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What is HOT in Science ?

Thompson (2008)
HOT involves solving tasks
where an algorithm has not
been taught or using known
algorithms while working in
unfamiliar contexts or situations
What is LOT in Science ?
Resnick (1987)
Lower-order thinking (LOT) is
often characterized by the recall of
information or the application of
concepts or knowledge to familiar
situations and contexts
Evolution of HOTS
Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives
By Benjamin Bloom-1950s
Provides a way to organize thinking skills into 6
levels, from basic to complex levels of thinking
(Revised by Lorin Anderson-1990s)
Blooms Taxonomy (Revised)
Creating - generating of new
ideas, products or ways of
viewing things
Evaluating - justifying a
HOTS decision or action
Analizing -seeing patterns and
classifying information, concepts
and theories into component parts
Applying - using information in
another unfamiliar situation
Understanding - explaining
ideas or concepts
Remembering - recalling infor.
The Importance of HOT
To produce smart,
smart creative and innovative
manpower to face the challenges in the
21st century If we want students to
develop the capacity to
think reason,
reason and
problem solving then we
need to start with high-
level, cognitively
complex tasks.
Stein & Lane 1996
Trends in International Mathematics and Science
Study (TIMSS)
International Association for the
Organizer Evaluation of Educational
Achievement (IEA)

Obtain data in education to improve

Objectives policy and teaching & learning of
maths and scinece
4 years once since 1995
Period Malaysia participated since 1999

Year 4 & Form 2 students (Gred 8)

Malaysia only Form 2 students
Achievement of Malaysia in TIMSS
(Trend in International Maths & Science
1999 2003 2007 2011
Maths Maths Maths Maths
16/38 10/45 20/49 26/64
(519) (508) (474) (440)
Science Science Science Science
22/38 20/45 21/49 32/64
(492) (501) (471) (426)

Less than 500 Unsatisfactory Achievement

Programme for International Student Assessment
Organisation for Economic
Organizer Co-operation and Development

Evaluate students literacy in

Objectives science, maths and reading to
determine the mastering level of
PISA knowledge and skills

3 years once since 2000

Period Malaysia participated since 2009

Students aged 15+

Irrespective of Gred /Form
Achievement of Malaysia in PISA -2009
(Programme for International Student Assessment)

China Spore Fland UK Thai Msia


Reading 1 5 3 25 53 55

Maths 1 2 6 28 52 57

Science 1 4 2 16 51 52
(573) (542) (554) (514) (425) (422)
OECD Average - 501 International Average 463
Malaysia Ranking in Science : 52/74
Achievement of Malaysia Students in PISA 2009
Malaysia 52/74
1.China - 575 45.Serbia 443 66.Indonesia 383
2.Finland - 554 46.Bulgaria 439 67.Qatar 379
3.Hong Kong-549 47.UAE 438
68.Panama 376
4.Singapore - 542 49.Romania 428
70.Georgia - 373
5.Japan - 539 50.Uruguay 427 71.Peru 369
6.Korea 538 51.Thailand 425 74. India -325
7.N. Zealand - 532 52. MALAYSIA - 422
8.Canada - 529 53.Venezula 422
9.Estonia - 528 54.Mauritius 417
10.Australia - 527 55.Mexico 416
Examples of Activities that Promote HOTS

Problem Solving By Applying A Rule
Construct / Design
Which logic gate is most suitable for the
following circuit ?
Window P

R Alarm
Door Q

P & Q : Close = 0
Open = 1
R: Alarm Off = 0
Alarm On = 1
Q & A / Hands on
Compare the temperature after 5 minutes
Compare the quantity of heat of water in glass
P and Q
State the relationship between the mass and
the quantity of heat of water
Demonstrate the direction of motion of the wire
in the following setup
Problem Solving By Applying A Rule
How to make the hard boil egg enter the conical
How to make the egg float in water?
Construct / Design
Build a prototype of solar car for the district
level competition
Identify the variables for the following situation
Importance of HOT Questions
Higher-order questions promote learning
because these types of questions require
students to apply,
apply analyze,
analyze create,
create and
evaluate information instead of simply
recalling facts.
Asking Questions that Invite HOTS
The key words used and the type of questions asked
may aid in the establishment and encouragement of
How would you fix a dented ping pong ball?
(Using what you have learnt in gas law)

Ali carried out an experiment to determine the
specific heat capacity, c of aluminium using the setup
below. He found that the, c obtained is very much
bigger than the standard value. Observe the diagram
below to see anything wrong with his setup, how this
problem can be solved ?
Which of the following radar system is the
most suitable to be installed at the airport ? Evaluating
Radar K L M N
Diameter of 10 5 7 12
Distance of Sam Less Same Less
the signal e as than as the than the
receiver the the focal focal
from the focal focal length length
centre of lengt length
dish h
Types of Micro Micro- Radio Radio
wave - wave Wave Wave
transmitted wave
How would you design an effective solar cooker
that can heat up the kettle fast?
Strategies For Enhancing
Higher Order Thinking
Use Visual Representation

Connect Concepts

Teach Inference

Teach Concept Mapping

Think With Analogies

Use Visual Representation
A picture is worth a thousand words. Students should be
encouraged to make a visual representation of what they are
learning. They should try to associate a simple picture with a
single concept.
Example : Formation of Catapult Field
Connect Concepts
Refresh what they already know. Compare the new to the
already known and link to new concept. Students will then
be in a better position to absorb new concept.
Electricity: refresh on idea of electrical charges, compare
current to electrical charges, flow of charges is current.

Teach Concept Mapping
Students should develop the habit of mapping all the
key concepts after completing chapter


Atomic Radioactive Radioactive

Structure Decay Usage

Radioisotope Usage of
e nucleus

Agriculture, etc
Think With Analogies
Analogy between flow of current in a wire and flow
of water through a pipe
Pressure difference in water Electrical potential

Flow of water Flow of electrical current

Rate of flow water
Rate of flow of charge
(i.e. current)
LOTS vs HOTS Question
Diagram below shows 2 blocks immerse in 1000 cm 3 water.
Table below shows density of material X and Y
Materia Volum Mass Density
l e (g) (g/cm3)
Block X 8 2 0.25
Block Y 8 16 2
Block Z
Water 1000 1000 1
Examples of HOTS and LOTS Questions
1. What is the density of block X? LOT

2. What is the density of block Y? LOT

3. State the situation of Block X and Y in

4. Give an inference concerning the HOT

position of Block X in water.

5. If Block Z is made of material Y with HOT

dimension as shown and it is put into
water, predict why will happen.
Explain your answer.
Answers for LOTS and HOTS Questions
1. What is the density of block X? LOT
0.25 (g/cm3)
2.What is the density of block Y? LOT
2 (g/cm3)
3.State the situation of Block X and Y in water.
Block X floats and Block Y sinks LOT
4.Give an inference concerning the position of
Block X in water.
Density of X is less than the density of HOT
5.If Block Z is made of material Y with
dimension as shown and it is put into water,
predict why will happen. Explain your
answer. HOT
Block Z will float, the weight is balanced
by the buoyant force
Key words for Questions
Level 1: Remembering - Exhibits previously learnt
material by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts and

Key words: who, what, why, when, where, which,

choose, find, how, define, label, show, spell, list,
match, name, tell, recall, select.

Level 2: Understanding - Demonstrating understanding

of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating,
interpreting, giving descriptions and stating main ideas.

Key words: compare, contrast, demonstrate,

interpret, explain, illustrate, outline, relate, translate,
summarize, show, classify.
Level 3: Applying - Solving problems by applying acquired
knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way.

Key words: apply, build, choose, construct, develop,

make use of, organize, experiment with, plan, select,

Level 4: Analyzing - Examining and breaking information

into parts by identifying motives or causes; making
inferences and finding evidence to support generalizations.

Key words: analyze, categorize, classify, compare,

contrast, divide, examine, distinguish, list, relationships,
function, motive, inference, assumption, conclusion,
Level 5: Evaluating - Presenting and defending opinions by
making judgments about information, validity of ideas or
quality of work based on a set of criteria.

Key Words: choose, conclude, criticize, decide, defend,

determine, evaluate, judge, justify, measure, compare,
recommend, select, explain, importance, criteria, prove,

Level 6: Creating - Compiling information together in a

different way by combining elements in a new pattern or
proposing alternative solutions.

Key Words: build, combine, construct, create, design,

develop, formulate, imagine, invent, make up, plan,
predict, propose, solve, modify, change, improve, adapt.
Based on a SPM Physics topic, prepare 3
questions that can contribute to HOTS