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Differentiation Rules

Chain Rule
Let y be a differentiable function of u and u be
differentiable function of x, then
dy dy du

dx du dx
The Chain Rule is sometimes stated:
Let y=f(x) and u=g(x) with f differentiable at u
= g(x) and and g differentiable at x, then
d d d
( f ( g ( x ))) ( f (u)) ( g ( x ))
dx du dx
Standard functions and their derivatives
d 1
(1) (ln x ) ;
dx x
d
( 2) (e x ) e x ;
dx
d
(3) ( x a ) ax a 1 , (note : x a is not defined for some a if x 0);
dx
d
(4) (a x ) a x ln a for a 0;
dx
d d
(5) (sin x ) cos x dan (cos x ) sin x.
dx dx
Examples
ds
Speed : v ,
dt
dv dv dv ds dv
Acceleration : a a v . (Chain Rule)
dt dt ds dt ds

Problems
d d sin x
1. tan x ( )
dx dx cos x
dy
2. y cos x find
3

dx
dy
3. y ln(tan(3 x 7)) find
2

dx
Implicit Differentiation
y 3 xy x 2 11. (*)
dy
Find at point x 1, y 2 on curve. Assume y f ( x )
dx
and check (1,2) is on curve : 2 3 1.2 12 11 (OK )
Differentiate both sides of (*) with respect to x.
d d
( y 3 xy x 2 ) (11) 0
dx dx
d 3 d d 2 dy y 2x
y ( xy ) x 0 2 ,
dx dx dx dx 3y x
d 3 dy dy dx
y x y 2x 0 provided 3 y 2 x 0.
dy dx dx dx
dy dy dy
3y2 x y 2x 0 Note : So if is defined as above
dx dx dx
dy
(3 y 2 x ) ( y 2 x) 0 then the curve y f(x) exists.
dx
Example

A rocket is launched vertically. Radar is 5 km


from launch site. When rocket is 13 km from
radar this distance is increasing at 100 km/sec.
Find rocket speed.
Let y = height of rocket,
s = distance from rocket to radar
Must find dy/dt.
Different version
Rocket launched vertically 5 km from
tracking station.
When angle of elevation = 60, the
rate of change of is 3/sec.
What is the velocity at that instant
(dy/dt)?
Remember: = 60 = /3 radians
Derivatives of Inverse Functions
Let y f 1
( x ) and x f ( y )
dx dx dx
1 , Chain Rule
dx dy dy
d 1 dy dy
f ( x) 1 .
dx dx dx
Example : If y ln x then x e y so
dy 1 1 1 d 1
dx y that is ln y .
dx dy e x dx x

Example: Find dy/dx if y = xx .


Hint: ln y = ln (xx ) = x ln x.