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Propagation

Dr Costas Constantinou

School of Electronic, Electrical & Computer

Engineering

University of Birmingham

W: www.eee.bham.ac.uk/ConstantinouCC/

E: c.constantinou@bham.ac.uk

Introduction

For an overview, see Chapters 1 4 of L.W.

Barclay (Ed.), Propagation of Radiowaves,

2nd Ed., London: The IEE, 2003

The main textbook supporting these

lectures is: R.E. Collin, Antennas and

Radiowave Propagation, New York:

McGraw-Hill, 1985

Introduction (cont.)

Simple free-space propagation occurs only

rarely

For most radio links we need to study the

influence of the presence of the earth,

buildings, vegetation, the atmosphere,

hydrometeors and the ionosphere

In this lectures we will concentrate on

simple terrestrial propagation models only

Radio Spectrum

Symb Frequency Wavelengt Comments

ol range h,

ELF < 300 Hz > 1000 km Earth-ionosphere waveguide

ULF 300 Hz 3 1000 100 propagation

kHz km

VLF 3 kHz 30 100 10

kHz km

LF 30 300 kHz 10 1 km Ground wave propagation

MF 300 kHz 3 1 km 100

MHz m

HF 3 30 MHz 100 10 m Ionospheric sky-wave

propagation

VHF 30 300 MHz 10 1 m Space waves, scattering by

objects similarly sized to, or

UHF 300 MHz 3 f 100

c 1 m ; c bigger 1

8 msthan,

3 10 a free-space

GHz mm

wavelength, increasingly

SHF 3 30 GHz 100 10 affected by tropospheric

Electromagnetic waves

Spherical waves

Wm

Intensity (time-average)2

S 2 E H

1

square law

Electromagnetic waves

Conservation of energy; the inverse

square law

Energy cannot flow perpendicularly to, but

r2 along

flows A1 light

r12 rays

2 PA1 r1 A1 r2 A2 PA2

r1 A2 r2

1 1

r 2 E r

r r

Ptransmitted in an angular sector of l steradians

r

lr2

Ptransmitted

r

4 r 2

Free-space propagation

Tx Rx

Transmitted power

Ptx R

tx Ptx

Gtx Ptx

S rx

4 R 2

Received power

Gtx Ptx rx 2

Prx Ae ; Aerx Grx

4 R 2

4

Friis power transmission formula

2

Prx

Gtx Grx

Ptx 4 R

Free-space propagation

(cont.)

Taking logarithms gives

4 R

10 log10 Prx 10 log10 Ptx 10 log10 Gtx 10 log10 Grx 20 log10

Prx dBW Ptx dBW Gtx dBi Grx dBi L0 dB

whereL0 is the free-space path loss, measured in

decibels

4 R

L0 20 log10 dB

Maths reminder

log a b c log a b,

c

log a b

log c b

log c a

, log a b c log a b log a c

Basic calculations

Example: Two vertical dipoles, each with gain 2dBi,

separated in free space by 100m, the transmitting one

radiating a power of 10mW at 2.4GHz

L0 dB 32.4 20 log10 2400 20 log10 0.1 80.0

P

This

dBW 10 log 102

rx corresponds10to 0.4nW

10(or

log10 2 10 log10 2 strength

an electric field

80.0 94

of

.0

0.12mVm-1)

The important quantity though is the signal to noise ratio

at the receiver. In most instances antenna noise is

dominated by electronic equipment thermal noise, given

by where is Boltzmans constant, B is

N k BTB

the receiver bandwidth 23 and

T is the room temperature in

Kelvin Bk 1 . 38 10 JK 1

Basic calculations (cont.)

The noise power output by a receiver with a Noise

Figure F = 10dB, and bandwidth B = 200kHz at

room temperature (T = 300K) is calculated as

follows

N dBW 10 log10 k BTB 10 log10 F

N dBW 10 log10 1.38 10 23 300 200 103 10 log10 10

N 140.8 dBW 110 .8 dBm

SNR dB P dBW N dBW 94.0 140.8

SNR 46.8 dB

Basic calculations (cont.)

Propagation over a flat

earth

The two ray model (homogeneous ground)

z Tx

r1 Rx

ht

r2

hr air, 0, 0 x

P ground, r, 0,

d

Valid in the VHF, band and above (i.e. f 30MHz where

ground/surface wave effects are negligible)

Valid for flat ground (i.e. r.m.s. roughness z < , typically f

30GHz)

Valid for short ranges where the earths curvature is negligible

(i.e. d < 1030 km, depending on atmospheric conditions)

Propagation over flat earth

The path difference between the direct and ground-

reflectedrpaths

r2 isr1 and this corresponds to a phase

k r2 r1

difference

The total electric field at the receiver is given by

E r , E1 r , E 2 r ,

exp j t r1 c

E r , 60 Prad e gT , e gT ,

r1

exp j t r2 c

60

The angles Prad are the elevation

and e and

gT azimuth gT , .

, e angles

r2

of the direct and ground reflected paths measured from

the boresight of the transmitting antenna radiation pattern

Reflection of plane waves

Reflection coefficient is a tensor

r i

E .E

The reflection coefficient can be

resolved into two canonical

polarisations, TE and TM and has

a magnitude

exp

both j and phase

cos r j 0 sin 2

TE

cos r j 0 sin 2

r j 0 cos r j 0 sin 2

TM ||

incidence

Reflection of plane waves

Typical reflection

coefficients for

ground as a

function of the

grazing angle

(complement of

the angle of

Pseudo-Brewster angle incidence). In

this instance,

r 15, 10 2 Sm 1

15

Modelling Tutorial

Propagation over flat earth

This expression can be simplified considerably for

vertical and horizontal polarisations for large

ranges d >> ht, hr, 2 , 2 2kht hr

k r2 r1 k d ht hr d ht hr

2 2

d

1 1 1 1 1 1

r1 d ht hr d r2 d ht hr d

2 2 2 2

e gT , e gT ,

e y Gtx for h. polarisation

e z TM Gtx cos for v. pol.

. e gT , e gT ,

e y TE Gtx for h. pol.

TM v TE h 1

Propagation over flat earth

Ev ,h E0 1 v ,h exp j

Prx Prx 0 1 exp j 4 Prx 0 sin 2 2

2

2ht hr

Prx 4 Prx 0 sin

2

d

There are two sets of ranges to consider,

separated by a breakpoint

4ht hr

d d b & sin

2 2 2 2

2

d d b & 4sin 2

2 2 2

Propagation over flat earth

Thus there are two simple propagation path loss laws

L dB L0 3.0 l for d d c

where l is a rapidly varying (fading) term over

distances of the scale of a wavelength, and

L dB L0 20 log10 for d d c

This simplifies to

4d 4ht hr

L dB 20 log10 20 log10

d

L dB 40 log10 d 20 log10 ht 20 log10 hr

The total path loss (free space loss + excess path loss)

is independent of frequency and shows that height

increases the received signal power (antenna height

gain) and that the received power falls as d-4 not d-2

Propagation over flat earth

Typical ground

1/d4 power law regime (d > dc)

(earth), with

r = 15

= 0.005Sm-1

ht = 20m and

hr = 2m

Propagation over flat earth

2ht hr

When ht = 0 or hr = 0 Prx 4 Prx 0 sin 0

2

ground based antennas (not quite true in

practice)

vertical polarisation at grazing incidence,

2 2ht hr

Prx 4 Prx 0 cos

d

Propagation over flat earth

Problem: A boat has an elevated antenna

mounted on a mast at height ht above a highly

conducting perfectly flat sea. If the radiation

pattern of the antenna approximates e cos that of a

vertically polarised current element, i.e. ,

determine the in-situ radiation pattern of the

antenna and in particular the radiation pattern

nulls as a function of the elevation angle above

2ht

f e cos cos

the horizon. tan

Answer: 2n 1

, n 0,1,2,

4 ht

Path clearance on LOS paths

Tx

r01

r02

r0 Rx

r11 r1 hc

r22

ht

hr

h

P

d1 d2

d

Assume that in the worst case scenario we get the strongest

possible scattering from the sub-path obstacle: specular

reflection at grazing incidence

Path clearance on LOS paths

The electrical path difference between the direct

and scattered rays from the top of the obstacle is,

k k r1 r0 k r11 r12 r01 r02

k

r012 hc2 r01 r022 hc2 r02

r01 , r02 hc

Since typically

hc2 hc2

k k r01 r01 r02 r02

2r01 2r02

khc2 1 1 khc2 1 1

2 r01 r02 2 d1 d 2

khc2 d

2d1d 2

Path clearance on LOS paths

Additionally, comparing similar parallelograms gives,

hr d1 ht d 2

hc h cos

d

Under the assumptions made, the direct and scattered

waves have similar magnitudes and differ in phase by

due to the grazing incidence reflection

If the electrical path difference is this corresponds to

a first Fresnel zone path clearance

d1d 2

h

Problem: Verify that the

c breakpoint distance in the two

d

ray model corresponds to the point at which the first

Fresnel zone touches the ground

Site shielding

We consider the two-dimensional problem of site

shielding by an obstacle in the line-of-sight path for

simplicity (rigorous diffraction theory is beyond the

scope of these introductory lectures)

We invoke the Huygens-Fresnel principle to describe

wave propagation:

Every point on a primary wavefront serves as the source of

spherical secondary wavelets such that the primary wavefront

at some later time is the envelope of these wavelets.

Moreover, the wavelets advance with a speed andfrequency

equal to that of the primary wave at each point in space.

Huygens's principle was slightly modified by Fresnel to explain

why no back wave was formed, and Kirchhoff demonstrated

that the principle could be derived from the wave equation

Site shielding

Site shielding

P

du r = d2 +

R

d1 u

O d2

u0 (u0 > 0 path obstraction)

T d1

d1 (u0 < 0 path clearance)

perfectly

absorbing

knife-edge

observation

P plane

Site sheilding

The Kirchhoff integral describing the summing of

secondary wavefronts in the Huygens-Fresnel

principle yields the field at the receiver

1 u

exp jkr

E R k1 du

0 u

f r

polarisation and radiation pattern, f(r) describes

the amplitude spreading factor for the secondary

waves (2D cylindrical wave f(r) = r1/2, 3D spherical

wave f(r) = r) and u1 is a large positive value of u to

describe a distant upper bound on the wavefront

Site shielding

Stationary phase arguments (since the exponent

is oscillatory, especially for high frequencies)

show that only the fields in the vicinity of the

point O contribute significantly to the field at R

If point O is obstructed by the knife-edge, then

only the fields in the vicinity of the tip of the

knife-edge contribute significantly to the field at R

Using the cosine rule on the triangle TPR, gives

r 2 PR TP TR 2 TP TR cos

2 2 2

u

d2 d1 d 2 d1 2 d1 d 2 d1 cos

2 2 2

d1

Site shielding

If we assume that d1, d2 >> , u (stationary phase and

far-field approximations), then u/d1, << 1 and 2 <<

u 2

2 2 2

2

d 2 2d 2 ; 2d1 d 2 2d1d 2 2 d 1 d1d 2 1 2

2

2d1

d1 d 2

; u 2

2d1d 2

Thus, using stationary phase arguments, we may

only keep the fast varying exponential term inside

the Kirchhoff integral and evaluate the slowly

varying f(r) term at the stationary phase point O, to

give,

k1 exp jkd 2 u1

E R ; exp jk u du

f d2 u0

Site shielding

d1 d 2 2

Sincek u ; u , we make the

substitution d1d 2

2 d1 d 2 2 d

u @k2u k & du

d1d 2 2 k2

k1 exp jkd 2

E R ;

k2 f d 2 0

exp j 2

2 d

to make the upper limit

Using the definition of x the complex Fresnel integral,

F x exp j 2 2 d

0

Site shielding

k1 exp jkd 2

k3 @

k2 f d 2

E R ; k3 F F 0

1 j

E R ; k3 F 0

2

To determine k3 we let and use F()=

F() and the fact that in this case we have free-

space propagation (i.e. E(R) = E0(R)) , to get,

E0 R ; k3 1 j

E0 R E0 R

k3 1 j

1 j 2

Site shielding

E0 R

Therefore,E R ; 1 j exp j 2 2 d

2 0

2 d1 d 2

0 u0

where,

d1d 2

E R 1

F@

E0 R

2

exp j 2

2 d

0

20 log10 F ; 13 20 log10 0 0 2.4

20 log10 F ; 6.02 9.11 0 1.27v02 0 0 2.4

20 log10 F ; 6.02 9.0 0 1.65v02 0.8 0 0

Site shielding

Multipath propagation

Mobile radio channels are predominantly in the

VHF and UHF bands

VHF band (30 MHz f 300 MHz, or 1 m 10 m)

UHF band (300 MHz f 3 GHz, or 10 cm 1 m)

In an outdoor environment electromagnetic

signals can travel from the transmitter to the

receiver along many paths

Reflection

Diffraction

Transmission

Scattering

Multipath propagation

Narrowband

signal

(continuous

wave CW)

Area mean or path Fast or multipath

loss envelope

(deterministic or fading (statistical)

empirical)

fading (deterministic or statistical)

Multipath propagation

The total signal consists

of many components

Each component

corresponds to a signal

which has a variable

amplitude and phase

The power received varies

rapidly as the component

phasors add with rapidly

changing phases

local mean signal over areas of the order of

102

Averaging the length (i.e. power) over many

locations/obstructions results in the area

mean

The signals at the receiver can be

expressed in terms of delay, and

Area mean models

We will only cover the Hata-Okumura

model, which derives from extensive

measurements made by Okumura in 1968

in and around Tokyo between 200 MHz and

2 GHz

The measurements were approximated in

a set of simple median path loss formulae

by Hata

The model has been standardised by the

ITU as recommendation ITU-R P.529-2

Area mean models

The model applies to three clutter and terrain

categories

Urban area: built-up city or large town with large

buildings and houses with two or more storeys, or

larger villages with closely built houses and tall,

thickly grown trees

Suburban area: village or highway scattered with

trees and houses, some obstacles being near the

mobile, but not very congested

Open area: open space, no tall trees or buildings in

path, plot of land cleared for 300 400 m ahead,

e.g. farmland, rice fields, open fields

Area mean models

urban areas : L dB A B log R E

suburban areas : L dB A B log R C

open areas : L dB A B log R D

where

A 69.55 26.16 log f c 13.82 log hb

B 44.9 6.55 log hb

C 2 log f c 28 5.4

2

2

2

2

for large cities, f c 300MHz

E 1.1 log f c 0.7 hm 1.56 log f c 0.8 for medium to small cities

Area mean models

The Hata-Okumura model is only valid for:

Carrier frequencies: 150 MHz fc 1500 MHz

Base station/transmitter heights: 30 m hb 200

m

Mobile station/receiver heights: 1 m hm 10 m

Communication range: R > 1 km

A large city is defined as having an average

building height in excess of 15 m

Local mean model

The departure of the local mean power from the area

mean prediction, or equivalently the deviation of the area

mean model is described by a log-normal distribution

In the same manner that the theorem of large numbers

states that the probability density function of the sum of

many random processes obeys a normal distribution, the

product of a large number of random processes obeys a

log-normal distribution

Here the product characterises the many cascaded

interactions of electromagnetic waves in reaching the

receiver

The theoretical basis for this model is questionable over

short-ranges, but it is the best available that fits

observations

Local mean model

Working in logarithmic units (decibels, dB), the total path

loss is given by

PL d L d X

where X is a random variable obeying a lognormal

distribution with standard deviation (again measured in

dB)

p X

1

exp X 2 2 dB

2

dB 2

If x is measured in linear units (e.g. Volts)

1 ln x ln mx

p x exp

dB x 2 2 dB

2

mean model

Local mean model

Cumulative probability density function

LT L d

cdf PL LThreshold

1

exp X 2 2 dB

2

dX

dB 2

1 LT L d

1 erfc

2 2

This can be used to calculate the probability that the

signal-to-noise ratio will never be lower than a desired

threshold value. This is called an outage calculation

Typical values of dB = 10 dB are encountered in urban

outdoor environments, with a de-correlation distance

between 20 80 m with a median value of 40 m

Fast fading models

Im

Constructive and destructive

interference

In spatial domain

In frequency domain Re

In time domain (scatterers, tx and P

rx in relative motion)

Azimuth dependent Doppler shifts

Each multipath component

travels corresponds to a different

path length.

Plot of power carried by each

component against delay is called

the power delay profile (PDP )of

the channel.

2nd central moment of PDP is

called the delay spread

Fast fading models

The relation of the radio system channel bandwidth

Bch to the delay spread is very important

Narrowband channel (flat fading, negligible inter-

Bch antennas

symbol interference (ISI), diversity

1

useful)

Wideband channel (frequency selective fading, need

equalisation (RAKE receiver) or spread spectrum

1 etc.) to avoid/limit ISI)

Bch OFDM,

techniques (W-CDMA,

Fast fading refers to very rapid variations in signal

strength (20 to in excess of 50 dB in magnitude)

typically in an analogue narrowband channel

Dominant LOS component Rician fading

NLOS components of similar magnitude Rayleigh fading

Fast fading models

Working in logarithmic units (decibels, dB), the

total path loss is given by

PL d L d X 20 log10 Y

where Y is random variable which describes the

fast fading and it obeys the distribution

Y Y2

2 exp 2 , Y 0

p Y 2

0, Y 0

for Rayleigh fading, where the mean value of Y is

Y 2 1 0.80

Fast fading models

For Rician fading

Y Y 2 y s2 Yys

2 exp I 0 2 , Y 0

p Y 2

2

0, Y 0

where ys is the amplitude of the dominant (LOS)

componenty s2with

2 power K Rice . The 2

y s2 2ratio

is called the Rician K-factor. The mean value of Y is

Y 2 1 K I 0 K 2 K I1 K 2 exp K 2

The Rician K-factor can vary considerably across

small areas in indoor environments

Fading models

Similar but much more complicated outage

calculations

E.g. Rayleigh and log-normal distributions combine to

give a Suzuki distribution

The spatial distribution of fades is such that the

length of a fade depends on the number of dB

below the local

Fademean signal

depth (dB) we are concerned

Average fade length ()

with 0 0.479

-10 0.108

-20 0.033

-30 0.010

Tropospheric propagation

Over long-distances, more than a few tens of

km, and heights of up to 10 km above the

earths surface, clear air effects in the

troposphere become non-negligible

The dielectric constant of the air at the earths

surface of (approx.) 1.0003 falls to 1.0000 at

great heights where the density of the air tends

to zero

A consequence of Snells law of refraction is

that radiowaves follow curved, rather than

straight-line trajectories

Tropospheric propagation

B

The variation of the ray

A B n + dn

curvature with refractive

index is derived: d dh

A n

AA: wavefront at time t

BB: wavefront at time t + dt

AB and AB: rays normal to

the wavefronts

: radius of curvature of AB

c dt

AB d v dt d

n

c dt

AB d d v dv dt

n dn O

d c c

dt n n dn d

Tropospheric propagation

n n nd dn dnd

Retaining only terms which are correct to first order

in small quantities,

dn nd

1 1 dn

n d

But this is the curvature, C, of the ray AB, by

definition. Furthermore,

dh d cos

1 1 dn

C@ cos

n dh

For rays propagating along the earths surface is

very small and we may take cos = 1. Moreover, n1 1.

Tropospheric propagation

dn

C;

dh

If n = constant, dn/dh = 0 C = 0 and the ray has zero

curvature, i.e. the ray path is a straight line

A ray propagating horizontally above the earth

must have a curvature C = (earths radius)1 = a1 in

order to remain parallel with the earths surface.

But its actual curvature is given by C and not C.

The difference between the two curvatures gives

the curvature of an equivalent earth for which

dn/dh = 0 and which has an effective radius ae,

1 1 dn 1

@

ae a dh ka

Tropospheric propagation

k is known as the k-factor for the earth

Typically, dn/dh 0.039106 m1 1/(25,600 km)

Therefore,1 1 1 1

ae 6, 400 km 25, 600 km k 6, 400 km

The k-factor of the earth is k = 4/3

The effective radius of the earth is ae = 4a/3

These values are used in the standard earth

model which explains why the radio horizon is

bigger than the radio horizon

Tropospheric propagation

Problem: Find the radio horizon of an elevated

antenna at a height ht above the earth

R 2ae ht

Answer:

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