0.5 tons of
cartons
and 0.3 tons of miscellaneous materials. Of the 12 tons of raw produce, 10 tons become
processed product, 1.2 tons end up produce waste, which is fed to cattle, and the remainder
is discharged with the wastewater from the plant. Four tons of the cans are stored internally
for future us, and the remaining is used for package the product. About 3 percent of the cans
used are damaged. Stored separately, the damaged cans are recycled. The cartons are
used for packaging the canned product, except for 5 percent that are damaged and
subsequently separated for recycling . Of the miscellaneous materials, 25 percent is stored
internally for future use,; 50 percent becomes waste paper, of which 35% is separated for
recycling with the remainder being discharged as mixed waste; and 25 percent becomes a
mixture of solid waste materials. Assume the materials separated for recycling and disposal
are collected daily. Prepare a materials balance for the cannery on this day and a materials
flow diagram accounting for all the materials. Also determine the amount of waste per
ton of product.
Solution
1. On the given day
12 tons of raw produced
5 tons of cans
0.5 tons of cartons
0.3 tons of miscellaneous materials

2. As a results of internal activities

a) 10 tons of product is produced, 1.2 tons of produced waste is generated, and the remainder
of the produce is discharged with the wastewater

b) 4 tons of cans are stored and the remainder is used, of which 3 percent are damaged

c) 0.5 tons of cans are used of which 3 percent are damaged

d) 25 percent if the miscellaneous materials is stored; 50% becomes paper waste, of which 35
percent is separated and recycled, with the remainder disposed of as mixed solid waste; the
remaining 25% of the Miscellaneous materials are disposed of as mixed waste.
Contd
3. Determine the required quantities
a) Waste generated from raw produce
i. Solid waste fed to cattle = 1.2 ton (1089 kg)
ii. Waste produced discharged with wastewater
= (12-10-1.2) ton= 0.8 ton (726 kg)

b) Cans
i. Damaged and recycled = (0.03)(5-4) ton =
0.03 ton ( 27 kg)
ii. Used for production of product = (1-0.03) =
0.97 ton (880 kg)
Cntd
C) cartons
i. damaged and recycled = (0.03)(0.5 ton) = 0.015 ton ( 14 kg)
ii. Cartons used in product= (0.5-0.015) ton= 0.485 ton (440 kg)

d) Miscellaneous materials
i. Amount stored = (0.25)(0.3ton)= 0.075 ton(68 kg)
ii. Paper separated and recycled (0.50)(0.35)(0.3 ton)= 0.053
ton ( 48 kg)
iii. Mixed waste (0.3-0.075)-0.053 ton = 0.172 ton(156 kg)

e) Total weight of product = (10+0.97+0.485) ton = 11.455 ton


( 10,392 kg)

f) Total material stored = (4+0.075) ton = 4.075 ton ( 3696 kg)


Cntd
4. Prepare a material balance and flow diagram for the cannery
for the day
A) The appropriate materials balance equation:

Amount of material stored = inflow outflow waste generation

B) the materials balance quantities are as follows:


i. material stored= (4.0 + 0.075) ton = 4.075 ton
ii. Material input = (12.0+5.0+0.5+0.3) ton = 17.8 ton
iii. Material output = (10+0.97+0.485+1.2+0.03+0.015+0.053)
ton = 12.753 ton
iv. Waste generation = (0.8+0.172) ton = 0.972 ton

The final materials balance is


4.075 = 17.8-12.753-0.972 ( mass balance checks)
1. Material Flow Diagram
11.455 t products
12 t raw
1.2 t waste fed to
5 t cans 4.075 t cattle
5 t cartons Stored 0.03 t cans recycled
internally
0.1 t misc. 0.015 t cartons
recycled
0.053 t paper
recycled

0.8 t waste 0.172 t


Produce Mixed waste
Discharge
With
wastewater
Cntd.
5. Determine the amount of waste per ton of
product
a) Recyclable material=
(1.2+0.03+0.015+0.053)ton/11.455 ton =
0.11 ton/ton

b) Mixed waste = (0.8+0.172) ton / 11.455 ton


= 0.085 ton/ton
Statistical analysis
For many large industrial activities but
impractical to provide container capacity to
handle the largest conceivable quantity of
SW to be generated in a given day

Must be based on the generation rates and


characteristics of the collection system

Steps and formulation


SEE APPENDIX D pg 917-929
Example 6.3 (pp. 134)
Factor that Effect Generation Rates
Source Reduction and Recycling. Design with disposal in
mind.

Public Attitudes and Legislation. If not reimbursed, the public


must be recruited to a "tree saving" mentality. Legislation
includes bottle laws, green waste pick-ups.

Geographic and Physical Factors. The bigger the yard and


the longer the growing season, the more the waste.
Seasonal, fall leaves, Christmas gifts, spring cleanup.
Kitchen grinders contribute a minimal reduction.

Frequency. More waste is collected if the frequency is


increased. Note that more wastes are not generated.
Variations in distribution
Highly variable, local studies should be considered,
collected data is expensive and of limited value; make
sure that collected data is useful before collecting.

Location, warmer more affluent communities generate


more wastes.

Season, T3-8, p.56, More yard and food wastes in the


summer; more glass and metals in the winter.

Economics and others.


Calculation of waste generation per
capita
Example 6.4
CHAPTER 2: SOLID WASTE
MANAGEMENT IN MALAYSIA

Objectives:

Regulations and legislations


Status of solid waste in Malaysia
Waste management strategies
Regulations and Legislations
(USA)
Solid waste disposal act, 1965

National environmental policy act, 1969
Resources Recovery Act, 1970
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
(RCRA), 1976
Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), 1980,
(Superfund)
Public Utility Regulation and Policy Act (PURPA),
1981.
Environmental Quality Act 1974
Major legislation
Solid Waste Disposal Act, Promote solid waste management and

1965, resource recovery.
Promote technical and financial aid
Promote national research.
Provide for guidelines.
Provide for training grants.

National Environmental Required Environmental Impact


Policy Act (NEPA), 1969 Statement (EIS).
Resource Recovery Act, Amended the SW Disposal Act of 1965.
1970 Directed that the emphasis
should be shifted from disposal as its
primary objective to recycling and
reuse. Management activities were
transferred the US EPA which was
formed by presidential order under
Reorganizational Plan No. 3 of
1970.
Major legislationContinued
Resource Conservation and Legal basis for implementation of
Recovery Act (RCRA), 1976 guidelines and standards for solid waste
storage, treatment and disposal. RCRA was
amended in 1978, 1980, 1982,1983, 1984,
1986 and 1988. The 1980 and 1984
versions emphasized concern with
hazardous waste.

Comprehensive Response to uncontrolled hazardous waste


Environmental Response, disposal sites
Compensation and Liability
Act (CERCLA), 1980,
(Superfund)

Public Utility Regulation and Directs public and private utilities to


Policy Act (PURPA), 1981. purchase power from waste-to-energy
facilities.
Miscellaneous laws &
executive orders
Noise Pollution and Abatement Act, 1970. Limits
noise.
Clean Air Act, 1970, PL91-604, (reauthorized in
1990), pertains where dust, smoke and gases
discharged from solid waste operations are
involved.
California Law, AB939, 25% reduction by 1995,
50% reduction by 2000.
Local agency in LA is the LA County Sanitation
Districts.
46
Legislation on Solid Waste
(Malaysia)
Environmental legislation has become increasingly
restrictive as it closely related and has direct impact on
public health

There are several parts in Environmental Quality Act


1974 involving solid waste but mainly highlighting
schedule waste

Recently, additional Regulation under EQA 1974 is added


pertaining Municipal Solid Waste
Peraturan-peraturan kualiti alam sekeliling (Kawalan Pencemaran
daripada stesyen pemindahan sisa pepejal dan kambus tanah)
2009

Covers landfill and transfer station pollution control

47
Early history of Malaysia
SWM
6th September 1995 Federal cabinet decided that
the responsibilities of local authorities of MSW
management to be privatized

1 January 1997 48 local authorities has been


privatized to 2 concession companies Alam Flora
(Central) and Southern Waste (South)

2008 for Northern Regions and 2009 for


Terengganu

1998 As precondition of total privatization,


Federal cabinet decided the privatization of SWM
done on interim basis
48
49
CONCESSIONAIRES

50
Policies on Solid Waste
3rd Outline Prospective Plan (2001-2010)

Government will consider the adoption of a comprehensive waste


management policy including the installation of incinerators for
safe and efficient disposal of waste as well as to formulate
strategies for waste reduction, reuse and recycling

9th Malaysia Plan

National strategic plan for SWM will be implemented (2005)

Upgrading of unsanitary landfills as well as the construction of


new sanitary landfills and transfer stations with integrated
material recovery facilities

Legislation to streamline the strategies and measures in Strategic


Plan will be enacted

A solid waste department will be established to implement these


measures and to administer solid waste policy, planning and
management in holistic manner
51
National Policy on SWM
Established a holistic, integrated, cost effective
solid waste management;

Emphasis on environmental protection and public


health

Utilize proven cost effective technology; and

Priority on 3R

52
Legislative Framework
Solid waste is a Sanitation issue effecting public health

Both under concurrent List (List 3) of 9th Schedule in


Local Authority and Federal Government

SWM is governed under Local Government Act, 1976;


Street, Drainage and Building Act 1974

Parliament pass a BILL in July 2007 to confer executive


authority to the Federation for matters relating solid
waste through Article 74(1) and Article 80(2) Federal
constitution

Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management


Act 2007 was gazetted on 30th August 2007

53
Solid Waste and Public
Cleansing Management Act 2007
Definition of solid waste
Any scrap material or other unwanted surplus substance or
rejected products arising from application of any process;
Any substance required to be disposed of as being broken, worn
out, contaminated or otherwise spoiled; or
Any other material that is required by the authority to be disposed
of
SWM Services
Collection, transportations, transfer, separation, storage,
processing, recycling, treatment and disposal of controlled solid
waste
Controlled solid waste: 8 categories
Commercial, construction, household, industrial, institutional,
imported, public and others which can be prescribed from time to
54 time
Solid Waste and Public
Cleansing Management Act 2007
Control of solid waste generators and persons in
possession of controlled solid waste:
Waste to be separated, handled and stored
Licensing and approval system to be put in place
Reduction and recovery of controlled solid waste
Prescribed recycling and separation of recyclables
Take back system and deposit refund system

55
Jabatan Pengurusan Sisa
Pepejal Negara
JPSPN was established under the Solid Waste and Public
Cleansing Management Act 2007 (Act 672)
Purpose
Develop policy, strategy and integrated solid waste
management (ISWM) plan
Also legislate regulations as per Act 673
Decide standards, specification and guidelines
To execute full privatization of solid waste management
Approve and give service licenses and solid waste and
public cleansing management facilities

56
Perbadanan Pengurusan Sisa
Pepejal dan Pembersihan
Awam
PPSPPA was established under the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing
Management Act 2007 (Act 673) on 1 st June 2008
Purpose
Authority to administer and enforce Solid Waste and Public
Cleansing Management laws and regulations
Functions
Recommend and execute all government decision related to solid
waste and public cleaning management and physical projects of
SWM facilities
Recommend and ensure compliance of the standards,
specification and guidelines
Monitoring and ensuring compliance of KPI and standards agreed
by concessionaires and contractors
Increase public awareness and participation regarding SWM
based on 3R approach
Use research, evaluation, studies and also advisory services in
enhancing quality of services of SWM
57 Determine and impose charges on the services given by the
RESPONSIBILITIES
Local government/authorities
- Ordinance for collection (container selection,
collection truck, routings)
- Materials collection & recovery
State
- Monitor local agencies for conformance with
regulations
- Develop state policy and plans for solid waste
and materials processing facilities
Contd..
Federal
- Develop national policy for solid waste
disposal and materials processing and
recovery
- Write regulations to implement the mandates
of legislation
STATUS OF SOLID WASTE
MANAGEMENT IN MALAYSIA

An ever-expanding population and high rates of


economic development in Malaysia resulted in the
generation of vast amount of waste.
It is estimated about 17,000 of waste generated in
Peninsular Malaysia.
Average per capita generation of waste 0.85
kg/cap/day.
About 1.5 kg/cap/day in Kuala Lumpur.
Problems of Solid Waste
Management in Malaysia
1. Lack of policy guidelines
2. Outdated laws to insufficient fund
3. Lack of trained personnel
4. Outdated waste management systems

Some of the problems are similar to fast


developing countries-lack of landfill space
within town centers
Inadequate collection coverage
in the serviced area
About 60-90% of the serviced area
covered on each working day because:
1. Lack of funding to funding to provide
extra collection vehicles and collection
crews
2. New areas being developed without
appropriate facilities
3. For new areas- served with limited
budget and manpower
Poor bins, collection vehicles &
disposal grounds facilities
Storage :
Variation in types/size of bins used
Damages/ lost bin lids are not replaced
Haphazard storage/ inadequate communal
bins result in the storage area becoming
disposal sites
Collection:
Littering around communal bins
Difficult to recruit manpower
Collection vehicles- frequent breakdowns
Disposal
Crude dumping is widely practiced
Scavenging activities interfering with
operation of disposal site
Sub optimal disposal and covering method
lower compaction of waste
Inappropriate cover materials-damaging to
equipment
Shortage of suitable land for disposal
Inadequate funding for new
areas
Amount allocated for urban areas is 30-80%
of the annual budget of a local authority.
Have to maximize all the variable facilities to
cope with increasing for the services.
Inadequate planning &
management of solid waste
services
Inadequate professionals to run and manage
urban solid waste management activities.

Most problems are tackled on and adhoc


basis without proper master plans.

Lack of auditing & accounting system

Lack of vital information e.g. Population,


premises, land for disposal.
THE WAY FORWARD
Waste Hierarchy
(Current Status)
Reduce
Reuse
Recycling
Intermediate
Processing
Disposal

5 % recovery

95% Landfill
THE WAY FORWARD
Waste Hierarchy
(Targeted 2020)
Reduce
Reuse
Recycling
Intermediate
Processing
Disposal

> 20 % Recycling

15 %
Intermediate
Processing

< 65 % Landfill
INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT (ZERO EMISSION)

Solid waste management facilities

Pengurusan sisa pepejal yang


baik memerlukan pendekatan
yang bersepadu.
Kitarsemula Sisa &
Tenaga
Slag
Bahan Binaan

Bahan Tidak atau


Terbakar Kitarsemula Buang Ke Tapak
Pelupusan
Hikarigaoka Stoker Type Incineration
Plant, Nerima Ward, Tokyo

Hikarigaoka
High-Rise
Apartments

Hikarigaoka
University
Hospital
Pertinent SWM Issues

Criticism from the public, due to poor quality of SWM service

Illegal dumping

Deterioration of the quality of the environment surrounding


the landfill sites discharge of leachate from landfills

Perception on SWM : Asset vs Liability


- management cost
- W2W
12
Pertinent SWM Issues

1
STRATEGIES

A Strengthening Capability and Capacity

- recruitment, training
- database building- inventory on solid waste flow and characteristic, landfills
- public awareness campaign

B Prevention at Source
- reduce, reuse and recycle
- 9th Malaysia Plan estimated about 45% of the waste is made up of food
waste, 24% of plastic, 7% is paper, 6% of iron

C Enhancing Quality of SWM Services

- Key Performance Indicator


- non compliance penalty
- better vehicles and equipment

D Provide Facilities of SWM Treatment and Disposal


- landfills, incinerators, MRF etc
Current Landfills

261 landfills
150 of them are still
in
operation
10 are classified as
sanitary landfills 1
Current Landfills

Landfills either are operated by the


concession
companies or the LA themselves
Landfill within a particular LA is meant for the dispos
of solid waste from that particular LA authority area

Few occasions that a couple of LA shared together a


landfill.

No instances that solid waste from one state cross


over to be disposed in a landfill in another state.
16
Strategies of Landfill
Management

Landfills which are in sensitive areas to be


safe closure
safe closure of the non sanitary landfills which
are no longer operating;

upgrading those non sanitary landfills that are


still operating;

building new sanitary landfill with Recycling


Facilities
18
Latest update

6 regulation have been prepared

- Licensing of Prescribed Solid Waste Management Facilities for the Operationand


Provision of Services
- Prescribed SWM Facilities Regulation
- Licensing of Collection Services for Residual HH & Similar SW.
- Anti-Littering Regulations
- Licence Provisions - Prescribed SWM Facilities, Residual SW Collection Services
- Scheme for Household and Similar Waste Regulations.

Draft Concessionaire Agreement have been prepared

Scheme boundary for solid waste collection and transportation the process of
being drawn

Corporation is establishing their offices at the state levels (12 state offices and
local offices)

Act to be enforced early next year 19


CHAPTER 3: WASTE MINIMISATION
AND PREVENTION

Objectives:

Benefits of Minimizing Solid Waste


8 Waste Prevention Strategies
Waste minimisation sample goals
WHAT IS MINIMIZING SOLID
WASTE?
Minimizing solid waste, also known as waste
prevention or source reduction is the design, purchase,
manufacture, or use of products and materials to
reduce the amount or toxicity of solid waste generated
It is not recycling, although these two solid waste
management strategies are often confused with each
other
Recycling is an effective way to manage waste
materials once they have been generated; minimizing
solid waste actually reduces the amount of material
used and therefore the amount discarded
BENEFITS

There are at least


five benefits for
minimizing solid
waste:
1. Economic
2. Environmental
3. Employee Morale
4. Corporate Image
5. Compliance
BENEFITS

1) Economic
Potential economic advantages
of waste prevention include:
Reduced waste disposal fees
Savings in materials and
supply costs
Revenues from marketing
reusable materials
Savings from more efficient
work practices
BENEFITS

2) Environmental
The environmental benefits include:
Reduced energy consumption
Reduced pollution
Conservation of natural resources
Extension of valuable landfill
capacity
BENEFITS

3) Employee Morale
Employees morale improves when
they see the company taking steps to
reduce waste
This heightened morale could
increase employee enthusiasm,
productivity and more waste
prevention measures
BENEFITS

4) Corporate Image
When customers and the
surrounding neighborhoods see that
the company is environmentally
conscious, it creates a favorable
image of the company
An enhanced corporate image
might attract customers
Surveys show that more and more
consumers consider a firm's
environmental record when making
purchasing decisions
BENEFITS

5) Compliance
Reducing solid waste can also
mean compliance with local or state
solid waste regulations
Some communities also restrict
the amount or types of waste
accepted at solid waste management
facilities
By implementing an aggressive
waste prevention program, your
business can help ensure
compliance with these requirements
SAMPLE GOALS

Sample Reduction Goals


Reducing office paper waste by implementing a
policy to duplex all draft reports, and by making
training manuals and personnel information available
electronically
Improving product design to use less materials
Reducing all forms of packaging waste:
Redesigning packaging to eliminate excess material
Working with customers to design and implement a
packaging return program
Switching to reusable transport containers
Purchasing products, such as food items, in bulk
SAMPLE GOALS

Sample Reuse Goals


Reusing corrugated moving boxes
internally
Reusing office furniture and supplies, such
as interoffice envelopes and file folders
Using durable towels, tablecloths, napkins,
dishes, cups, and glasses
Using incoming packaging materials for
outgoing shipments
SAMPLE GOALS

Donate and Exchange


Donating unwanted supplies to local
schools or nonprofit organizations
Donating cafeteria food scraps for use as
animal feed
Advertising surplus and reusable items
through a commercial materials exchange
Donating excess building materials to local
low-income housing developers
SOLID WASTE ASSESSMENT

* Office & administration areas * Work stations


* Break rooms/cafeterias * Classrooms
* Rest rooms * Public waiting areas
* Locker rooms * Conference rooms
* Copy and printing areas * Stock rooms
* Materials storage areas * Shipping/receiving
* Garages/machine service * Parts assembly
* Manufacturing/production areas * Mail rooms
* Food prep/service areas * Service
departments
* Custodial/maintenance areas * Data processing
* Recreational areas * Laundry rooms
* Guest rooms * Closets
SOLID WASTE ASSESSMENT

Materials with waste prevention, reduction, or


reuse potential:
* Disposable products * Shipping containers
* Junk mail * Copier paper
* Wood * File folders
* Food * Toner cartridges
* Pallets * Fax cover sheets
* Packaging
* Individual copies of magazines/newspapers
SOLID WASTE ASSESSMENT

Materials that could be recycled:


Corrugated cardboard
Metals
Plastics
Paper
Glass
Materials that could be composted:
Yard waste
Food
WASTE PREVENTION
STRATEGIES
1. USING OR MANUFACTURING MINIMAL OR
REUSABLE PACKAGING
Over one-third of the total amount of municipal solid
waste generated in the United States is packaging
Start at the source by encouraging suppliers to offer
products with reduced or minimal packaging
Choose products that come in reusable packaging or
that are offered in bulk quantities also are options
Companies can examine packaging used for their
own products,as well, to determine whether it is
possible to ship merchandise in returnable or reusable
containers or to use fewer layers of packaging
materials
WASTE PREVENTION
STRATEGIES
2. USING AND MAINTAINING DURABLE
EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES
Consider quality and durability
Superior-performance products are
often a worthwhile investment
These items stay out of the waste
stream longer, the higher initial costs
might be offset further by lower
maintenance, disposal, and replacement
costs
Regular maintenance schedules for
machines also will help extend their
useful lives
WASTE PREVENTION
STRATEGIES
3. REUSING PRODUCTS AND SUPPLIES
Many common items are designed to be used more
than once
Reuse can help extend the lives of products and
supplies, thereby reducing costs
Reuse is often one of the simplest and most
inexpensive waste prevention strategies
For many businesses, it is worthwhile to perform a
company-wide inventory of products and supplies that
potentially can be reused
By identifying these materials, businesses can take
advantage of a host of waste prevention opportunities
within their companies
WASTE PREVENTION
STRATEGIES
4. REDUCING THE USE OF HAZARDOUS
COMPONENTS
Companies also can reduce waste toxicity by
substituting products with nonhazardous or less
hazardous components for certain items
Many products used by graphics and maintenance
departments are available with fewer or no
hazardous components
Suppliers can help direct companies to these
products
Often, nonhazardous substitutes are not only
available, they also might perform better and save
money over the long term
WASTE PREVENTION
STRATEGIES
5. USING SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS MORE
EFFICIENTLY
In addition to offering savings in purchasing and
disposal costs, some waste prevention strategies
also can help companies streamline their
operations
By focusing more employee time on the business
at hand less time on generating waste, these
changes not only reduce waste and conserve
materials, but could increase productivity
significantly
WASTE PREVENTION
STRATEGIES
6. COMPOSTING YARD TRIMMINGS AT YOUR
FACILITY
Yard trimmings accounted for more than 18
percent of the total solid waste in the United States
One approach to reduce this waste is
"grasscycling"-leaving cut grass on the lawn instead
of bagging it and shipping it to the landfill
Composting is a natural process by which organic
materials such as yard trimmings are allowed to
decompose under controlled conditions
Grasscycling and on-site composting are generally
considered to be easy waste prevention efforts
WASTE PREVENTION
STRATEGIES
7. EXCHANGING, SELLING, OR GIVING AWAY
UNNEEDED GOODS OR MATERIALS
Many companies participate exchange
programs involving the trading, selling or giving
away of goods or materials that otherwise would
be thrown away
Joining an exchange program is not only a great
way to find new uses for unneeded materials, but
is also can be cost-effective-even profitable
Companies should also consider donating
excess food, used furniture, and other materials to
local organizations, such as homeless shelters,
charities, or schools
WASTE PREVENTION
STRATEGIES
8. ELIMINATING UNNECESSARY ITEMS.
There may be a wide range of opportunities to
reduce waste by eliminating the use of unnecessary
materials and supplies
These are items whose use has become routine,
though they contribute little or nothing to your
product service
While eliminating the use of individual items might
not result in tremendous savings, taken together,
these measures can be an important part of your
waste reduction program
EXAMPLES

Reducing Paper Use


Use both sides of the page
Make double-sided photocopies
Print only the number of copies necessary
Route one hard copy to several readers
Use electronic mail or bulletin boards for
sending and receiving information
Use smaller fonts to save space
Make notepads from scrap paper
EXAMPLES

Reduce Packaging and Shipping Materials


Eliminate unnecessary layers of packaging
Investigate other reusable packaging, such
as boxes
Reuse received boxes and packaging for
outgoing shipments
Shred or crumple waste paper for use as
packing material instead of buying plastic
peanuts
EXAMPLES

Paper Towel Reduction


Install roll paper towel dispensers
Install cloth towel dispensers
Install hot air dryers
Dont leave excess paper towels on sink
counters
EXAMPLES

Maintenance and Housekeeping


Switch to longer lasting, more energy efficient
light bulbs
Purchase cleaning products with nontoxic
contents in large reusable containers
Encourage suppliers and request that they
consider the feasibility of reducing the amount
of packaging they use
Install reusable air filters in facility heating,
ventilation, and air-conditioning systems
Compost or simply leave grass clippings on
the lawns
THE IMPORTANCE OF A
CLEAN ENVIRONMENT
I would ask all of us to remember that
protecting our environment is about protecting
where we live and how we live. Let us join
together to protect our health, our economy, and
our communities -- so all of us and our children
and our grandchildren can enjoy a healthy and a
prosperous life.

Carol Browner

Former EPA
Administrator