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BASIC TISSUES

HISTOLOGY
DEPARTEMENT
INTRODUCTION
Tissue concept a basis of understanding and
recognizing the many cells type within the body
and how they interrelate

Despite the variations in general appearance,


structural, organization, and physiologic
properties of various body organ, the tissue that
compose them are classified into 4 basic
tissues
Human body is composed of 4 basic types of
tissue :
1. Epithelial Tissues
Composed of closely aggregated polyhedral
cells with very little extracellular substance.
2. Connective Tissues
Characterized by the abundance of
extracellular material produced by its cells.
3. Muscle Tissues
Composed of elongated cells that have the
specialized function of contraction.
4. Nervous Tissues
Composed of cells with elongated processes
extending from the cell body that have the
specialized function of receiving,
EPITHELIUM (EPITHELIAL
TISSUE)
Characterized by close cell apposition
and presence at a free surface

Arranged in single layer or in


multilayers

Joined by specialized cell to cell


junction create a barrier between
the free surface and the adjascent
connective tissue
Free surface,
outer
surface,
lining of the Lined by
body EPITHELI
cavities, UM
tubes and
ducts,
peritoneal
cavities, etc
Classification based on the shaped
Classification based on the layer

SIMPLE
Epithelial membranes are classified according to the number of cell layers between the basal lamina and the free surface and by the morphology of the
epithelial cells (Table 51). If the membrane is composed of a single layer of cells, it is called simple epithelium; if it is composed of more than one
cell layer, it is called stratified epithelium (Fig. 51). The morphology of the cells may be squamous (flat), cuboidal, or columnar when viewed in
sections taken perpendicular to the basement membrane. Stratified epithelia are classified by the morphology of the cells in their superficial layer
only. In addition to these two major classes of epithelia, which are further identified by cellular morphology, there are two other distinct types:
pseudostratified and transitional.
For more information see the Epithelium section of Chapter 5: Gartner and Hiatt: Color Textbook of Histology, 3rd ed. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, 2007.

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Specializations of the cell surface :
1. Microvili 1,2,3,4
- finger like projections of the plasma
membrane
- specialised for absorption ex. Small
intestine
- complex of microvilli : brush or striated
border
2. Stereosilia 1,2,4
- longer branched microvilli
- visible with light microscope
- ex.: epididymis
3. Cilia and Flagella 1,2
- Cilia are elongated, motile structures
- Flagella only in spermatozoa, much 13 longer
cilia v
i
l
l
i

stereosil
ia

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CONNECTIVE TISSUE

Characterized on the basis of its


extraxellular matrix
Separated form one another
The intervening spaces are occupied
by material produced by the cells
The extracellular material is called
extracellular matrix
Provides the supportive
and connecting
framework (or stroma)
for all the other
tissues of the body.

Connective tissue is
formed by :
1. Cells
2. Extracellular matrix
(ECM) : fiber and
ground sbstance
1. CELLS
Fibroblast
Macrophage
Plasma cells
Mast cells
Adipose cells
Leucocyte
2. EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX
Fiber
Collagen system :
Collagen fiber
Reticular fiber
Elastic system

Ground substance
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CONNECTIVE TISSUE
MUSCLE TISSUE

Categorized on the basis of a


functional property, the ability of its
cells to contract
Characterized by :
Large amounts of the contractile
proteins actin and myosin in their
cytplasm
Their particular cellular arrengement in
the tissue
Typically elongated and oriented with
TYPES OF MUSCLE TISSUE
Formed by
Cross-striations on muscle fiber
SKELETAL
Generally
MUSCLE
SKELETAL
Contraction
MUSCLE : fast & voluntary
Contraction : fast
Cross-striations on&muscle
voluntary
fiber
Formed by
Generally
NERVE TISSUE

Consists of nerve cells (neurons) and


associated supporting cells of several
types
Highly specialized to transmit
electrical impulses from one site in
the body to another , also specialized
to integrate those impulse
Receive and process information from
the external and internal environment
NEUROGLIAL CELLS
Oligodendrocytes
Figure 95Ultrastructure of a neuronal cell body.
(From Lentz TL: Cell Fine Structure: An Atlas of
Drawings of Whole-Cell Structure. Philadelphia, WB
Figure 94The various types of
neurons.
In
Mucosa Submucosa

Muscularis
externa

Serosa/
Adventitisa
Thank
You