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FRANKEL APPLIANCE

Resource Faculty
Dr. Varun Pratap Singh
(Associate Professor)
Dr. Prabhat Ranjan Pokhrel
(Assistant Professor)
Department of Orthodontics Presenter
Preeti Shah
Roll no. 418,
Frankel appliance
It is a myofunctional appliance developed by
PROFESSOR ROLF FRANKEL of Germany.

Also know as functional corrector or function regulator,


vestibular appliance or oral gymnastic appliance.
It has 2 treatment effects:
First it serves as template against which the cranio-facial
muscles function .

The framework of the appliance provides an artificial


balancing of the environment thereby promoting more
normal pattern of muscle activity.
Secondly the appliance removes the muscle forces in
the labial and buccal areas that restrict skeletal growth
thereby providing an environment which enables skeletal
growth.
The Frankel philosophy

Frankel has based his appliance on the following principles:

Vestibular arena of operation


Dentition is influenced by perioral muscle function. Thus frankel
appliance is used to hold dentition so that dentoalveolar
structure are free to develop.

Sagittal correction via tooth borne maxillary anchorage


Frankel appliance is anchored in maxillary arch by means of
grooves in the molar and canine regions & mandible is
positioned anteriorly by means of an acrylic pad that contacts
the alveolar bone behind the lower anterior segment.
Differential eruption guidance
Frankel appliance allows selective eruption of the lower posterior
teeth and also allows upward and forward movement of only the
mandibular teeth.

Minimal maxillary basal effect


Frankel appliance has relatively little retrusive sagittal effect on
the maxilla in contrast to the marked protrusive change in
mandible.

Periosteal pull by buccal shields and lip pads


Aids in bone formation at the apical base.
Mode of action of Frankel
appliance
Following are the effects of Frankel appliance on dentoalveolar
structures:

Increase in transverse and sagittal intraoral space:


Contrast outward pull on the connective tissue and muscle
which is transmitted to underlying bone resulting in apical
bone formation.
Increase in vertical space
An increase in vertical intraoral space is possible as Frankel
appliance is kept free from posterior teeth.
Mandibular protraction:
Whenever mandibular is brought back the lingual pads apply
pressure on lingual alveolar process which causes the
protractor muscle to position the mandible mesially.

Muscle function adaptation:


-Eliminate abnormal perioral muscle.
-Lip pads and shields causes periosteal muscle pull leading
to apical bone formation.
-Shields loosen up tight muscle and improves tonicity of
muscles.
Types of Frankel appliance
FR1:
It is divided into 3 types-
FR1a:used for class 1 malocclusion where there is minor
crowding. Also used for class 1 deep bite cases.
FR1b:used for class 2 div 1 malocclusion where overjet
does not exceed 5mm.
FR1c:used for class 2 div 1 malocclusion where overjet is
more than 7mm.
FR2:Used for treatment of class 2 div 1 and div 2.

FR3:Used for treatment of class 3 .

FR4:Used for treatment of open bite and bimaxillary


protrusion.

FR5:They are functional regulator that incorporate head


gear. They are indicated in long face patients having high
mandibular plane angle and vertical maxillary excess.
Functional regulator 1 of
Frankel
FR1a:It consist of acrylic part and wire component.
The acrylic part consist of
a.2 vestibular shields
b.2 lip pads
The wire components include
a. Palatal bow
b. Labial bow
c. Labial support wire
d. lingual bow
e. canine loop
FR1b:
It differs from FR1a in that it has lingual acrylic pad. Lower
lingual spring are added among wire component.

FR1c:
-In this the buccal shield are split horizontally and
vertically into 2 parts.
-The antero-inferior portion contains the wires for lingual
acrylic pad and lip pads which permit the forward movement
of anterior section of appliance.
Functional regulator 2 of
Frankel
The acrylic components are
a. Buccal shields
b. Lip pads
c. Lower lingual pad
. The wire components include
a. Palatal bow
b. Labial bow
c. Canine extensions
d. Upper lingual wire
e. Lingual crossover wire
f. Support wire for lip pads
g. Lower lingual springs
Functional regulator 3 of Frankel

It has 2 upper lip pads which:-

-Eliminate the restrictive pressure of upper lip on


underdeveloped maxilla.
-Exert tension on the tissue and periosteal attachment in
depths of maxillary sulcus to stimulate bone growth.
-Transmit the upper lip force to mandible through the lower
labial arch for retrusive stimulus.

Buccal shield serve to eliminate buccinator muscle force and


also causes a periosteal pull leading to bone growth.
Labial support wires connect the lips pads together and to
buccal shields.
Functional regulator 4 of
Frankel
It has same vestibular configuration as FR1 and 2 but lacks
canine loops and protrusion bows.

It consist of 4 occlusal rests on maxillary 1st molars and 1st


deciduous molars to prevent tipping of appliance.
Functional regulator 5 of
Frankel
It consists of posterior acrylic bite blocks that prevent
eruption due to the action of elevator muscle of mandible.
References:
Orthodontics - The Art and Science
S.I. Bhalajhi 4th edition