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Unit I
What Is Virtualization?

The term virtualization broadly describes the

separation of a resource or request for a service
from the underlying physical delivery of that
With virtual memory, for example, computer
software gains access to more memory than is
physically installed, via the background swapping of
data to disk storage.
virtualization techniques can be applied to other IT
infrastructure layers - including networks, storage,
laptop or server hardware, operating systems and
What Is Virtualization?
virtual infrastructure - provides a layer
of abstraction between computing, storage
and networking hardware, and the
applications running on it .
virtual infrastructure gives administrators
the advantage of managing pooled
resources across the enterprise, allowing IT
managers to be more responsive to
dynamic organizational needs and to better
leverage infrastructure investments.
What Is Virtualization?
Application Virtualization

The term "application virtualization" describes the process

of compiling applications into machine independent byte
code that can subsequently be executed on any system that
provides the appropriate virtual machine as an execution
The best known example of this approach to virtualization is
the byte code produced by the compilers for the Java
programming language(http://java.sun .com/)
this concept was actually pioneered by the UCSD P-System
in the late 1970s (www.threedee.com/jcm/psystem) ,for
which the most popular compiler was the UCSD Pascal
Microsoft has even adopted a similar
approach in the Common Language
Runtime (CLR) used by .NET applications,
where code written in languages that
support the CLR are transformed, at
compile time, into CIL (Common
Intermediate Language, formerly known as
MSIL, Microsoft Intermediate Language).
Like any byte code, CIL provides a platform-
independent instruction set that can be
executed in any environment supporting
the .NET Framework.
Desktop Virtualization

The term "desktop virtualization" describes the ability to display

a graphical desktop from one computer system on another
computer system or smart display device.
This term is used to describe software such as Virtual Network
Computing (VNC, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VNC ).
Thin clients such as Microsoft's Remote
Terminal Server products, Linux terminal servers such as the
Linux Terminal Server project (LTSP, http:
NoMachine's NX(http: / / en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/NX_techno1ogy)
The X Window System(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X_
Window_System)and its XDMCP display manager protocol.
Desktop Virtualization

Desktop virtualization is a virtualization

technology that separates an individual's
PC applications from his or her desktop.
Virtualized desktops are generally hosted
on a remote central server, rather than the
hard drive of the personal computer.
Because the client-server computing model
is used in virtualizing desktops, desktop
virtualization is also known as client
Desktop Virtualization

Desktop virtualization provides a way for users to

maintain their individual desktops on a single, central
server. The users may be connected to the central
server through a LAN, WAN or over the Internet.
Desktop virtualization has many benefits, including a
lower total cost of ownership (TCO), increased security,
reduced energy costs, reduced downtime and
centralized management.
Limitations of desktop virtualization include difficulty in
maintenance and set up of printer drivers; increased
downtime in case of network failures; complexity and
costs involved in VDI deployment and security risks in
the event of improper network management.
Desktop Virtualization
Desktop Virtualization
Simple example: the X
server receives input
from a local keyboard
and mouse and displays
to a screen. A
web browserand a
terminal emulatorrun on
the user's workstation
and a terminal emulator
runs on a remote
computer but is
controlled and monitored
Network Virtualization
What is network virtualization ?

Network Virtualization
What is network virtualization ?
In computing, Network Virtualization is the process of
combining hardware and software network resources
and network functionality into a single, software-
based administrative entity, a virtual network.

Two categories :
External network virtualization
Combining many networks, or parts of networks, into a virtual
Internal network virtualization
Providing network-like functionality to the software containers
on a single system.
Network Virtualization
Desirable properties of network virtualization :
Easy to extend resources in need
Administrator can dynamically create or delete virtual
network connection
Recover from the failures
Virtual network will automatically redirect packets by
redundant links
Increased path isolation and user segmentation
Virtual network should work with firewall software
Access network resource anytime

Network virtualization is designed to allow
network optimization of data transfer rates,
flexibility, scalability, reliability and
It automates many network administrative
tasks, which actually disguise a network's
true complexity.
All network servers and services are
considered one pool of resources, which
may be used without regard to the physical
Network virtualization is especially useful for
networks experiencing a rapid, large and
unpredictable increase in usage.

The intended result of network virtualization is

improved network productivity and efficiency, as well
as job satisfaction for the network administrator.

Network virtualization involves dividing available

bandwidth into independent channels, which are
assigned, or reassigned, in real time to separate
servers or network devices.
Server Virtualization

Server virtualization is a virtualization

technique that involves partitioning a
physical server into a number of small,
virtual servers with the help of
virtualization software.
In server virtualization, each virtual server
runs multiple operating system instances at
the same time.
Typical enterprise data centers contain a
huge number of servers. Many of these
servers sit idle as the workload is
distributed to only some of the servers on
the network. This results in a waste of
Server virtualization attempts to increase resource
utilization by partitioning physical servers into several
multiple virtual servers, each running its own operating
system and applications.
Server virtualization makes each virtual server look
and act like a physical server, multiplying the capacity
of every single physical machine.
The concept of server virtualization is widely applied in
IT infrastructure as a way of minimizing costs by
increasing the utilization of existing resources.
Virtualizing servers is often a good solution for small- to
medium-scale applications. This technology is widely
used for providing cost-effective web hosting services.
Server virtualization features
Primary advantages of server virtualization

Reduce number of servers

Partitioning and isolation, the characteristics of
server virtualization, enable simple and safe server

Through consolidating, the number of physical servers

can be greatly reduced. This alone brings benefits such
as reduced floor space, power consumption and air
conditioning costs. However, it is essential to note that
even though the number of physical servers is greatly
reduced, the number of virtual servers to be managed
does not change. Therefore, when virtualizing servers,
installation of operation management tools for efficient
server management is recommended.
Reduce TCO

Server consolidation with virtualization reduces costs of

hardware, maintenance, power, and air conditioning. In
addition, it lowers the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) by
increasing the efficiency of server resources and operational
changes, as well as virtualization-specific features.
As a result of todays improved server CPU performance, a
few servers have high resource-usage rates but most are
often underutilized.
Virtualization can eliminate such ineffective use of CPU
resources, plus optimize resources throughout the server
environment. Furthermore, because servers managed by
each business division's staff can be centrally managed by a
single administrator, operation management costs can be
greatly reduced.
Improve availability and business
One beneficial feature of virtualized servers
not available in physical server
environments is live migration. With live
migration, virtual servers can be migrated
to another physical server for tasks such as
performing maintenance on the physical
servers without shutting them down. Thus
there is no impact on the end user. Another
great advantage of virtualization
technology is that
Increase efficiency for development
and test environments
At system development sites, servers are often used
inefficiently. When different physical servers are used by
each business division's development team, the number
of servers can easily increase. Conversely, when physical
servers are shared by teams, reconfiguring development
and test environments can be time and labor consuming.

Such issues can be resolved by using server virtualization

to simultaneously run various operating system
environments on one physical server, thereby enabling
concurrent development and test of multiple
environments. In addition, because development and test
environments can be encapsulated and saved,
reconfiguration is extremely simple.
Optimized resources and reduced TCO

VMware vSphere monitors operating conditions and

automatically adjusts how resources are allocated to
virtual servers. For example, if the load on a virtual
server increases, live migration (VMotion) automatically
migrates the virtual server to a physical server with
additional resources to improve performance thus
enhancing availability and providing stress-free
services for users (VMware DRS). In addition, if there
are physical servers with low loads, virtual servers are
migrated and consolidated onto fewer servers. Physical
servers that are no longer running virtual servers are
powered off (VMWare DPM). These advanced resource
management functions minimize power consumption,
resulting in lower TCO .
Non-stop IT services: Maintenance without downtime
and improved availability

VMware VMotion can migrate a running virtual

server from one physical server to another without
shutting it down. This means that you can
maintain hardware without having to schedule
downtime as you would if using only physical
servers. With VMware VMotion, the end-user
business does not have to be disrupted.

In addition, VMware HA monitors ESX servers and

virtual servers for failures. If there is a hardware
failure, resources are automatically failed over to a
different ESX server, thus providing high
Definition - What doesConsolidationmean?
In computing, consolidation refers to when
data storage or server resources are shared
among multiple users and accessed by
multiple applications.
Consolidation aims to make more efficient
use of computer resources and prevent
servers and storage equipment from being
under-utilized and taking too much space.
The two main types of consolidation are
server consolidation and storage
Server Consolidation
Server consolidation involves reducing the number of
servers and server locations within an organization. The
intended result is more efficient use of server resources
and occupied space.
However, this also increases the complexity of the
servers, data and applications, which may be
challenging for users.
Server virtualization attempts to address this problem
by masking that complexity from users.
Another option is to use blade servers, which are actual
servers in the form of modular circuit boards on a card.
They occupy less rack space and consume less power.
Storage consolidation
Storage consolidation, or storage convergence, is a method
of centralizing data storage through any one of three
Network Attached Storage (NAS): Dedicated storage hard
drives do not have to compete with other computers for
processing resources.
Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID): Data is
located on multiple disks but appears as a single logical
Storage Area Network (SAN): Fiber channel technology is
used to provide high throughput, data sharing, data
migration and service to many clients (also called
subscribers) over a large geographical area. SANS is the
most sophisticated storage consolidation method of the
Server Consolidation
Definition - What doesServer Consolidationmean?

Server consolidation refers to the use of a

physical server to accommodate one or
more server applications or user instances.
Server consolidation makes it possible to
share a servers compute resources among
multiple applications and services
simultaneously. It is mainly used to reduce
the number of servers required in an
The primary objective behind server
consolidation is to consume all of a server's
available resources and reduce the capital
and operational expenses associated with
multiple servers.
Traditionally, only 15-30 percent of a
physical server's overall capacity is used.
With server consolidation, the utilization
rate can be increased to well over 80
percent. Server consolidation works on the
principles of server virtualization, where
one or more virtual servers resides on a
physical server.
Server consolidation uses a multi-tenant
architecturewhere all the installed and
hosted virtual servers share a processor,
storage, memory and other I/O and network
processes. However, each virtual server
has a separate operating system,
applications and internal services.
Storage Virtualization
Definition - What doesStorage Virtualizationmean?

Storage virtualization is the process of

grouping the physical storage from multiple
network storage devices so that it looks like
a single storage device.
The process involves abstracting and
covering the internal functions of a storage
device from the host application, host
servers or a general network in order to
facilitate the application and network-
independent management of storage.
Storage virualization is also known as cloud