Você está na página 1de 25

VISNU KUMAR A/L VETTRIE VEIL

OE 20100703203

ABDULLAH AL-QASIM BIN MOHD RAHIM


OE 201OO703243

GUIDED BY MISS FADILATUL

DEEP FOUNDATION
DEEP FOUNDATION
Shallow foundations are unsuitable in weak or
highly compressible soils.

Deep foundations transfer loads far below the


substructure.

Deep foundations are usually at depths deeper than


3m.

These foundations penetrate incompetent soil until


a satisfactory bearing stratum is reached.
WHEN IT IS NEEDED
Top layers of soil are highly compressible
for it to support.
structural loads through shallow
foundations.
Rock level is shallow enough for end
bearing pile. Foundations provide a more
economical design foundations provide a
more economical design.
Lateral forces are relatively prominent.
WHEN IT IS NEEDED
In presence of expansive and collapsible soils
at the site.
Offshore structures
Strong uplift forces on shallow foundations
due
to shallow water table can be partly
transmitted to Piles.
For structures near flowing water (Bridge
abutments, etc.) to avoid the problems due to
erosion.
TYPES OF PILES USED
Pile Foundations - vertical structural
members that are forced into the ground by
pile drivers (similar to driving nails into wood)

Caissons similar to pile foundations, but


are created by auguring (drilling ) a deep
hole into the ground and then filling the hole
with concrete. Caissons may be belled at the
base. Steel reinforcement may also be used.
Caissons can extend to bedrock.
TYPES OF PILES USED
Mat or raft foundations the entire
building is placed on one large
continuous footing. Typically used in
locations where the soil is weak/poor
and bedrock is too deep.
Mat foundations with caissons or
piles a combination of a mat
foundation with piles or caissons.
PILE FOUNDATION
CAISSON FOUNDATIONS
MAT OR RAFT FOUNDATION
MAT FOUNDATION WITH CAISSON OR PILES
TYPES OF PILES BASED ON THEIR FUNCTION AND
EFFECT OF INSTALLATION

Piles based on their function


-End Bearing Piles
-Friction Piles
-Compaction Piles
-Anchor Piles Anchor Piles
-Uplift Piles

Effect of Installation
-Displacement Piles
-Non-displacement Piles
DISPLACEMENT PILES
In loose cohesionless soils
- Densifies the soil upto a distance of 3.5 times the pile
diameter (3.5D) which increases the soils resistance to
shearing
- The friction angle varies from the pile surface to the limit of
compacted soil

In dense cohesionless soils


- The dilatancy effect decreases the friction angle within the
zone of influence of displacement pile (3.5D approx.)
- Displacement piles are not effective in dense sands due to
above reason.
DISPLACEMENT PILES
In cohesive soils
- Soil is remolded near the displacement piles (2.0 D
approx.) leading to a decreased value of shearing
resistance.
- Pore-pressure is generated during installation causing
lower Pore pressure is generated during installation
causing lower effective stress and consequently lower
shearing resistance.
- Excess pore-pressure dissipates over the time and soil
regains its strength.
Example: Driven concrete piles, Timber or Steel piles
NON-DISPLACEMENT PILES
Due to no displacement during installation,
there is no heave in the ground
Cast in-situ piles may be cased or uncased
(by removing casing as concreting
progresses). They may be provided with
reinforcement if economical with their
reduced diameter.
Concreting under water may be challenging
and may resulting in waisting or necking of
concrete in squeezing ground.
NON-DISPLACEMENT PILES
Enlarged bottom ends (three times pile
diameter) may be provided in cohesive soils
leading to much larger point bearing
provided in cohesive soils leading to much
larger point bearing.
Soil on the sides may soften due to contact
with wet concrete or during boring itself.
This may lead to loss of its shear strength.
Example: Bored cast in-situ or pre-cast piles.
SITE AND SOIL INVESTIGATION

The foundation selected depends on


functional requirements of the structure
and results of the site investigation. Site
investigation is required to complete
foundation selection and design and to
select the most efficient construction
method.
SITE INVESTIGATION
The first phase of the investigation is examination of site
characteristics of the soil profile to determine the design and
construction methodology:
a. Feasibility study. A reconnaissance study should be
performed to determine the requirements of a deep
foundation designs, and the scope of in situ soil and
foundation load tests.
b. Site conditions. Examination of the site includes history,
geology, visual inspection of the site and adjacent area,
and local design and construction experience. Maps may
provide data on wooded areas, ponds, streams,
depressions, and evidence of earlier construction that can
influence soil moisture and groundwater level. Existence
of former solid waste disposal sites.
SITE INVESTIGATION STEPS
1. Visual study. A visual reconnaissance should check
for desiccation cracks and nature of the surface soil.
Structural damage in nearby structures which may
have resulted from excessive settlement of
compressible soil or heave of expansive soil should be
recorded.
2. Accessibility. Accessibility to the site and equipment
mobility also influence selection of construction
methods. Some of these restrictions are on access,
location of utility lines and paved roads, location of
obstructing structures and trees, and topographic and
trafficability features of the site.
SITE INVESTIGATION STEPS
3. Local experience. The use of local design and
construction experience can avoid potential
problems with certain types of foundations and
can provide data on successfully constructed
foundations.
4. Potential problems with driven piles. The site
investigation should consider sensitivity of
existing structures and utilities to ground
movement caused by ground vibration and
surface heave of driven piles.
SOIL INVESTIGATION

The scope of this investigation depends


on the nature and complexity of the soil,
and size, functional intent, and cost of
the structure. Results of the soil
investigation are used to select the
appropriate soil parameters for design.
SOIL INVESTIGATION STEPS
Soil investigations involve the following steps:

1. Planning the details and sequence of operations


2. Collection of soil samples from the field
3. Conducting all field tests for determining the strength and
compressibility characteristics of the soil
4. Study of ground water level conditions and collection of water
samples for chemical analysis
5. Geophysical exploration if necessary
6. Testing in the laboratory of all samples of soil, rock, and water
7. Preparation of drawings and charts
8. Analysis of the results of the tests
9. Preparation of report
SOIL INVESTIGATION METHODS

The normal methods of soil


investigations are:

Inspection
Test pits
Probing
Boring
EXAMPLE OF CASE STUDY
SUCTION CAISSON FOUNDATIONS FOR OFFSHORE WIND
TURBINES

OVERVIEW:
Suction caisson foundations are being investigated for
offshore wind turbine applications. The research programme
includes laboratory testing, larger scale field testing and
theoretical modelling. This paper concentrates on the
experimental results obtained in combined loading tests on
monopod caissons. Results obtained from monotonic and
cyclic tests on caissons installed either by pushing or by
suction are presented and interpreted.
THANK YOU FOR
THANK YOU FOR
LENDING YOUR
LENDING YOUR
EARS AND EYES
EARS AND EYES
THROUGHOUT
THROUGHOUT
THIS
THIS
PRESENTATION.
PRESENTATION.