Você está na página 1de 20

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

EMERGENCY FURNISHING
FIRE EXTINGUISHER

Prepared by: AZLAN BIN TAJUDIN


Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

DEFINITION OF FIRE
THE RAPID OXIDATION OF A FUEL EVOLVING HEAT,
PARTICULATES, GASSES AND NON-IONIZING RADIATION
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FUEL
Liquid or material which will burn provided there is sufficient heat.
It is not possible to extinguish a fire by removing fuel, but by
preventing the fire from obtaining additional fuel or by containing
it in a FIREPROOF BULKHEAD.
HEAT
A fire can be extinguished by COOLING it below its ignition point.
OXYGEN
*Eliminating the oxygen is the MOST PRACTICAL way of
extinguishing aircraft fires, achieved by forming a heavier than air
blanket of inert gas over the fire, thus STARVING it of oxygen
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

THE POSSIBLE CAUSES OF FIRE BEING


:

1) Naked lights

2) Mechanical failures causing


overheating

3) Electrical failures i.e. short


circuits, overcharging, etc

4) Spontaneous combustion
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

COMMON CLASSIFICATION OF FIRE

CLASS A Ordinary Combustibles


Ordinary combustibles such as wood, paper, cloth,
cardboard, Styrofoam, trash, plastics, etc.

CLASS B - Flammable Liquids


Flammable liquids and greases such as gasoline,
oils, greases, paints, kerosene, solvents, etc.
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

COMMON CLASSIFICATION OF FIRE

CLASS C - Electricals
Energized electrical equipments such as a wiring,
a computer, fuse box, circuit breaker, machinery,
appliances, etc.

CLASS D - Flammable Metals


Flammable metals such as magnesium,
aluminium, titanium, etc.
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

A. FIXED SYSTEM- Consists of extinguish ant containers which are


fixed to the aircraft structure and distribution system of pipes and
controls
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

B. PORTABLE SYSTEM- Hand-operated fire extinguishers provided


to combat any outbreaks of fire in flight crew compartments and
passenger cabins
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

C. MIXED SYSTEM- Used in some aircraft for the protection of


baggage and service compartments, consists of distribution pipelines
and spray rings which are mounted in the appropriate compartment
and hand operated extinguishers which may be coupled to the
pipeline system at special adaptor points
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FIRE PROTECTION FOR AIRCRAFT INTERIORS


Provided by HAND-HELD Extinguishers.
Four type extinguishers are available to extinguish interior fire:

- Water
- Carbon Dioxide ( CO2 )
- Dry Chemical
- Halogenated Hydrocarbons
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

AIRCRAFT INTERIORS-FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

WATER EXTINGUISHERS

1) Water Extinguishers are for use primarily on


NON-ELECTRICAL fires such as smoldering
fabric

2) Filled with regular tap water and pressurized


with CO2

3) Works by REMOVING THE HEAT (COOLING)


4) Water Extinguishers should not be used on
electrical fires because of the danger of
ELECTROCUTION. Not always the best option.
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

AIRCRAFT INTERIORS-FIRE EXTINGUISHERS


CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHERS (CO2 )
1) CO2 extinguishers contain Carbon
Dioxide, a non-flammable gas, highly
pressurized.
2) A long hinged tube with a non-metallic
megaphone shaped nozzle permits
discharge of the CO2 gas close to the
fire.
3) CO2 is HEAVIER than Oxygen so these
extinguishers work by displacing or
taking away oxygen from the
surrounding area.
4) CO2 is also very cold so it also works
by COOLING THE FUEL.
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

AIRCRAFT INTERIORS-FIRE EXTINGUISHERS


DRY CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHERS
1) Dry Chemical Extinguishers are filled with either
foam or powder, usually sodium bicarbonate (baking
soda) or potassium bicarbonate and pressurized with
nitrogen.
2) Baking soda is effective because it DECOMPOSES
at 158F and releases Carbon Dioxide (which smothers
oxygen) once it decomposes.

3) Dry chemical extinguishers interrupt the


chemical reaction of the fire by coating the fuel with
a thin layer of powder or foam, separating the fuel
from the surrounding oxygen.
4) Extinguishment on any type of fire should NOT
be carried out in the COCKPIT as there will be
interference with VISIBILITY and the collection of
non-conductive powder on electric contacts of
surrounding equipments
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

AIRCRAFT INTERIORS-FIRE EXTINGUISHERS


HALOGENATED HYDROCARBON EXTINGUISHERS
HALON 1211 (CABIN) & HALON 1301

1) Liquid Halon (FREON) is the only fire extinguishers that


won't choke you (NON-TOXIC) and won't damage the aircraft
2) They are numbered according to their chemical formulas
with 5 digits number :-
First digit number of carbon atoms in the compound molecule
Second digit the number of fluorine atoms
Third digit the number of chlorine atoms
Fourth digit the number of bromine atoms
Fifth digit the number of iodine atoms
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

AIRCRAFT INTERIORS-FIRE EXTINGUISHERS


HALOGENATED HYDROCARBON EXTINGUISHERS
HALON 1211 (CABIN) & HALON 1301
3) Halon is more expensive than dry
chemicals, but worth the difference in
price

4) Halon works to extinguish fires by


using a liquid that turns to gas when it
is sprayed into a fire

5) The gas displaces oxygen to rob the


fire of oxygen and cause it to go out

6)If Halon is sprayed into the air, it


DISAPPEARED almost as soon as it
has been sprayed, but is highly
effective in closed areas
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

HAND HELD FIRE EXTINGUISHER

A minimum number of hand held


fire extinguishers must be provided
in the passenger cabin to be of the
Halon 1211 type (BCF), water and
BCF Extinguishers. Clearly
identified with WATER in a red
container and BCF is usually in a
GREEN container

The bottle itself has a FULL DISC


which is pushed out as the trigger
is depressed, giving indication of a
partially of fully discharged bottle.
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

HAND HELD FIRE EXTINGUISHER


Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

HAND HELD FIRE EXTINGUISHER


INSPECTION & MAINTENANCE

1) Checked by WEIGHING, some bottle have Pressure Gauge


with green and red indicator segments.
2) Some have a test soft spot usually on the bottom. If this can
be pressed in with fingers, then the bottle needs changing.
3) Bottle should checked for damage, ensure TRANSIT PIN is
removed, and the full disc or fired indicator is intact.
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

HAND HELD FIRE EXTINGUISHER

INSPECTION & MAINTENANCE


4) Ensure the VALIDITY of the life date.
5) Written on the side of the
Extinguisher will be the FULL WEIGHT
information at Manufacture/Overhaul.
6) The type of Extinguishant &
Manufacturer :- Details of how to
operate and the life date

7) The bracket will require inspection


whenever the bottle is removed to
ensure it is not damaged or corroded
and that the quick release mechanism
functions correctly
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

END OF TOPIC